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Subject[PATCH v1 2/2] x86/lib: Avoid using INC and DEC instructions on hot paths
Date
In order to take maximum advantage of out-of-order execution,
avoid using INC and DEC instructions when appropriate. INC/DEC
only writes to part of the flags register, which can cause a
partial flag register stall.

Agner Fog's optimization manual says [1]:
"""
The INC and DEC instructions are inefficient on some CPUs because they
write to only part of the flags register (excluding the carry flag).
Use ADD or SUB instead to avoid false dependences or inefficient
splitting of the flags register, especially if they are followed by
an instruction that reads the flags.
"""

Intel's optimization manual 3.5.1.1 says [2]:
"""
The INC and DEC instructions modify only a subset of the bits in the
flag register. This creates a dependence on all previous writes of
the flag register. This is especially problematic when these
instructions are on the critical path because they are used to change
an address for a load on which many other instructions depend.

Assembly/Compiler Coding Rule 33. (M impact, H generality) INC and DEC
instructions should be replaced with ADD or SUB instructions, because
ADD and SUB overwrite all flags, whereas INC and DEC do not, therefore
creating false dependencies on earlier instructions that set the flags.
"""

[1]: https://www.agner.org/optimize/optimizing_assembly.pdf
[2]: https://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/manuals/64-ia-32-architectures-optimization-manual.pdf

Signed-off-by: Ammar Faizi <ammarfaizi2@gnuweeb.org>
---
arch/x86/lib/copy_mc_64.S | 14 +++++++-------
arch/x86/lib/copy_user_64.S | 26 +++++++++++++-------------
arch/x86/lib/memset_64.S | 6 +++---
arch/x86/lib/string_32.c | 20 ++++++++++----------
arch/x86/lib/strstr_32.c | 4 ++--
arch/x86/lib/usercopy_64.c | 12 ++++++------
6 files changed, 41 insertions(+), 41 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/lib/copy_mc_64.S b/arch/x86/lib/copy_mc_64.S
index c859a8a09860..acd707ccd7f7 100644
--- a/arch/x86/lib/copy_mc_64.S
+++ b/arch/x86/lib/copy_mc_64.S
@@ -37,9 +37,9 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(copy_mc_fragile)
movb (%rsi), %al
.L_write_leading_bytes:
movb %al, (%rdi)
- incq %rsi
- incq %rdi
- decl %ecx
+ addq $1, %rsi
+ addq $1, %rdi
+ subl $1, %ecx
jnz .L_read_leading_bytes

.L_8byte_aligned:
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(copy_mc_fragile)
movq %r8, (%rdi)
addq $8, %rsi
addq $8, %rdi
- decl %ecx
+ subl $1, %ecx
jnz .L_read_words

/* Any trailing bytes? */
@@ -68,9 +68,9 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(copy_mc_fragile)
movb (%rsi), %al
.L_write_trailing_bytes:
movb %al, (%rdi)
- incq %rsi
- incq %rdi
- decl %ecx
+ addq $1, %rsi
+ addq $1, %rdi
+ subl $1, %ecx
jnz .L_read_trailing_bytes

/* Copy successful. Return zero */
diff --git a/arch/x86/lib/copy_user_64.S b/arch/x86/lib/copy_user_64.S
index 8ca5ecf16dc4..d17638ad4d2d 100644
--- a/arch/x86/lib/copy_user_64.S
+++ b/arch/x86/lib/copy_user_64.S
@@ -27,9 +27,9 @@
subl %ecx,%edx
100: movb (%rsi),%al
101: movb %al,(%rdi)
- incq %rsi
- incq %rdi
- decl %ecx
+ addq $1,%rsi
+ addq $1,%rdi
+ subl $1,%ecx
jnz 100b
102:

