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Subject[PATCH 5.10 255/563] clocksource: Reduce clocksource-skew threshold
Date
From: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>

[ Upstream commit 2e27e793e280ff12cb5c202a1214c08b0d3a0f26 ]

Currently, WATCHDOG_THRESHOLD is set to detect a 62.5-millisecond skew in
a 500-millisecond WATCHDOG_INTERVAL. This requires that clocks be skewed
by more than 12.5% in order to be marked unstable. Except that a clock
that is skewed by that much is probably destroying unsuspecting software
right and left. And given that there are now checks for false-positive
skews due to delays between reading the two clocks, it should be possible
to greatly decrease WATCHDOG_THRESHOLD, at least for fine-grained clocks
such as TSC.

Therefore, add a new uncertainty_margin field to the clocksource structure
that contains the maximum uncertainty in nanoseconds for the corresponding
clock. This field may be initialized manually, as it is for
clocksource_tsc_early and clocksource_jiffies, which is copied to
refined_jiffies. If the field is not initialized manually, it will be
computed at clock-registry time as the period of the clock in question
based on the scale and freq parameters to __clocksource_update_freq_scale()
function. If either of those two parameters are zero, the
tens-of-milliseconds WATCHDOG_THRESHOLD is used as a cowardly alternative
to dividing by zero. No matter how the uncertainty_margin field is
calculated, it is bounded below by twice WATCHDOG_MAX_SKEW, that is, by 100
microseconds.

Note that manually initialized uncertainty_margin fields are not adjusted,
but there is a WARN_ON_ONCE() that triggers if any such field is less than
twice WATCHDOG_MAX_SKEW. This WARN_ON_ONCE() is intended to discourage
production use of the one-nanosecond uncertainty_margin values that are
used to test the clock-skew code itself.

The actual clock-skew check uses the sum of the uncertainty_margin fields
of the two clocksource structures being compared. Integer overflow is
avoided because the largest computed value of the uncertainty_margin
fields is one billion (10^9), and double that value fits into an
unsigned int. However, if someone manually specifies (say) UINT_MAX,
they will get what they deserve.

Note that the refined_jiffies uncertainty_margin field is initialized to
TICK_NSEC, which means that skew checks involving this clocksource will
be sufficently forgiving. In a similar vein, the clocksource_tsc_early
uncertainty_margin field is initialized to 32*NSEC_PER_MSEC, which
replicates the current behavior and allows custom setting if needed
in order to address the rare skews detected for this clocksource in
current mainline.

Suggested-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Acked-by: Feng Tang <feng.tang@intel.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210527190124.440372-4-paulmck@kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Sasha Levin <sashal@kernel.org>
---
arch/x86/kernel/tsc.c | 1 +
include/linux/clocksource.h | 3 +++
kernel/time/clocksource.c | 48 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--------
kernel/time/jiffies.c | 15 ++++++------
4 files changed, 50 insertions(+), 17 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/tsc.c b/arch/x86/kernel/tsc.c
index f9f1b45e5ddc4..13d1a0ac8916a 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/tsc.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/tsc.c
@@ -1127,6 +1127,7 @@ static int tsc_cs_enable(struct clocksource *cs)
static struct clocksource clocksource_tsc_early = {
.name = "tsc-early",
.rating = 299,
+ .uncertainty_margin = 32 * NSEC_PER_MSEC,
.read = read_tsc,
.mask = CLOCKSOURCE_MASK(64),
.flags = CLOCK_SOURCE_IS_CONTINUOUS |
diff --git a/include/linux/clocksource.h b/include/linux/clocksource.h
index 83a3ebff74560..8f87c1a6f3231 100644
--- a/include/linux/clocksource.h
+++ b/include/linux/clocksource.h
@@ -42,6 +42,8 @@ struct module;
* @shift: Cycle to nanosecond divisor (power of two)
* @max_idle_ns: Maximum idle time permitted by the clocksource (nsecs)
* @maxadj: Maximum adjustment value to mult (~11%)
+ * @uncertainty_margin: Maximum uncertainty in nanoseconds per half second.
+ * Zero says to use default WATCHDOG_THRESHOLD.
* @archdata: Optional arch-specific data
* @max_cycles: Maximum safe cycle value which won't overflow on
* multiplication
@@ -93,6 +95,7 @@ struct clocksource {
u32 shift;
u64 max_idle_ns;
u32 maxadj;
+ u32 uncertainty_margin;
#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_CLOCKSOURCE_DATA
struct arch_clocksource_data archdata;
#endif
diff --git a/kernel/time/clocksource.c b/kernel/time/clocksource.c
index 74492f08660c4..d0803a69a2009 100644
--- a/kernel/time/clocksource.c
+++ b/kernel/time/clocksource.c
@@ -93,6 +93,20 @@ static char override_name[CS_NAME_LEN];
static int finished_booting;
static u64 suspend_start;

