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Subject[PATCH v12 10/14] mm: multi-gen LRU: kill switch
From
Add /sys/kernel/mm/lru_gen/enabled as a kill switch. Components that
can be disabled include:
0x0001: the multi-gen LRU core
0x0002: walking page table, when arch_has_hw_pte_young() returns
true
0x0004: clearing the accessed bit in non-leaf PMD entries, when
CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_NONLEAF_PMD_YOUNG=y
[yYnN]: apply to all the components above
E.g.,
echo y >/sys/kernel/mm/lru_gen/enabled
cat /sys/kernel/mm/lru_gen/enabled
0x0007
echo 5 >/sys/kernel/mm/lru_gen/enabled
cat /sys/kernel/mm/lru_gen/enabled
0x0005

NB: the page table walks happen on the scale of seconds under heavy
memory pressure, in which case the mmap_lock contention is a lesser
concern, compared with the LRU lock contention and the I/O congestion.
So far the only well-known case of the mmap_lock contention happens on
Android, due to Scudo [1] which allocates several thousand VMAs for
merely a few hundred MBs. The SPF and the Maple Tree also have
provided their own assessments [2][3]. However, if walking page tables
does worsen the mmap_lock contention, the kill switch can be used to
disable it. In this case the multi-gen LRU will suffer a minor
performance degradation, as shown previously.

Clearing the accessed bit in non-leaf PMD entries can also be
disabled, since this behavior was not tested on x86 varieties other
than Intel and AMD.

[1] https://source.android.com/devices/tech/debug/scudo
[2] https://lore.kernel.org/r/20220128131006.67712-1-michel@lespinasse.org/
[3] https://lore.kernel.org/r/20220426150616.3937571-1-Liam.Howlett@oracle.com/

Signed-off-by: Yu Zhao <yuzhao@google.com>
Acked-by: Brian Geffon <bgeffon@google.com>
Acked-by: Jan Alexander Steffens (heftig) <heftig@archlinux.org>
Acked-by: Oleksandr Natalenko <oleksandr@natalenko.name>
Acked-by: Steven Barrett <steven@liquorix.net>
Acked-by: Suleiman Souhlal <suleiman@google.com>
Tested-by: Daniel Byrne <djbyrne@mtu.edu>
Tested-by: Donald Carr <d@chaos-reins.com>
Tested-by: Holger Hoffstätte <holger@applied-asynchrony.com>
Tested-by: Konstantin Kharlamov <Hi-Angel@yandex.ru>
Tested-by: Shuang Zhai <szhai2@cs.rochester.edu>
Tested-by: Sofia Trinh <sofia.trinh@edi.works>
Tested-by: Vaibhav Jain <vaibhav@linux.ibm.com>
---
include/linux/cgroup.h | 15 ++-
include/linux/mm_inline.h | 15 ++-
include/linux/mmzone.h | 9 ++
kernel/cgroup/cgroup-internal.h | 1 -
mm/Kconfig | 6 +
mm/vmscan.c | 231 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
6 files changed, 268 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/cgroup.h b/include/linux/cgroup.h
index 0d1ada8968d7..1bc0cabf993f 100644
--- a/include/linux/cgroup.h
+++ b/include/linux/cgroup.h
@@ -432,6 +432,18 @@ static inline void cgroup_put(struct cgroup *cgrp)
css_put(&cgrp->self);
}

+extern struct mutex cgroup_mutex;
+
+static inline void cgroup_lock(void)
+{
+ mutex_lock(&cgroup_mutex);
+}
+
+static inline void cgroup_unlock(void)
+{
+ mutex_unlock(&cgroup_mutex);
+}
+
/**
* task_css_set_check - obtain a task's css_set with extra access conditions
* @task: the task to obtain css_set for
@@ -446,7 +458,6 @@ static inline void cgroup_put(struct cgroup *cgrp)
* as locks used during the cgroup_subsys::attach() methods.
*/
#ifdef CONFIG_PROVE_RCU
-extern struct mutex cgroup_mutex;
extern spinlock_t css_set_lock;
#define task_css_set_check(task, __c) \
rcu_dereference_check((task)->cgroups, \
@@ -708,6 +719,8 @@ struct cgroup;
static inline u64 cgroup_id(const struct cgroup *cgrp) { return 1; }
static inline void css_get(struct cgroup_subsys_state *css) {}
static inline void css_put(struct cgroup_subsys_state *css) {}
+static inline void cgroup_lock(void) {}
+static inline void cgroup_unlock(void) {}
static inline int cgroup_attach_task_all(struct task_struct *from,
struct task_struct *t) { return 0; }
static inline int cgroupstats_build(struct cgroupstats *stats,
diff --git a/include/linux/mm_inline.h b/include/linux/mm_inline.h
index f2b2296a42f9..4949eda9a9a2 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm_inline.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm_inline.h
@@ -106,10 +106,21 @@ static __always_inline enum lru_list folio_lru_list(struct folio *folio)

