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SubjectRe: [PATCH v8] pgo: add clang's Profile Guided Optimization infrastructure
On 2021-02-28, Fangrui Song wrote:
>Reviewed-by: Fangrui Song <maskray@google.com>
>
>Some minor items below:
>
>On 2021-02-26, 'Bill Wendling' via Clang Built Linux wrote:
>>From: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
>>
>>Enable the use of clang's Profile-Guided Optimization[1]. To generate a
>>profile, the kernel is instrumented with PGO counters, a representative
>>workload is run, and the raw profile data is collected from
>>/sys/kernel/debug/pgo/profraw.
>>
>>The raw profile data must be processed by clang's "llvm-profdata" tool
>>before it can be used during recompilation:
>>
>> $ cp /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/profraw vmlinux.profraw
>> $ llvm-profdata merge --output=vmlinux.profdata vmlinux.profraw
>>
>>Multiple raw profiles may be merged during this step.
>>
>>The data can now be used by the compiler:
>>
>> $ make LLVM=1 KCFLAGS=-fprofile-use=vmlinux.profdata ...
>>
>>This initial submission is restricted to x86, as that's the platform we
>>know works. This restriction can be lifted once other platforms have
>>been verified to work with PGO.
>>
>>Note that this method of profiling the kernel is clang-native, unlike
>>the clang support in kernel/gcov.
>>
>>[1] https://clang.llvm.org/docs/UsersManual.html#profile-guided-optimization
>>
>>Signed-off-by: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
>>Co-developed-by: Bill Wendling <morbo@google.com>
>>Signed-off-by: Bill Wendling <morbo@google.com>
>>---
>>v8: - Rebased on top-of-tree.
>>v7: - Fix minor build failure reported by Sedat.
>>v6: - Add better documentation about the locking scheme and other things.
>> - Rename macros to better match the same macros in LLVM's source code.
>>v5: - Correct padding calculation, discovered by Nathan Chancellor.
>>v4: - Remove non-x86 Makfile changes and se "hweight64" instead of using our
>> own popcount implementation, based on Nick Desaulniers's comment.
>>v3: - Added change log section based on Sedat Dilek's comments.
>>v2: - Added "__llvm_profile_instrument_memop" based on Nathan Chancellor's
>> testing.
>> - Corrected documentation, re PGO flags when using LTO, based on Fangrui
>> Song's comments.
>>---
>>Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst | 1 +
>>Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst | 127 +++++++++
>>MAINTAINERS | 9 +
>>Makefile | 3 +
>>arch/Kconfig | 1 +
>>arch/x86/Kconfig | 1 +
>>arch/x86/boot/Makefile | 1 +
>>arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile | 1 +
>>arch/x86/crypto/Makefile | 4 +
>>arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile | 1 +
>>arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S | 2 +
>>arch/x86/platform/efi/Makefile | 1 +
>>arch/x86/purgatory/Makefile | 1 +
>>arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile | 1 +
>>arch/x86/um/vdso/Makefile | 1 +
>>drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile | 1 +
>>include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h | 44 +++
>>kernel/Makefile | 1 +
>>kernel/pgo/Kconfig | 35 +++
>>kernel/pgo/Makefile | 5 +
>>kernel/pgo/fs.c | 389 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>>kernel/pgo/instrument.c | 189 +++++++++++++
>>kernel/pgo/pgo.h | 203 ++++++++++++++
>>scripts/Makefile.lib | 10 +
>>24 files changed, 1032 insertions(+)
>>create mode 100644 Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst
>>create mode 100644 kernel/pgo/Kconfig
>>create mode 100644 kernel/pgo/Makefile
>>create mode 100644 kernel/pgo/fs.c
>>create mode 100644 kernel/pgo/instrument.c
>>create mode 100644 kernel/pgo/pgo.h
>>
>>diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst b/Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst
>>index f7809c7b1ba9..8d6418e85806 100644
>>--- a/Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst
>>+++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst
>>@@ -26,6 +26,7 @@ whole; patches welcome!
>> kgdb
>> kselftest
>> kunit/index
>>+ pgo
>>
>>
>>.. only:: subproject and html
>>diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst b/Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst
>>new file mode 100644
>>index 000000000000..b7f11d8405b7
>>--- /dev/null
>>+++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst
>>@@ -0,0 +1,127 @@
>>+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
>>+
>>+===============================
>>+Using PGO with the Linux kernel
>>+===============================
>>+
>>+Clang's profiling kernel support (PGO_) enables profiling of the Linux kernel
>>+when building with Clang. The profiling data is exported via the ``pgo``
>>+debugfs directory.
>>+
>>+.. _PGO: https://clang.llvm.org/docs/UsersManual.html#profile-guided-optimization
>>+
>>+
>>+Preparation
>>+===========
>>+
>>+Configure the kernel with:
>>+
>>+.. code-block:: make
>>+
>>+ CONFIG_DEBUG_FS=y
>>+ CONFIG_PGO_CLANG=y
>>+
>>+Note that kernels compiled with profiling flags will be significantly larger
>>+and run slower.
>>+
>>+Profiling data will only become accessible once debugfs has been mounted:
>>+
>>+.. code-block:: sh
>>+
>>+ mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
>>+
>>+
>>+Customization
>>+=============
>>+
>>+You can enable or disable profiling for individual file and directories by
>>+adding a line similar to the following to the respective kernel Makefile:
>>+
>>+- For a single file (e.g. main.o)
>>+
>>+ .. code-block:: make
>>+
>>+ PGO_PROFILE_main.o := y
>>+
>>+- For all files in one directory
>>+
>>+ .. code-block:: make
>>+
>>+ PGO_PROFILE := y
>>+
>>+To exclude files from being profiled use
>>+
>>+ .. code-block:: make
>>+
>>+ PGO_PROFILE_main.o := n
>>+
>>+and
>>+
>>+ .. code-block:: make
>>+
>>+ PGO_PROFILE := n
>>+
>>+Only files which are linked to the main kernel image or are compiled as kernel
>>+modules are supported by this mechanism.
>>+
>>+
>>+Files
>>+=====
>>+
>>+The PGO kernel support creates the following files in debugfs:
>>+
>>+``/sys/kernel/debug/pgo``
>>+ Parent directory for all PGO-related files.
>>+
>>+``/sys/kernel/debug/pgo/reset``
>>+ Global reset file: resets all coverage data to zero when written to.
>>+
>>+``/sys/kernel/debug/profraw``
>>+ The raw PGO data that must be processed with ``llvm_profdata``.
>>+
>>+
>>+Workflow
>>+========
>>+
>>+The PGO kernel can be run on the host or test machines. The data though should
>>+be analyzed with Clang's tools from the same Clang version as the kernel was
>>+compiled. Clang's tolerant of version skew, but it's easier to use the same
>>+Clang version.