@@ -77,7 +77,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(copy_user_generic_unrolled)
16: movq %r11,7*8(%rdi)
leaq 64(%rsi),%rsi
leaq 64(%rdi),%rdi
- decl %ecx
+ subl $1,%ecx
jnz 1b
.L_copy_short_string:
movl %edx,%ecx
@@ -88,16 +88,16 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(copy_user_generic_unrolled)
19: movq %r8,(%rdi)
leaq 8(%rsi),%rsi
leaq 8(%rdi),%rdi
- decl %ecx
+ subl $1,%ecx
jnz 18b
20: andl %edx,%edx
jz 23f
movl %edx,%ecx
21: movb (%rsi),%al
22: movb %al,(%rdi)
- incq %rsi
- incq %rdi
- decl %ecx
+ addq $1,%rsi
+ addq $1,%rdi
+ subl $1,%ecx
jnz 21b
23: xor %eax,%eax
ASM_CLAC
@@ -288,7 +288,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(__copy_user_nocache)
16: movnti %r11,7*8(%rdi)
leaq 64(%rsi),%rsi
leaq 64(%rdi),%rdi
- decl %ecx
+ subl $1,%ecx
jnz .L_4x8b_nocache_copy_loop

/* Set 8-byte copy count and remainder */
@@ -304,7 +304,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(__copy_user_nocache)
21: movnti %r8,(%rdi)
leaq 8(%rsi),%rsi
leaq 8(%rdi),%rdi
- decl %ecx
+ subl $1,%ecx
jnz .L_8b_nocache_copy_loop

/* If no byte left, we're done */
@@ -339,9 +339,9 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(__copy_user_nocache)
.L_1b_cache_copy_loop:
40: movb (%rsi),%al
41: movb %al,(%rdi)
- incq %rsi
- incq %rdi
- decl %ecx
+ addq $1,%rsi
+ addq $1,%rdi
+ subl $1,%ecx
jnz .L_1b_cache_copy_loop

/* Finished copying; fence the prior stores */
diff --git a/arch/x86/lib/memset_64.S b/arch/x86/lib/memset_64.S
index d624f2bc42f1..844f9eef9355 100644
--- a/arch/x86/lib/memset_64.S
+++ b/arch/x86/lib/memset_64.S
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START_LOCAL(memset_orig)