#ifdef CONFIG_LRU_GEN

+#ifdef CONFIG_LRU_GEN_ENABLED
static inline bool lru_gen_enabled(void)
{
- return true;
+ DECLARE_STATIC_KEY_TRUE(lru_gen_caps[NR_LRU_GEN_CAPS]);
+
+ return static_branch_likely(&lru_gen_caps[LRU_GEN_CORE]);
}
+#else
+static inline bool lru_gen_enabled(void)
+{
+ DECLARE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(lru_gen_caps[NR_LRU_GEN_CAPS]);
+
+ return static_branch_unlikely(&lru_gen_caps[LRU_GEN_CORE]);
+}
+#endif

static inline bool lru_gen_in_fault(void)
{
@@ -222,7 +233,7 @@ static inline bool lru_gen_add_folio(struct lruvec *lruvec, struct folio *folio,

VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_FOLIO(gen != -1, folio);

- if (folio_test_unevictable(folio))
+ if (folio_test_unevictable(folio) || !lrugen->enabled)
return false;
/*
* There are three common cases for this page:
diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
index 0cf0856b484a..840b7ca8b91f 100644
--- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
+++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
@@ -384,6 +384,13 @@ enum {
LRU_GEN_FILE,
};

+enum {
+ LRU_GEN_CORE,
+ LRU_GEN_MM_WALK,
+ LRU_GEN_NONLEAF_YOUNG,
+ NR_LRU_GEN_CAPS
+};
+
#define MIN_LRU_BATCH BITS_PER_LONG
#define MAX_LRU_BATCH (MIN_LRU_BATCH * 128)

@@ -425,6 +432,8 @@ struct lru_gen_struct {
/* can be modified without holding the LRU lock */
atomic_long_t evicted[NR_HIST_GENS][ANON_AND_FILE][MAX_NR_TIERS];
atomic_long_t refaulted[NR_HIST_GENS][ANON_AND_FILE][MAX_NR_TIERS];
+ /* whether the multi-gen LRU is enabled */
+ bool enabled;
};

enum {
diff --git a/kernel/cgroup/cgroup-internal.h b/kernel/cgroup/cgroup-internal.h
index 5da09c74228d..c966e55cab29 100644
--- a/kernel/cgroup/cgroup-internal.h
+++ b/kernel/cgroup/cgroup-internal.h
@@ -164,7 +164,6 @@ struct cgroup_mgctx {
#define DEFINE_CGROUP_MGCTX(name) \
struct cgroup_mgctx name = CGROUP_MGCTX_INIT(name)

-extern struct mutex cgroup_mutex;
extern spinlock_t css_set_lock;
extern struct cgroup_subsys *cgroup_subsys[];
extern struct list_head cgroup_roots;
diff --git a/mm/Kconfig b/mm/Kconfig
index a93478acf341..0c2ef0af0036 100644
--- a/mm/Kconfig
+++ b/mm/Kconfig
@@ -1139,6 +1139,12 @@ config LRU_GEN
help
A high performance LRU implementation to overcommit memory.

+config LRU_GEN_ENABLED
+ bool "Enable by default"
+ depends on LRU_GEN
+ help
+ This option enables the multi-gen LRU by default.
+
config LRU_GEN_STATS
bool "Full stats for debugging"
depends on LRU_GEN
diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index 4746c4874795..2b6de7e38aa7 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -52,6 +52,7 @@
#include <linux/psi.h>
#include <linux/pagewalk.h>
#include <linux/shmem_fs.h>
+#include <linux/ctype.h>

#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
#include <asm/div64.h>
@@ -3013,6 +3014,14 @@ static bool can_age_anon_pages(struct pglist_data *pgdat,