>>+
>>+The profiling data is useful for optimizing the kernel, analyzing coverage,
>>+etc. Clang offers tools to perform these tasks.
>>+
>>+Here is an example workflow for profiling an instrumented kernel with PGO and
>>+using the result to optimize the kernel:
>>+
>>+1) Install the kernel on the TEST machine.
>>+
>>+2) Reset the data counters right before running the load tests
>>+
>>+ .. code-block:: sh
>>+
>>+ $ echo 1 > /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/reset
>>+
>>+3) Run the load tests.
>>+
>>+4) Collect the raw profile data
>>+
>>+ .. code-block:: sh
>>+
>>+ $ cp -a /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/profraw /tmp/vmlinux.profraw
>>+
>>+5) (Optional) Download the raw profile data to the HOST machine.
>>+
>>+6) Process the raw profile data
>>+
>>+ .. code-block:: sh
>>+
>>+ $ llvm-profdata merge --output=vmlinux.profdata vmlinux.profraw
>>+
>>+ Note that multiple raw profile data files can be merged during this step.
>>+
>>+7) Rebuild the kernel using the profile data (PGO disabled)
>>+
>>+ .. code-block:: sh
>>+
>>+ $ make LLVM=1 KCFLAGS=-fprofile-use=vmlinux.profdata ...
>>diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
>>index c71664ca8bfd..3a6668792bc5 100644
>>--- a/MAINTAINERS
>>+++ b/MAINTAINERS
>>@@ -14019,6 +14019,15 @@ S: Maintained
>>F: include/linux/personality.h
>>F: include/uapi/linux/personality.h
>>
>>+PGO BASED KERNEL PROFILING
>>+M: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
>>+M: Bill Wendling <wcw@google.com>
>>+R: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@gmail.com>
>>+R: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
>>+S: Supported
>>+F: Documentation/dev-tools/pgo.rst
>>+F: kernel/pgo
>>+
>>PHOENIX RC FLIGHT CONTROLLER ADAPTER
>>M: Marcus Folkesson <marcus.folkesson@gmail.com>
>>L: linux-input@vger.kernel.org
>>diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
>>index 6ecd0d22e608..b57d4d44c799 100644
>>--- a/Makefile
>>+++ b/Makefile
>>@@ -657,6 +657,9 @@ endif # KBUILD_EXTMOD
>># Defaults to vmlinux, but the arch makefile usually adds further targets
>>all: vmlinux
>>
>>+CFLAGS_PGO_CLANG := -fprofile-generate
>>+export CFLAGS_PGO_CLANG
>>+
>>CFLAGS_GCOV := -fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage \
>> $(call cc-option,-fno-tree-loop-im) \
>> $(call cc-disable-warning,maybe-uninitialized,)
>>diff --git a/arch/Kconfig b/arch/Kconfig
>>index 2bb30673d8e6..111e642a2af7 100644
>>--- a/arch/Kconfig
>>+++ b/arch/Kconfig
>>@@ -1192,6 +1192,7 @@ config ARCH_HAS_ELFCORE_COMPAT
>> bool
>>
>>source "kernel/gcov/Kconfig"
>>+source "kernel/pgo/Kconfig"
>>
>>source "scripts/gcc-plugins/Kconfig"
>>
>>diff --git a/arch/x86/Kconfig b/arch/x86/Kconfig
>>index cd4b9b1204a8..c9808583b528 100644
>>--- a/arch/x86/Kconfig
>>+++ b/arch/x86/Kconfig
>>@@ -99,6 +99,7 @@ config X86
>> select ARCH_SUPPORTS_KMAP_LOCAL_FORCE_MAP if NR_CPUS <= 4096
>> select ARCH_SUPPORTS_LTO_CLANG if X86_64
>> select ARCH_SUPPORTS_LTO_CLANG_THIN if X86_64
>>+ select ARCH_SUPPORTS_PGO_CLANG if X86_64
>> select ARCH_USE_BUILTIN_BSWAP
>> select ARCH_USE_QUEUED_RWLOCKS
>> select ARCH_USE_QUEUED_SPINLOCKS
>>diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/Makefile b/arch/x86/boot/Makefile
>>index fe605205b4ce..383853e32f67 100644
>>--- a/arch/x86/boot/Makefile
>>+++ b/arch/x86/boot/Makefile
>>@@ -71,6 +71,7 @@ KBUILD_AFLAGS := $(KBUILD_CFLAGS) -D__ASSEMBLY__
>>KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-option,-fmacro-prefix-map=$(srctree)/=)
>>KBUILD_CFLAGS += -fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables
>>GCOV_PROFILE := n
>>+PGO_PROFILE := n
>>UBSAN_SANITIZE := n
>>
>>$(obj)/bzImage: asflags-y := $(SVGA_MODE)
>>diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
>>index e0bc3988c3fa..ed12ab65f606 100644
>>--- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
>>+++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
>>@@ -54,6 +54,7 @@ CFLAGS_sev-es.o += -I$(objtree)/arch/x86/lib/
>>
>>KBUILD_AFLAGS := $(KBUILD_CFLAGS) -D__ASSEMBLY__
>>GCOV_PROFILE := n
>>+PGO_PROFILE := n
>>UBSAN_SANITIZE :=n
>>
>>KBUILD_LDFLAGS := -m elf_$(UTS_MACHINE)
>>diff --git a/arch/x86/crypto/Makefile b/arch/x86/crypto/Makefile
>>index b28e36b7c96b..4b2e9620c412 100644
>>--- a/arch/x86/crypto/Makefile
>>+++ b/arch/x86/crypto/Makefile
>>@@ -4,6 +4,10 @@
>>
>>OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
>>
>>+# Disable PGO for curve25519-x86_64. With PGO enabled, clang runs out of
>>+# registers for some of the functions.