+/*
+ * Threshold: 0.0312s, when doubled: 0.0625s.
+ * Also a default for cs->uncertainty_margin when registering clocks.
+ */
+#define WATCHDOG_THRESHOLD (NSEC_PER_SEC >> 5)
+
+/*
+ * Maximum permissible delay between two readouts of the watchdog
+ * clocksource surrounding a read of the clocksource being validated.
+ * This delay could be due to SMIs, NMIs, or to VCPU preemptions. Used as
+ * a lower bound for cs->uncertainty_margin values when registering clocks.
+ */
+#define WATCHDOG_MAX_SKEW (50 * NSEC_PER_USEC)
+
#ifdef CONFIG_CLOCKSOURCE_WATCHDOG
static void clocksource_watchdog_work(struct work_struct *work);
static void clocksource_select(void);
@@ -119,17 +133,9 @@ static int clocksource_watchdog_kthread(void *data);
static void __clocksource_change_rating(struct clocksource *cs, int rating);

/*
- * Interval: 0.5sec Threshold: 0.0625s
+ * Interval: 0.5sec.
*/
#define WATCHDOG_INTERVAL (HZ >> 1)
-#define WATCHDOG_THRESHOLD (NSEC_PER_SEC >> 4)
-
-/*
- * Maximum permissible delay between two readouts of the watchdog
- * clocksource surrounding a read of the clocksource being validated.
- * This delay could be due to SMIs, NMIs, or to VCPU preemptions.
- */
-#define WATCHDOG_MAX_SKEW (100 * NSEC_PER_USEC)

static void clocksource_watchdog_work(struct work_struct *work)
{
@@ -284,6 +290,7 @@ static void clocksource_watchdog(struct timer_list *unused)
int next_cpu, reset_pending;
int64_t wd_nsec, cs_nsec;
struct clocksource *cs;
+ u32 md;

spin_lock(&watchdog_lock);
if (!watchdog_running)
@@ -330,7 +337,8 @@ static void clocksource_watchdog(struct timer_list *unused)
continue;

/* Check the deviation from the watchdog clocksource. */
- if (abs(cs_nsec - wd_nsec) > WATCHDOG_THRESHOLD) {
+ md = cs->uncertainty_margin + watchdog->uncertainty_margin;
+ if (abs(cs_nsec - wd_nsec) > md) {
pr_warn("timekeeping watchdog on CPU%d: Marking clocksource '%s' as unstable because the skew is too large:\n",
smp_processor_id(), cs->name);
pr_warn(" '%s' wd_now: %llx wd_last: %llx mask: %llx\n",
@@ -985,6 +993,26 @@ void __clocksource_update_freq_scale(struct clocksource *cs, u32 scale, u32 freq
clocks_calc_mult_shift(&cs->mult, &cs->shift, freq,
NSEC_PER_SEC / scale, sec * scale);
}
+
+ /*
+ * If the uncertainty margin is not specified, calculate it.
+ * If both scale and freq are non-zero, calculate the clock
+ * period, but bound below at 2*WATCHDOG_MAX_SKEW. However,
+ * if either of scale or freq is zero, be very conservative and
+ * take the tens-of-milliseconds WATCHDOG_THRESHOLD value for the
+ * uncertainty margin. Allow stupidly small uncertainty margins
+ * to be specified by the caller for testing purposes, but warn
+ * to discourage production use of this capability.
+ */
+ if (scale && freq && !cs->uncertainty_margin) {
+ cs->uncertainty_margin = NSEC_PER_SEC / (scale * freq);
+ if (cs->uncertainty_margin < 2 * WATCHDOG_MAX_SKEW)
+ cs->uncertainty_margin = 2 * WATCHDOG_MAX_SKEW;
+ } else if (!cs->uncertainty_margin) {
+ cs->uncertainty_margin = WATCHDOG_THRESHOLD;
+ }
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(cs->uncertainty_margin < 2 * WATCHDOG_MAX_SKEW);
+
/*
* Ensure clocksources that have large 'mult' values don't overflow
* when adjusted.
diff --git a/kernel/time/jiffies.c b/kernel/time/jiffies.c
index eddcf49704445..65409abcca8e1 100644
--- a/kernel/time/jiffies.c
+++ b/kernel/time/jiffies.c
@@ -49,13 +49,14 @@ static u64 jiffies_read(struct clocksource *cs)
* for "tick-less" systems.
*/
static struct clocksource clocksource_jiffies = {
- .name = "jiffies",
- .rating = 1, /* lowest valid rating*/
- .read = jiffies_read,
- .mask = CLOCKSOURCE_MASK(32),
- .mult = TICK_NSEC << JIFFIES_SHIFT, /* details above */
- .shift = JIFFIES_SHIFT,
- .max_cycles = 10,
+ .name = "jiffies",
+ .rating = 1, /* lowest valid rating*/
+ .uncertainty_margin = 32 * NSEC_PER_MSEC,
+ .read = jiffies_read,
+ .mask = CLOCKSOURCE_MASK(32),
+ .mult = TICK_NSEC << JIFFIES_SHIFT, /* details above */
+ .shift = JIFFIES_SHIFT,
+ .max_cycles = 10,
};

__cacheline_aligned_in_smp DEFINE_RAW_SPINLOCK(jiffies_lock);
--
2.34.1


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