#ifdef CONFIG_LRU_GEN

+#ifdef CONFIG_LRU_GEN_ENABLED
+DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_ARRAY_TRUE(lru_gen_caps, NR_LRU_GEN_CAPS);
+#define get_cap(cap) static_branch_likely(&lru_gen_caps[cap])
+#else
+DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_ARRAY_FALSE(lru_gen_caps, NR_LRU_GEN_CAPS);
+#define get_cap(cap) static_branch_unlikely(&lru_gen_caps[cap])
+#endif
+
/******************************************************************************
* shorthand helpers
******************************************************************************/
@@ -3888,7 +3897,8 @@ static void walk_pmd_range_locked(pud_t *pud, unsigned long next, struct vm_area
goto next;

if (!pmd_trans_huge(pmd[i])) {
- if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_NONLEAF_PMD_YOUNG))
+ if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_NONLEAF_PMD_YOUNG) &&
+ get_cap(LRU_GEN_NONLEAF_YOUNG))
pmdp_test_and_clear_young(vma, addr, pmd + i);
goto next;
}
@@ -3986,10 +3996,12 @@ static void walk_pmd_range(pud_t *pud, unsigned long start, unsigned long end,
walk->mm_stats[MM_NONLEAF_TOTAL]++;

#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_NONLEAF_PMD_YOUNG
- if (!pmd_young(val))
- continue;
+ if (get_cap(LRU_GEN_NONLEAF_YOUNG)) {
+ if (!pmd_young(val))
+ continue;

- walk_pmd_range_locked(pud, addr, vma, args, bitmap, &pos);
+ walk_pmd_range_locked(pud, addr, vma, args, bitmap, &pos);
+ }
#endif
if (!walk->force_scan && !test_bloom_filter(walk->lruvec, walk->max_seq, pmd + i))
continue;
@@ -4247,7 +4259,7 @@ static bool try_to_inc_max_seq(struct lruvec *lruvec, unsigned long max_seq,
* handful of PTEs. Spreading the work out over a period of time usually
* is less efficient, but it avoids bursty page faults.
*/
- if (!arch_has_hw_pte_young()) {
+ if (!(arch_has_hw_pte_young() && get_cap(LRU_GEN_MM_WALK))) {
success = iterate_mm_list_nowalk(lruvec, max_seq);
goto done;
}
@@ -4968,6 +4980,211 @@ static void lru_gen_shrink_lruvec(struct lruvec *lruvec, struct scan_control *sc
blk_finish_plug(&plug);
}