>>+PGO_PROFILE_curve25519-x86_64.o := n
>>+
>>obj-$(CONFIG_CRYPTO_TWOFISH_586) += twofish-i586.o
>>twofish-i586-y := twofish-i586-asm_32.o twofish_glue.o
>>obj-$(CONFIG_CRYPTO_TWOFISH_X86_64) += twofish-x86_64.o
>>diff --git a/arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile b/arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile
>>index 05c4abc2fdfd..f7421e44725a 100644
>>--- a/arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile
>>+++ b/arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile
>>@@ -180,6 +180,7 @@ quiet_cmd_vdso = VDSO $@
>>VDSO_LDFLAGS = -shared --hash-style=both --build-id=sha1 \
>> $(call ld-option, --eh-frame-hdr) -Bsymbolic
>>GCOV_PROFILE := n
>>+PGO_PROFILE := n
>>
>>quiet_cmd_vdso_and_check = VDSO $@
>> cmd_vdso_and_check = $(cmd_vdso); $(cmd_vdso_check)
>>diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S b/arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
>>index efd9e9ea17f2..f6cab2316c46 100644
>>--- a/arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
>>+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
>>@@ -184,6 +184,8 @@ SECTIONS
>>
>> BUG_TABLE
>>
>>+ PGO_CLANG_DATA
>>+
>> ORC_UNWIND_TABLE
>>
>> . = ALIGN(PAGE_SIZE);
>>diff --git a/arch/x86/platform/efi/Makefile b/arch/x86/platform/efi/Makefile
>>index 84b09c230cbd..5f22b31446ad 100644
>>--- a/arch/x86/platform/efi/Makefile
>>+++ b/arch/x86/platform/efi/Makefile
>>@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
>>OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD_efi_thunk_$(BITS).o := y
>>KASAN_SANITIZE := n
>>GCOV_PROFILE := n
>>+PGO_PROFILE := n
>>
>>obj-$(CONFIG_EFI) += quirks.o efi.o efi_$(BITS).o efi_stub_$(BITS).o
>>obj-$(CONFIG_EFI_MIXED) += efi_thunk_$(BITS).o
>>diff --git a/arch/x86/purgatory/Makefile b/arch/x86/purgatory/Makefile
>>index 95ea17a9d20c..36f20e99da0b 100644
>>--- a/arch/x86/purgatory/Makefile
>>+++ b/arch/x86/purgatory/Makefile
>>@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@ targets += purgatory.ro purgatory.chk
>>
>># Sanitizer, etc. runtimes are unavailable and cannot be linked here.
>>GCOV_PROFILE := n
>>+PGO_PROFILE := n
>>KASAN_SANITIZE := n
>>UBSAN_SANITIZE := n
>>KCSAN_SANITIZE := n
>>diff --git a/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile b/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile
>>index 83f1b6a56449..21797192f958 100644
>>--- a/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile
>>+++ b/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile
>>@@ -76,4 +76,5 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS := $(REALMODE_CFLAGS) -D_SETUP -D_WAKEUP \
>>KBUILD_AFLAGS := $(KBUILD_CFLAGS) -D__ASSEMBLY__
>>KBUILD_CFLAGS += -fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables
>>GCOV_PROFILE := n
>>+PGO_PROFILE := n
>>UBSAN_SANITIZE := n
>>diff --git a/arch/x86/um/vdso/Makefile b/arch/x86/um/vdso/Makefile
>>index 5943387e3f35..54f5768f5853 100644
>>--- a/arch/x86/um/vdso/Makefile
>>+++ b/arch/x86/um/vdso/Makefile
>>@@ -64,6 +64,7 @@ quiet_cmd_vdso = VDSO $@
>>
>>VDSO_LDFLAGS = -fPIC -shared -Wl,--hash-style=sysv
>>GCOV_PROFILE := n
>>+PGO_PROFILE := n
>>
>>#
>># Install the unstripped copy of vdso*.so listed in $(vdso-install-y).
>>diff --git a/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile b/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile
>>index c23466e05e60..724fb389bb9d 100644
>>--- a/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile
>>+++ b/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile
>>@@ -42,6 +42,7 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS := $(filter-out $(CC_FLAGS_SCS), $(KBUILD_CFLAGS))
>>KBUILD_CFLAGS := $(filter-out $(CC_FLAGS_LTO), $(KBUILD_CFLAGS))
>>
>>GCOV_PROFILE := n
>>+PGO_PROFILE := n
>># Sanitizer runtimes are unavailable and cannot be linked here.
>>KASAN_SANITIZE := n
>>KCSAN_SANITIZE := n
>>diff --git a/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h b/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
>>index 6786f8c0182f..4a0c21b840b3 100644
>>--- a/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
>>+++ b/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
>>@@ -329,6 +329,49 @@
>>#define DTPM_TABLE()
>>#endif
>>
>>+#ifdef CONFIG_PGO_CLANG
>>+#define PGO_CLANG_DATA \
>>+ __llvm_prf_data : AT(ADDR(__llvm_prf_data) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
>>+ . = ALIGN(8); \
>>+ __llvm_prf_start = .; \
>>+ __llvm_prf_data_start = .; \
>>+ KEEP(*(__llvm_prf_data)) \
>>+ . = ALIGN(8); \
>>+ __llvm_prf_data_end = .; \
>>+ } \
>
>Some minor items on linker script usage. The end of a metadata section
>usually does not need alignment. Does the . = ALIGN(8) have
>significance? Ditto below.
>
>
>
>This is an item about LD_DEAD_CODE_DATA_ELIMINATION. Feel free to
>postpone after this patch is in tree:
>
> KEEP(*(__llvm_prf_data))
>
>KEEP should be dropped.
>
>I have been involved in improving GC (my recent interests on such
>metadata sections :)
>https://maskray.me/blog/2021-01-31-metadata-sections-comdat-and-shf-link-order)
>
>With LLVM>=13 (https://reviews.llvm.org/D96757), __llvm_prf_* associated
>to non-COMDAT text sections can be GCed as well. KEEP would
>unnecessarily retain them under LD_DEAD_CODE_DATA_ELIMINATION.
>
>For older releases (at least 10<=LLVM<13), such __llvm_prf_* sections
>are not in zero flag section groups so they usually cannot be discarded.
>So perhaps with KEEP or without KEEP, you won't find many size
>differences.
>
>>+ __llvm_prf_cnts : AT(ADDR(__llvm_prf_cnts) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
>>+ . = ALIGN(8); \
>>+ __llvm_prf_cnts_start = .; \
>>+ KEEP(*(__llvm_prf_cnts)) \
>>+ . = ALIGN(8); \
>>+ __llvm_prf_cnts_end = .; \
>>+ } \
>>+ __llvm_prf_names : AT(ADDR(__llvm_prf_names) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
>>+ . = ALIGN(8); \
>>+ __llvm_prf_names_start = .; \
>>+ KEEP(*(__llvm_prf_names)) \
>>+ . = ALIGN(8); \
>>+ __llvm_prf_names_end = .; \
>>+ . = ALIGN(8); \
>>+ } \
>
>__llvm_prf_names does not need alignment.
>It is often 1 in userspace programs.
>
>>+ __llvm_prf_vals : AT(ADDR(__llvm_prf_vals) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
>>+ __llvm_prf_vals_start = .; \
>>+ KEEP(*(__llvm_prf_vals)) \
>>+ . = ALIGN(8); \
>>+ __llvm_prf_vals_end = .; \
>>+ . = ALIGN(8); \
>>+ } \
>>+ __llvm_prf_vnds : AT(ADDR(__llvm_prf_vnds) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
>>+ __llvm_prf_vnds_start = .; \
>>+ KEEP(*(__llvm_prf_vnds)) \
>>+ . = ALIGN(8); \
>>+ __llvm_prf_vnds_end = .; \
>>+ __llvm_prf_end = .; \
>>+ }
>
>In userspace PGO instrumentation, the start is often aligned by 16.