.p2align 4
.Lloop_64:
- decq %rcx
+ subq $1,%rcx
movq %rax,(%rdi)
movq %rax,8(%rdi)
movq %rax,16(%rdi)
@@ -108,7 +108,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START_LOCAL(memset_orig)
shrl $3,%ecx
.p2align 4
.Lloop_8:
- decl %ecx
+ subl $1,%ecx
movq %rax,(%rdi)
leaq 8(%rdi),%rdi
jnz .Lloop_8
@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START_LOCAL(memset_orig)
jz .Lende
.p2align 4
.Lloop_1:
- decl %edx
+ subl $1,%edx
movb %al,(%rdi)
leaq 1(%rdi),%rdi
jnz .Lloop_1
diff --git a/arch/x86/lib/string_32.c b/arch/x86/lib/string_32.c
index 53b3f202267c..9075f89d41ff 100644
--- a/arch/x86/lib/string_32.c
+++ b/arch/x86/lib/string_32.c
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(strcpy);
char *strncpy(char *dest, const char *src, size_t count)
{
int d0, d1, d2, d3;
- asm volatile("1:\tdecl %2\n\t"
+ asm volatile("1:\tsubl $1,%2\n\t"
"js 2f\n\t"
"lodsb\n\t"
"stosb\n\t"
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ char *strcat(char *dest, const char *src)
int d0, d1, d2, d3;
asm volatile("repne\n\t"
"scasb\n\t"
- "decl %1\n"
+ "subl $1,%1\n"
"1:\tlodsb\n\t"
"stosb\n\t"
"testb %%al,%%al\n\t"
@@ -74,9 +74,9 @@ char *strncat(char *dest, const char *src, size_t count)
int d0, d1, d2, d3;
asm volatile("repne\n\t"
"scasb\n\t"
- "decl %1\n\t"
+ "subl $1,%1\n\t"
"movl %8,%3\n"
- "1:\tdecl %3\n\t"
+ "1:\tsubl $1,%3\n\t"
"js 2f\n\t"
"lodsb\n\t"
"stosb\n\t"
@@ -120,7 +120,7 @@ int strncmp(const char *cs, const char *ct, size_t count)
{
int res;
int d0, d1, d2;
- asm volatile("1:\tdecl %3\n\t"
+ asm volatile("1:\tsubl $1,%3\n\t"
"js 2f\n\t"
"lodsb\n\t"
"scasb\n\t"
@@ -153,7 +153,7 @@ char *strchr(const char *s, int c)
"jne 1b\n\t"
"movl $1,%1\n"
"2:\tmovl %1,%0\n\t"
- "decl %0"
+ "subl $1,%0"
: "=a" (res), "=&S" (d0)
: "1" (s), "0" (c)
: "memory");
@@ -188,7 +188,7 @@ void *memchr(const void *cs, int c, size_t count)
"scasb\n\t"
"je 1f\n\t"
"movl $1,%0\n"
- "1:\tdecl %0"
+ "1:\tsubl $1,%0"
: "=D" (res), "=&c" (d0)
: "a" (c), "0" (cs), "1" (count)
: "memory");
@@ -204,7 +204,7 @@ void *memscan(void *addr, int c, size_t size)
return addr;
asm volatile("repnz; scasb\n\t"
"jnz 1f\n\t"
- "dec %%edi\n"
+ "subl $1,%%edi\n"
"1:"
: "=D" (addr), "=c" (size)
: "0" (addr), "1" (size), "a" (c)
@@ -223,8 +223,8 @@ size_t strnlen(const char *s, size_t count)
"jmp 2f\n"
"1:\tcmpb $0,(%0)\n\t"
"je 3f\n\t"
- "incl %0\n"
- "2:\tdecl %1\n\t"
+ "addl $1,%0\n"
+ "2:\tsubl $1,%1\n\t"
"cmpl $-1,%1\n\t"
"jne 1b\n"
"3:\tsubl %2,%0"
diff --git a/arch/x86/lib/strstr_32.c b/arch/x86/lib/strstr_32.c
index 38f37df056f7..c9c02319e26e 100644
--- a/arch/x86/lib/strstr_32.c
+++ b/arch/x86/lib/strstr_32.c
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ __asm__ __volatile__(
"repne\n\t"
"scasb\n\t"
"notl %%ecx\n\t"
- "decl %%ecx\n\t" /* NOTE! This also sets Z if searchstring='' */
+ "subl $1,%%ecx\n\t" /* NOTE! This also sets Z if searchstring='' */
"movl %%ecx,%%edx\n"
"1:\tmovl %6,%%edi\n\t"
"movl %%esi,%%eax\n\t"
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ __asm__ __volatile__(
"cmpsb\n\t"
"je 2f\n\t" /* also works for empty string, see above */
"xchgl %%eax,%%esi\n\t"
- "incl %%esi\n\t"
+ "addl $1,%%esi\n\t"
"cmpb $0,-1(%%eax)\n\t"
"jne 1b\n\t"
"xorl %%eax,%%eax\n\t"
diff --git a/arch/x86/lib/usercopy_64.c b/arch/x86/lib/usercopy_64.c
index 0402a749f3a0..e3d60880f8c4 100644
--- a/arch/x86/lib/usercopy_64.c
+++ b/arch/x86/lib/usercopy_64.c
@@ -25,15 +25,15 @@ unsigned long __clear_user(void __user *addr, unsigned long size)
" testq %[size8],%[size8]\n"
" jz 4f\n"
" .align 16\n"
- "0: movq $0,(%[dst])\n"
+ "0: movq $0,(%[dst])\n"
" addq $8,%[dst]\n"
- " decl %%ecx ; jnz 0b\n"
- "4: movq %[size1],%%rcx\n"
- " testl %%ecx,%%ecx\n"
+ " subl $1,%%ecx ; jnz 0b\n"
+ "4: movq %[size1],%%rcx\n"
+ " testl %%ecx,%%ecx\n"
" jz 2f\n"
"1: movb $0,(%[dst])\n"
- " incq %[dst]\n"
- " decl %%ecx ; jnz 1b\n"
+ " addq $1,%[dst]\n"
+ " subl $1,%%ecx ; jnz 1b\n"
"2:\n"

_ASM_EXTABLE_TYPE_REG(0b, 2b, EX_TYPE_UCOPY_LEN8, %[size1])
--
2.32.0
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