+/******************************************************************************
+ * state change
+ ******************************************************************************/
+
+static bool __maybe_unused state_is_valid(struct lruvec *lruvec)
+{
+ struct lru_gen_struct *lrugen = &lruvec->lrugen;
+
+ if (lrugen->enabled) {
+ enum lru_list lru;
+
+ for_each_evictable_lru(lru) {
+ if (!list_empty(&lruvec->lists[lru]))
+ return false;
+ }
+ } else {
+ int gen, type, zone;
+
+ for_each_gen_type_zone(gen, type, zone) {
+ if (!list_empty(&lrugen->lists[gen][type][zone]))
+ return false;
+
+ /* unlikely but not a bug when reset_batch_size() is pending */
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE(lrugen->nr_pages[gen][type][zone]);
+ }
+ }
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+static bool fill_evictable(struct lruvec *lruvec)
+{
+ enum lru_list lru;
+ int remaining = MAX_LRU_BATCH;
+
+ for_each_evictable_lru(lru) {
+ int type = is_file_lru(lru);
+ bool active = is_active_lru(lru);
+ struct list_head *head = &lruvec->lists[lru];
+
+ while (!list_empty(head)) {
+ bool success;
+ struct folio *folio = lru_to_folio(head);
+
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_FOLIO(folio_test_unevictable(folio), folio);
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_FOLIO(folio_test_active(folio) != active, folio);
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_FOLIO(folio_is_file_lru(folio) != type, folio);
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_FOLIO(folio_lru_gen(folio) != -1, folio);
+
+ lruvec_del_folio(lruvec, folio);
+ success = lru_gen_add_folio(lruvec, folio, false);
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE(!success);
+
+ if (!--remaining)
+ return false;
+ }
+ }
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+static bool drain_evictable(struct lruvec *lruvec)
+{
+ int gen, type, zone;
+ int remaining = MAX_LRU_BATCH;
+
+ for_each_gen_type_zone(gen, type, zone) {
+ struct list_head *head = &lruvec->lrugen.lists[gen][type][zone];
+
+ while (!list_empty(head)) {
+ bool success;
+ struct folio *folio = lru_to_folio(head);
+
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_FOLIO(folio_test_unevictable(folio), folio);
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_FOLIO(folio_test_active(folio), folio);
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_FOLIO(folio_is_file_lru(folio) != type, folio);
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_FOLIO(folio_zonenum(folio) != zone, folio);
+
+ success = lru_gen_del_folio(lruvec, folio, false);
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE(!success);
+ lruvec_add_folio(lruvec, folio);
+
+ if (!--remaining)
+ return false;
+ }
+ }
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+static void lru_gen_change_state(bool enabled)
+{
+ static DEFINE_MUTEX(state_mutex);
+
+ struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
+
+ cgroup_lock();
+ cpus_read_lock();
+ get_online_mems();
+ mutex_lock(&state_mutex);
+
+ if (enabled == lru_gen_enabled())
+ goto unlock;
+
+ if (enabled)
+ static_branch_enable_cpuslocked(&lru_gen_caps[LRU_GEN_CORE]);
+ else
+ static_branch_disable_cpuslocked(&lru_gen_caps[LRU_GEN_CORE]);
+
+ memcg = mem_cgroup_iter(NULL, NULL, NULL);
+ do {
+ int nid;
+
+ for_each_node(nid) {
+ struct lruvec *lruvec = get_lruvec(memcg, nid);
+
+ if (!lruvec)
+ continue;
+
+ spin_lock_irq(&lruvec->lru_lock);
+
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE(!seq_is_valid(lruvec));
+ VM_WARN_ON_ONCE(!state_is_valid(lruvec));
+
+ lruvec->lrugen.enabled = enabled;
+
+ while (!(enabled ? fill_evictable(lruvec) : drain_evictable(lruvec))) {
+ spin_unlock_irq(&lruvec->lru_lock);
+ cond_resched();
+ spin_lock_irq(&lruvec->lru_lock);
+ }
+
+ spin_unlock_irq(&lruvec->lru_lock);
+ }
+
+ cond_resched();
+ } while ((memcg = mem_cgroup_iter(NULL, memcg, NULL)));
+unlock:
+ mutex_unlock(&state_mutex);
+ put_online_mems();
+ cpus_read_unlock();
+ cgroup_unlock();
+}
+
+/******************************************************************************
+ * sysfs interface
+ ******************************************************************************/
+
+static ssize_t show_enabled(struct kobject *kobj, struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+ unsigned int caps = 0;
+
+ if (get_cap(LRU_GEN_CORE))
+ caps |= BIT(LRU_GEN_CORE);
+
+ if (arch_has_hw_pte_young() && get_cap(LRU_GEN_MM_WALK))
+ caps |= BIT(LRU_GEN_MM_WALK);
+
+ if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_NONLEAF_PMD_YOUNG) && get_cap(LRU_GEN_NONLEAF_YOUNG))
+ caps |= BIT(LRU_GEN_NONLEAF_YOUNG);
+
+ return snprintf(buf, PAGE_SIZE, "0x%04x\n", caps);
+}
+
+static ssize_t store_enabled(struct kobject *kobj, struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+ const char *buf, size_t len)
+{
+ int i;
+ unsigned int caps;
+
+ if (tolower(*buf) == 'n')
+ caps = 0;
+ else if (tolower(*buf) == 'y')
+ caps = -1;
+ else if (kstrtouint(buf, 0, &caps))
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < NR_LRU_GEN_CAPS; i++) {
+ bool enabled = caps & BIT(i);
+
+ if (i == LRU_GEN_CORE)
+ lru_gen_change_state(enabled);
+ else if (enabled)
+ static_branch_enable(&lru_gen_caps[i]);
+ else
+ static_branch_disable(&lru_gen_caps[i]);
+ }
+
+ return len;
+}
+
+static struct kobj_attribute lru_gen_enabled_attr = __ATTR(
+ enabled, 0644, show_enabled, store_enabled
+);
+
+static struct attribute *lru_gen_attrs[] = {
+ &lru_gen_enabled_attr.attr,
+ NULL
+};
+
+static struct attribute_group lru_gen_attr_group = {
+ .name = "lru_gen",
+ .attrs = lru_gen_attrs,
+};
+
/******************************************************************************
* initialization
******************************************************************************/
@@ -4978,6 +5195,7 @@ void lru_gen_init_lruvec(struct lruvec *lruvec)
struct lru_gen_struct *lrugen = &lruvec->lrugen;

lrugen->max_seq = MIN_NR_GENS + 1;
+ lrugen->enabled = lru_gen_enabled();

for_each_gen_type_zone(gen, type, zone)
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&lrugen->lists[gen][type][zone]);
@@ -5017,6 +5235,9 @@ static int __init init_lru_gen(void)
BUILD_BUG_ON(MIN_NR_GENS + 1 >= MAX_NR_GENS);
BUILD_BUG_ON(BIT(LRU_GEN_WIDTH) <= MAX_NR_GENS);

+ if (sysfs_create_group(mm_kobj, &lru_gen_attr_group))
+ pr_err("lru_gen: failed to create sysfs group\n");
+
return 0;
};
late_initcall(init_lru_gen);
--
2.36.1.476.g0c4daa206d-goog
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