>The end does not need alignment.

Thinking more, my suggestion is to drop explicit alignment annotations
entirely:


__llvm_prf_vals : AT(ADDR(__llvm_prf_vals) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
__llvm_prf_vals_start = .; \
*(__llvm_prf_vals) \
__llvm_prf_vals_end = .; \
} \

__llvm_prf_vnds : AT(ADDR(__llvm_prf_vnds) - LOAD_OFFSET) { \
__llvm_prf_vnds_start = .; \
*(__llvm_prf_vnds) \
__llvm_prf_vnds_end = .; \
__llvm_prf_end = .; \
}

// _cnts, _names and _data are similar. Just delete all ALIGN.
// I deleted KEEP above to facilitate --gc-sections as well.


Let the linker figure out the alignments in input sections and the
output section alignment
(https://lld.llvm.org/ELF/linker_script.html#output-section-alignment).

Omitting alignment is probably preferable in most cases, unless no input
section is present (either not emitted at all or all discarded by ld
--gc-sections) (very rare event, happened with commit 793f49a87aae
("firmware_loader: align .builtin_fw to 8"), but that case unlikely
happens with PGO).

>

>>+#else
>>+#define PGO_CLANG_DATA
>>+#endif
>>+
>>#define KERNEL_DTB() \
>> STRUCT_ALIGN(); \
>> __dtb_start = .; \
>>@@ -1105,6 +1148,7 @@
>> CONSTRUCTORS \
>> } \
>> BUG_TABLE \
>>+ PGO_CLANG_DATA
>>
>>#define INIT_TEXT_SECTION(inittext_align) \
>> . = ALIGN(inittext_align); \
>>diff --git a/kernel/Makefile b/kernel/Makefile
>>index 320f1f3941b7..a2a23ef2b12f 100644
>>--- a/kernel/Makefile
>>+++ b/kernel/Makefile
>>@@ -111,6 +111,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_BPF) += bpf/
>>obj-$(CONFIG_KCSAN) += kcsan/
>>obj-$(CONFIG_SHADOW_CALL_STACK) += scs.o
>>obj-$(CONFIG_HAVE_STATIC_CALL_INLINE) += static_call.o
>>+obj-$(CONFIG_PGO_CLANG) += pgo/
>>
>>obj-$(CONFIG_PERF_EVENTS) += events/
>>
>>diff --git a/kernel/pgo/Kconfig b/kernel/pgo/Kconfig
>>new file mode 100644
>>index 000000000000..76a640b6cf6e
>>--- /dev/null
>>+++ b/kernel/pgo/Kconfig
>>@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
>>+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only
>>+menu "Profile Guided Optimization (PGO) (EXPERIMENTAL)"
>>+
>>+config ARCH_SUPPORTS_PGO_CLANG
>>+ bool
>>+
>>+config PGO_CLANG
>>+ bool "Enable clang's PGO-based kernel profiling"
>>+ depends on DEBUG_FS
>>+ depends on ARCH_SUPPORTS_PGO_CLANG
>>+ depends on CC_IS_CLANG && CLANG_VERSION >= 120000
>>+ help
>>+ This option enables clang's PGO (Profile Guided Optimization) based
>>+ code profiling to better optimize the kernel.
>>+
>>+ If unsure, say N.
>>+
>>+ Run a representative workload for your application on a kernel
>>+ compiled with this option and download the raw profile file from
>>+ /sys/kernel/debug/pgo/profraw. This file needs to be processed with
>>+ llvm-profdata. It may be merged with other collected raw profiles.
>>+
>>+ Copy the resulting profile file into vmlinux.profdata, and enable
>>+ KCFLAGS=-fprofile-use=vmlinux.profdata to produce an optimized
>>+ kernel.
>>+
>>+ Note that a kernel compiled with profiling flags will be
>>+ significantly larger and run slower. Also be sure to exclude files
>>+ from profiling which are not linked to the kernel image to prevent
>>+ linker errors.
>>+
>>+ Note that the debugfs filesystem has to be mounted to access
>>+ profiling data.
>>+
>>+endmenu
>>diff --git a/kernel/pgo/Makefile b/kernel/pgo/Makefile
>>new file mode 100644
>>index 000000000000..41e27cefd9a4
>>--- /dev/null
>>+++ b/kernel/pgo/Makefile
>>@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
>>+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
>>+GCOV_PROFILE := n
>>+PGO_PROFILE := n
>>+
>>+obj-y += fs.o instrument.o
>>diff --git a/kernel/pgo/fs.c b/kernel/pgo/fs.c
>>new file mode 100644
>>index 000000000000..1678df3b7d64
>>--- /dev/null
>>+++ b/kernel/pgo/fs.c
>>@@ -0,0 +1,389 @@
>>+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
>>+/*
>>+ * Copyright (C) 2019 Google, Inc.
>>+ *
>>+ * Author:
>>+ * Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
>>+ *
>>+ * This software is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public
>>+ * License version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation, and
>>+ * may be copied, distributed, and modified under those terms.
>>+ *
>>+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
>>+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
>>+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
>>+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
>>+ *
>>+ */
>>+
>>+#define pr_fmt(fmt) "pgo: " fmt
>>+
>>+#include <linux/kernel.h>
>>+#include <linux/debugfs.h>
>>+#include <linux/fs.h>
>>+#include <linux/module.h>
>>+#include <linux/slab.h>
>>+#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
>>+#include "pgo.h"
>>+
>>+static struct dentry *directory;
>>+
>>+struct prf_private_data {
>>+ void *buffer;
>>+ unsigned long size;
>>+};
>>+
>>+/*
>>+ * Raw profile data format:
>>+ *
>>+ * - llvm_prf_header
>>+ * - __llvm_prf_data
>>+ * - __llvm_prf_cnts
>>+ * - __llvm_prf_names
>>+ * - zero padding to 8 bytes
>>+ * - for each llvm_prf_data in __llvm_prf_data:
>>+ * - llvm_prf_value_data
>>+ * - llvm_prf_value_record + site count array
>>+ * - llvm_prf_value_node_data
>>+ * ...
>>+ * ...
>>+ * ...
>>+ */
>>+
>>+static void prf_fill_header(void **buffer)
>>+{
>>+ struct llvm_prf_header *header = *(struct llvm_prf_header **)buffer;
>>+
>>+#ifdef CONFIG_64BIT
>>+ header->magic = LLVM_INSTR_PROF_RAW_MAGIC_64;
>>+#else
>>+ header->magic = LLVM_INSTR_PROF_RAW_MAGIC_32;
>>+#endif
>>+ header->version = LLVM_VARIANT_MASK_IR_PROF | LLVM_INSTR_PROF_RAW_VERSION;
>>+ header->data_size = prf_data_count();
>>+ header->padding_bytes_before_counters = 0;
>>+ header->counters_size = prf_cnts_count();
>>+ header->padding_bytes_after_counters = 0;
>>+ header->names_size = prf_names_count();
>>+ header->counters_delta = (u64)__llvm_prf_cnts_start;
>>+ header->names_delta = (u64)__llvm_prf_names_start;
>>+ header->value_kind_last = LLVM_INSTR_PROF_IPVK_LAST;
>>+
>>+ *buffer += sizeof(*header);
>>+}
>>+
>>+/*
>>+ * Copy the source into the buffer, incrementing the pointer into buffer in the
>>+ * process.
>>+ */
>>+static void prf_copy_to_buffer(void **buffer, void *src, unsigned long size)
>>+{
>>+ memcpy(*buffer, src, size);
>>+ *buffer += size;
>>+}
>>+
>>+static u32 __prf_get_value_size(struct llvm_prf_data *p, u32 *value_kinds)
>>+{
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node **nodes =
>>+ (struct llvm_prf_value_node **)p->values;
>>+ u32 kinds = 0;
>>+ u32 size = 0;
>>+ unsigned int kind;
>>+ unsigned int n;
>>+ unsigned int s = 0;
>>+
>>+ for (kind = 0; kind < ARRAY_SIZE(p->num_value_sites); kind++) {
>>+ unsigned int sites = p->num_value_sites[kind];
>>+
>>+ if (!sites)
>>+ continue;
>>+
>>+ /* Record + site count array */
>>+ size += prf_get_value_record_size(sites);
>>+ kinds++;
>>+
>>+ if (!nodes)
>>+ continue;
>>+
>>+ for (n = 0; n < sites; n++) {
>>+ u32 count = 0;
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node *site = nodes[s + n];
>>+
>>+ while (site && ++count <= U8_MAX)
>>+ site = site->next;
>>+
>>+ size += count *
>>+ sizeof(struct llvm_prf_value_node_data);
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ s += sites;
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ if (size)
>>+ size += sizeof(struct llvm_prf_value_data);
>>+
>>+ if (value_kinds)
>>+ *value_kinds = kinds;
>>+
>>+ return size;
>>+}
>>+
>>+static u32 prf_get_value_size(void)
>>+{
>>+ u32 size = 0;
>>+ struct llvm_prf_data *p;
>>+
>>+ for (p = __llvm_prf_data_start; p < __llvm_prf_data_end; p++)
>>+ size += __prf_get_value_size(p, NULL);
>>+
>>+ return size;
>>+}
>>+
>>+/* Serialize the profiling's value. */
>>+static void prf_serialize_value(struct llvm_prf_data *p, void **buffer)
>>+{
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_data header;
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node **nodes =
>>+ (struct llvm_prf_value_node **)p->values;
>>+ unsigned int kind;
>>+ unsigned int n;
>>+ unsigned int s = 0;
>>+
>>+ header.total_size = __prf_get_value_size(p, &header.num_value_kinds);
>>+
>>+ if (!header.num_value_kinds)
>>+ /* Nothing to write. */
>>+ return;
>>+
>>+ prf_copy_to_buffer(buffer, &header, sizeof(header));
>>+
>>+ for (kind = 0; kind < ARRAY_SIZE(p->num_value_sites); kind++) {
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_record *record;
>>+ u8 *counts;
>>+ unsigned int sites = p->num_value_sites[kind];
>>+
>>+ if (!sites)
>>+ continue;
>>+
>>+ /* Profiling value record. */
>>+ record = *(struct llvm_prf_value_record **)buffer;
>>+ *buffer += prf_get_value_record_header_size();
>>+
>>+ record->kind = kind;
>>+ record->num_value_sites = sites;
>>+
>>+ /* Site count array. */
>>+ counts = *(u8 **)buffer;
>>+ *buffer += prf_get_value_record_site_count_size(sites);
>>+
>>+ /*
>>+ * If we don't have nodes, we can skip updating the site count
>>+ * array, because the buffer is zero filled.
>>+ */
>>+ if (!nodes)
>>+ continue;
>>+
>>+ for (n = 0; n < sites; n++) {
>>+ u32 count = 0;
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node *site = nodes[s + n];
>>+
>>+ while (site && ++count <= U8_MAX) {
>>+ prf_copy_to_buffer(buffer, site,
>>+ sizeof(struct llvm_prf_value_node_data));
>>+ site = site->next;
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ counts[n] = (u8)count;
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ s += sites;
>>+ }
>>+}
>>+
>>+static void prf_serialize_values(void **buffer)
>>+{
>>+ struct llvm_prf_data *p;
>>+
>>+ for (p = __llvm_prf_data_start; p < __llvm_prf_data_end; p++)
>>+ prf_serialize_value(p, buffer);
>>+}
>>+
>>+static inline unsigned long prf_get_padding(unsigned long size)
>>+{
>>+ return 7 & (sizeof(u64) - size % sizeof(u64));
>>+}
>>+
>>+static unsigned long prf_buffer_size(void)
>>+{
>>+ return sizeof(struct llvm_prf_header) +
>>+ prf_data_size() +
>>+ prf_cnts_size() +
>>+ prf_names_size() +
>>+ prf_get_padding(prf_names_size()) +
>>+ prf_get_value_size();
>>+}
>>+
>>+/*
>>+ * Serialize the profiling data into a format LLVM's tools can understand.
>>+ * Note: caller *must* hold pgo_lock.
>>+ */
>>+static int prf_serialize(struct prf_private_data *p)
>>+{
>>+ int err = 0;
>>+ void *buffer;
>>+
>>+ p->size = prf_buffer_size();
>>+ p->buffer = vzalloc(p->size);
>>+
>>+ if (!p->buffer) {
>>+ err = -ENOMEM;
>>+ goto out;
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ buffer = p->buffer;
>>+
>>+ prf_fill_header(&buffer);
>>+ prf_copy_to_buffer(&buffer, __llvm_prf_data_start, prf_data_size());
>>+ prf_copy_to_buffer(&buffer, __llvm_prf_cnts_start, prf_cnts_size());
>>+ prf_copy_to_buffer(&buffer, __llvm_prf_names_start, prf_names_size());
>>+ buffer += prf_get_padding(prf_names_size());
>>+
>>+ prf_serialize_values(&buffer);
>>+
>>+out:
>>+ return err;
>>+}
>>+
>>+/* open() implementation for PGO. Creates a copy of the profiling data set. */
>>+static int prf_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
>>+{
>>+ struct prf_private_data *data;
>>+ unsigned long flags;
>>+ int err;
>>+
>>+ data = kzalloc(sizeof(*data), GFP_KERNEL);
>>+ if (!data) {
>>+ err = -ENOMEM;
>>+ goto out;
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ flags = prf_lock();
>>+
>>+ err = prf_serialize(data);
>>+ if (unlikely(err)) {
>>+ kfree(data);
>>+ goto out_unlock;
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ file->private_data = data;
>>+
>>+out_unlock:
>>+ prf_unlock(flags);
>>+out:
>>+ return err;
>>+}
>>+
>>+/* read() implementation for PGO. */
>>+static ssize_t prf_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf, size_t count,
>>+ loff_t *ppos)
>>+{
>>+ struct prf_private_data *data = file->private_data;
>>+
>>+ BUG_ON(!data);
>>+
>>+ return simple_read_from_buffer(buf, count, ppos, data->buffer,
>>+ data->size);
>>+}
>>+
>>+/* release() implementation for PGO. Release resources allocated by open(). */
>>+static int prf_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
>>+{
>>+ struct prf_private_data *data = file->private_data;
>>+
>>+ if (data) {
>>+ vfree(data->buffer);
>>+ kfree(data);
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ return 0;
>>+}
>>+
>>+static const struct file_operations prf_fops = {
>>+ .owner = THIS_MODULE,
>>+ .open = prf_open,
>>+ .read = prf_read,
>>+ .llseek = default_llseek,
>>+ .release = prf_release
>>+};
>>+
>>+/* write() implementation for resetting PGO's profile data. */
>>+static ssize_t reset_write(struct file *file, const char __user *addr,
>>+ size_t len, loff_t *pos)
>>+{
>>+ struct llvm_prf_data *data;
>>+
>>+ memset(__llvm_prf_cnts_start, 0, prf_cnts_size());
>>+
>>+ for (data = __llvm_prf_data_start; data < __llvm_prf_data_end; data++) {
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node **vnodes;
>>+ u64 current_vsite_count;
>>+ u32 i;
>>+
>>+ if (!data->values)
>>+ continue;
>>+
>>+ current_vsite_count = 0;
>>+ vnodes = (struct llvm_prf_value_node **)data->values;
>>+
>>+ for (i = LLVM_INSTR_PROF_IPVK_FIRST; i <= LLVM_INSTR_PROF_IPVK_LAST; i++)
>>+ current_vsite_count += data->num_value_sites[i];
>>+
>>+ for (i = 0; i < current_vsite_count; i++) {
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node *current_vnode = vnodes[i];
>>+
>>+ while (current_vnode) {
>>+ current_vnode->count = 0;
>>+ current_vnode = current_vnode->next;
>>+ }
>>+ }
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ return len;
>>+}
>>+
>>+static const struct file_operations prf_reset_fops = {
>>+ .owner = THIS_MODULE,
>>+ .write = reset_write,
>>+ .llseek = noop_llseek,
>>+};
>>+
>>+/* Create debugfs entries. */
>>+static int __init pgo_init(void)
>>+{
>>+ directory = debugfs_create_dir("pgo", NULL);
>>+ if (!directory)
>>+ goto err_remove;
>>+
>>+ if (!debugfs_create_file("profraw", 0600, directory, NULL,
>>+ &prf_fops))
>>+ goto err_remove;
>>+
>>+ if (!debugfs_create_file("reset", 0200, directory, NULL,
>>+ &prf_reset_fops))
>>+ goto err_remove;
>>+
>>+ return 0;
>>+
>>+err_remove:
>>+ pr_err("initialization failed\n");
>>+ return -EIO;
>>+}
>>+
>>+/* Remove debugfs entries. */
>>+static void __exit pgo_exit(void)
>>+{
>>+ debugfs_remove_recursive(directory);
>>+}
>>+
>>+module_init(pgo_init);
>>+module_exit(pgo_exit);
>>diff --git a/kernel/pgo/instrument.c b/kernel/pgo/instrument.c
>>new file mode 100644
>>index 000000000000..62ff5cfce7b1
>>--- /dev/null
>>+++ b/kernel/pgo/instrument.c
>>@@ -0,0 +1,189 @@
>>+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
>>+/*
>>+ * Copyright (C) 2019 Google, Inc.
>>+ *
>>+ * Author:
>>+ * Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
>>+ *
>>+ * This software is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public
>>+ * License version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation, and
>>+ * may be copied, distributed, and modified under those terms.
>>+ *
>>+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
>>+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
>>+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
>>+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
>>+ *
>>+ */
>>+
>>+#define pr_fmt(fmt) "pgo: " fmt
>>+
>>+#include <linux/bitops.h>
>>+#include <linux/kernel.h>
>>+#include <linux/export.h>
>>+#include <linux/spinlock.h>
>>+#include <linux/types.h>
>>+#include "pgo.h"
>>+
>>+/*
>>+ * This lock guards both profile count updating and serialization of the
>>+ * profiling data. Keeping both of these activities separate via locking
>>+ * ensures that we don't try to serialize data that's only partially updated.
>>+ */
>>+static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(pgo_lock);
>>+static int current_node;
>>+
>>+unsigned long prf_lock(void)
>>+{
>>+ unsigned long flags;
>>+
>>+ spin_lock_irqsave(&pgo_lock, flags);
>>+
>>+ return flags;
>>+}
>>+
>>+void prf_unlock(unsigned long flags)
>>+{
>>+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pgo_lock, flags);
>>+}
>>+
>>+/*
>>+ * Return a newly allocated profiling value node which contains the tracked
>>+ * value by the value profiler.
>>+ * Note: caller *must* hold pgo_lock.
>>+ */
>>+static struct llvm_prf_value_node *allocate_node(struct llvm_prf_data *p,
>>+ u32 index, u64 value)
>>+{
>>+ if (&__llvm_prf_vnds_start[current_node + 1] >= __llvm_prf_vnds_end)
>>+ return NULL; /* Out of nodes */
>>+
>>+ current_node++;
>>+
>>+ /* Make sure the node is entirely within the section */
>>+ if (&__llvm_prf_vnds_start[current_node] >= __llvm_prf_vnds_end ||
>>+ &__llvm_prf_vnds_start[current_node + 1] > __llvm_prf_vnds_end)
>>+ return NULL;
>>+
>>+ return &__llvm_prf_vnds_start[current_node];
>>+}
>>+
>>+/*
>>+ * Counts the number of times a target value is seen.
>>+ *
>>+ * Records the target value for the index if not seen before. Otherwise,
>>+ * increments the counter associated w/ the target value.
>>+ */
>>+void __llvm_profile_instrument_target(u64 target_value, void *data, u32 index);
>>+void __llvm_profile_instrument_target(u64 target_value, void *data, u32 index)
>>+{
>>+ struct llvm_prf_data *p = (struct llvm_prf_data *)data;
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node **counters;
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node *curr;
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node *min = NULL;
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node *prev = NULL;
>>+ u64 min_count = U64_MAX;
>>+ u8 values = 0;
>>+ unsigned long flags;
>>+
>>+ if (!p || !p->values)
>>+ return;
>>+
>>+ counters = (struct llvm_prf_value_node **)p->values;
>>+ curr = counters[index];
>>+
>>+ while (curr) {
>>+ if (target_value == curr->value) {
>>+ curr->count++;
>>+ return;
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ if (curr->count < min_count) {
>>+ min_count = curr->count;
>>+ min = curr;
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ prev = curr;
>>+ curr = curr->next;
>>+ values++;
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ if (values >= LLVM_INSTR_PROF_MAX_NUM_VAL_PER_SITE) {
>>+ if (!min->count || !(--min->count)) {
>>+ curr = min;
>>+ curr->value = target_value;
>>+ curr->count++;
>>+ }
>>+ return;
>>+ }
>>+
>>+ /* Lock when updating the value node structure. */
>>+ flags = prf_lock();
>>+
>>+ curr = allocate_node(p, index, target_value);
>>+ if (!curr)
>>+ goto out;
>>+
>>+ curr->value = target_value;
>>+ curr->count++;
>>+
>>+ if (!counters[index])
>>+ counters[index] = curr;
>>+ else if (prev && !prev->next)
>>+ prev->next = curr;
>>+
>>+out:
>>+ prf_unlock(flags);
>>+}
>>+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__llvm_profile_instrument_target);
>>+
>>+/* Counts the number of times a range of targets values are seen. */
>>+void __llvm_profile_instrument_range(u64 target_value, void *data,
>>+ u32 index, s64 precise_start,
>>+ s64 precise_last, s64 large_value);
>>+void __llvm_profile_instrument_range(u64 target_value, void *data,
>>+ u32 index, s64 precise_start,
>>+ s64 precise_last, s64 large_value)
>>+{
>>+ if (large_value != S64_MIN && (s64)target_value >= large_value)
>>+ target_value = large_value;
>>+ else if ((s64)target_value < precise_start ||
>>+ (s64)target_value > precise_last)
>>+ target_value = precise_last + 1;
>>+
>>+ __llvm_profile_instrument_target(target_value, data, index);
>>+}
>>+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__llvm_profile_instrument_range);
>>+
>>+static u64 inst_prof_get_range_rep_value(u64 value)
>>+{
>>+ if (value <= 8)
>>+ /* The first ranges are individually tracked, use it as is. */
>>+ return value;
>>+ else if (value >= 513)
>>+ /* The last range is mapped to its lowest value. */
>>+ return 513;
>>+ else if (hweight64(value) == 1)
>>+ /* If it's a power of two, use it as is. */
>>+ return value;
>>+
>>+ /* Otherwise, take to the previous power of two + 1. */
>>+ return (1 << (64 - __builtin_clzll(value) - 1)) + 1;
>>+}
`1 << ...` is another very minor issue.

I sent https://reviews.llvm.org/D97640 to fix the upstream.
The overflow won't happen in practice because the function is only used
by the size parameter of memory operation (e.g. memcpy).

>>+/*
>>+ * The target values are partitioned into multiple ranges. The range spec is
>>+ * defined in compiler-rt/include/profile/InstrProfData.inc.
>>+ */
>>+void __llvm_profile_instrument_memop(u64 target_value, void *data,
>>+ u32 counter_index);
>>+void __llvm_profile_instrument_memop(u64 target_value, void *data,
>>+ u32 counter_index)
>>+{
>>+ u64 rep_value;
>>+
>>+ /* Map the target value to the representative value of its range. */
>>+ rep_value = inst_prof_get_range_rep_value(target_value);
>>+ __llvm_profile_instrument_target(rep_value, data, counter_index);
>>+}
>>+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__llvm_profile_instrument_memop);
>>diff --git a/kernel/pgo/pgo.h b/kernel/pgo/pgo.h
>>new file mode 100644
>>index 000000000000..ddc8d3002fe5
>>--- /dev/null
>>+++ b/kernel/pgo/pgo.h
>>@@ -0,0 +1,203 @@
>>+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
>>+/*
>>+ * Copyright (C) 2019 Google, Inc.
>>+ *
>>+ * Author:
>>+ * Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
>>+ *
>>+ * This software is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public
>>+ * License version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation, and
>>+ * may be copied, distributed, and modified under those terms.
>>+ *
>>+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
>>+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
>>+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
>>+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
>>+ *
>>+ */
>>+
>>+#ifndef _PGO_H
>>+#define _PGO_H
>>+
>>+/*
>>+ * Note: These internal LLVM definitions must match the compiler version.
>>+ * See llvm/include/llvm/ProfileData/InstrProfData.inc in LLVM's source code.
>>+ */
>>+
>>+#define LLVM_INSTR_PROF_RAW_MAGIC_64 \
>>+ ((u64)255 << 56 | \
>>+ (u64)'l' << 48 | \
>>+ (u64)'p' << 40 | \
>>+ (u64)'r' << 32 | \
>>+ (u64)'o' << 24 | \
>>+ (u64)'f' << 16 | \
>>+ (u64)'r' << 8 | \
>>+ (u64)129)
>>+#define LLVM_INSTR_PROF_RAW_MAGIC_32 \
>>+ ((u64)255 << 56 | \
>>+ (u64)'l' << 48 | \
>>+ (u64)'p' << 40 | \
>>+ (u64)'r' << 32 | \
>>+ (u64)'o' << 24 | \
>>+ (u64)'f' << 16 | \
>>+ (u64)'R' << 8 | \
>>+ (u64)129)
>>+
>>+#define LLVM_INSTR_PROF_RAW_VERSION 5
>>+#define LLVM_INSTR_PROF_DATA_ALIGNMENT 8
>>+#define LLVM_INSTR_PROF_IPVK_FIRST 0
>>+#define LLVM_INSTR_PROF_IPVK_LAST 1
>>+#define LLVM_INSTR_PROF_MAX_NUM_VAL_PER_SITE 255
>>+
>>+#define LLVM_VARIANT_MASK_IR_PROF (0x1ULL << 56)
>>+#define LLVM_VARIANT_MASK_CSIR_PROF (0x1ULL << 57)
>>+
>>+/**
>>+ * struct llvm_prf_header - represents the raw profile header data structure.
>>+ * @magic: the magic token for the file format.
>>+ * @version: the version of the file format.
>>+ * @data_size: the number of entries in the profile data section.
>>+ * @padding_bytes_before_counters: the number of padding bytes before the
>>+ * counters.
>>+ * @counters_size: the size in bytes of the LLVM profile section containing the
>>+ * counters.
>>+ * @padding_bytes_after_counters: the number of padding bytes after the
>>+ * counters.
>>+ * @names_size: the size in bytes of the LLVM profile section containing the
>>+ * counters' names.
>>+ * @counters_delta: the beginning of the LLMV profile counters section.
>>+ * @names_delta: the beginning of the LLMV profile names section.
>>+ * @value_kind_last: the last profile value kind.
>>+ */
>>+struct llvm_prf_header {
>>+ u64 magic;
>>+ u64 version;
>>+ u64 data_size;
>>+ u64 padding_bytes_before_counters;
>>+ u64 counters_size;
>>+ u64 padding_bytes_after_counters;
>>+ u64 names_size;
>>+ u64 counters_delta;
>>+ u64 names_delta;
>>+ u64 value_kind_last;
>>+};
>>+
>>+/**
>>+ * struct llvm_prf_data - represents the per-function control structure.
>>+ * @name_ref: the reference to the function's name.
>>+ * @func_hash: the hash value of the function.
>>+ * @counter_ptr: a pointer to the profile counter.
>>+ * @function_ptr: a pointer to the function.
>>+ * @values: the profiling values associated with this function.
>>+ * @num_counters: the number of counters in the function.
>>+ * @num_value_sites: the number of value profile sites.
>>+ */
>>+struct llvm_prf_data {
>>+ const u64 name_ref;
>>+ const u64 func_hash;
>>+ const void *counter_ptr;
>>+ const void *function_ptr;
>>+ void *values;
>>+ const u32 num_counters;
>>+ const u16 num_value_sites[LLVM_INSTR_PROF_IPVK_LAST + 1];
>>+} __aligned(LLVM_INSTR_PROF_DATA_ALIGNMENT);
>>+
>>+/**
>>+ * structure llvm_prf_value_node_data - represents the data part of the struct
>>+ * llvm_prf_value_node data structure.
>>+ * @value: the value counters.
>>+ * @count: the counters' count.
>>+ */
>>+struct llvm_prf_value_node_data {
>>+ u64 value;
>>+ u64 count;
>>+};
>>+
>>+/**
>>+ * struct llvm_prf_value_node - represents an internal data structure used by
>>+ * the value profiler.
>>+ * @value: the value counters.
>>+ * @count: the counters' count.
>>+ * @next: the next value node.
>>+ */
>>+struct llvm_prf_value_node {
>>+ u64 value;
>>+ u64 count;
>>+ struct llvm_prf_value_node *next;
>>+};
>>+
>>+/**
>>+ * struct llvm_prf_value_data - represents the value profiling data in indexed
>>+ * format.
>>+ * @total_size: the total size in bytes including this field.
>>+ * @num_value_kinds: the number of value profile kinds that has value profile
>>+ * data.
>>+ */
>>+struct llvm_prf_value_data {
>>+ u32 total_size;
>>+ u32 num_value_kinds;
>>+};
>>+
>>+/**
>>+ * struct llvm_prf_value_record - represents the on-disk layout of the value
>>+ * profile data of a particular kind for one function.
>>+ * @kind: the kind of the value profile record.
>>+ * @num_value_sites: the number of value profile sites.
>>+ * @site_count_array: the first element of the array that stores the number
>>+ * of profiled values for each value site.
>>+ */
>>+struct llvm_prf_value_record {
>>+ u32 kind;
>>+ u32 num_value_sites;
>>+ u8 site_count_array[];
>>+};
>>+
>>+#define prf_get_value_record_header_size() \
>>+ offsetof(struct llvm_prf_value_record, site_count_array)
>>+#define prf_get_value_record_site_count_size(sites) \
>>+ roundup((sites), 8)
>>+#define prf_get_value_record_size(sites) \
>>+ (prf_get_value_record_header_size() + \
>>+ prf_get_value_record_site_count_size((sites)))
>>+
>>+/* Data sections */
>>+extern struct llvm_prf_data __llvm_prf_data_start[];
>>+extern struct llvm_prf_data __llvm_prf_data_end[];
>>+
>>+extern u64 __llvm_prf_cnts_start[];
>>+extern u64 __llvm_prf_cnts_end[];
>>+
>>+extern char __llvm_prf_names_start[];
>>+extern char __llvm_prf_names_end[];
>>+
>>+extern struct llvm_prf_value_node __llvm_prf_vnds_start[];
>>+extern struct llvm_prf_value_node __llvm_prf_vnds_end[];
>>+
>>+/* Locking for vnodes */
>>+extern unsigned long prf_lock(void);
>>+extern void prf_unlock(unsigned long flags);
>>+
>>+#define __DEFINE_PRF_SIZE(s) \
>>+ static inline unsigned long prf_ ## s ## _size(void) \
>>+ { \
>>+ unsigned long start = \
>>+ (unsigned long)__llvm_prf_ ## s ## _start; \
>>+ unsigned long end = \
>>+ (unsigned long)__llvm_prf_ ## s ## _end; \
>>+ return roundup(end - start, \
>>+ sizeof(__llvm_prf_ ## s ## _start[0])); \
>>+ } \
>>+ static inline unsigned long prf_ ## s ## _count(void) \
>>+ { \
>>+ return prf_ ## s ## _size() / \
>>+ sizeof(__llvm_prf_ ## s ## _start[0]); \
>>+ }
>>+
>>+__DEFINE_PRF_SIZE(data);
>>+__DEFINE_PRF_SIZE(cnts);
>>+__DEFINE_PRF_SIZE(names);
>>+__DEFINE_PRF_SIZE(vnds);
>>+
>>+#undef __DEFINE_PRF_SIZE
>>+
>>+#endif /* _PGO_H */
>>diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.lib b/scripts/Makefile.lib
>>index eee59184de64..48a65d092c5b 100644
>>--- a/scripts/Makefile.lib
>>+++ b/scripts/Makefile.lib
>>@@ -139,6 +139,16 @@ _c_flags += $(if $(patsubst n%,, \
>> $(CFLAGS_GCOV))
>>endif
>>
>>+#
>>+# Enable clang's PGO profiling flags for a file or directory depending on
>>+# variables PGO_PROFILE_obj.o and PGO_PROFILE.
>>+#
>>+ifeq ($(CONFIG_PGO_CLANG),y)
>>+_c_flags += $(if $(patsubst n%,, \
>>+ $(PGO_PROFILE_$(basetarget).o)$(PGO_PROFILE)y), \
>>+ $(CFLAGS_PGO_CLANG))
>>+endif
>>+
>>#
>># Enable address sanitizer flags for kernel except some files or directories
>># we don't want to check (depends on variables KASAN_SANITIZE_obj.o, KASAN_SANITIZE)
>>--
>>2.30.1.766.gb4fecdf3b7-goog
>>
>>--
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>>To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to clang-built-linux+unsubscribe@googlegroups.com.
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