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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 3/7] Documentation: KUnit: Added KUnit Architecture
Hello Marco,

See my comments below.

On Sat, Dec 11, 2021 at 4:38 AM Marco Elver <elver@google.com> wrote:
>
> On Tue, 7 Dec 2021 at 06:41, 'Harinder Singh' via KUnit Development
> <kunit-dev@googlegroups.com> wrote:
> >
> > Describe the components of KUnit and how the kernel mode parts
> > interact with kunit_tool.
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Harinder Singh <sharinder@google.com>
> > ---
>
> You are including several external links to kernel sources via
> elixir.bootlin.com. This should be avoided, where kernel.org
> alternatives exist.
>
> See one of my comments below which gives an example how you can avoid
> this, either by providing a kernel.org link, or better, rendering the
> kernel-doc in ReST where appropriate. You should be able to test this
> with "make htmldocs".
>
I used kernel-doc directive where I thought it made sense. Elsewhere I
replaced Elixir links with git.kernel.org links.
Please see follow up patches.

> > .../dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst | 206 ++++++++++++++++++
> > Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/index.rst | 2 +
> > .../kunit/kunit_suitememorydiagram.png | Bin 0 -> 24174 bytes
> > Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst | 1 +
> > 4 files changed, 209 insertions(+)
> > create mode 100644 Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst
> > create mode 100644 Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/kunit_suitememorydiagram.png
> >
> > diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..bb0fb3e3ed01
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst
> > @@ -0,0 +1,206 @@
> > +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> > +
> > +==================
> > +KUnit Architecture
> > +==================
> > +
> > +The KUnit architecture can be divided into two parts:
> > +
> > +- Kernel testing library
> > +- kunit_tool (Command line test harness)
> > +
> > +In-Kernel Testing Framework
> > +===========================
> > +
> > +The kernel testing library supports KUnit tests written in C using
> > +KUnit. KUnit tests are kernel code. KUnit does several things:
> > +
> > +- Organizes tests
> > +- Reports test results
> > +- Provides test utilities
> > +
> > +Test Cases
> > +----------
> > +
> > +The fundamental unit in KUnit is the test case. The KUnit test cases are
> > +grouped into KUnit suites. A KUnit test case is a function with type
> > +signature ``void (*)(struct kunit *test)``.
> > +These test case functions are wrapped in a struct called
> > +``struct kunit_case``. For code, see:
> > +https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/latest/source/include/kunit/test.h#L145
> > +
> > +It includes:
> > +
> > +- ``run_case``: the function implementing the actual test case.
> > +- ``name``: the test case name.
> > +- ``generate_params``: the parameterized tests generator function. This
> > + is optional for non-parameterized tests.
> > +
> > +Each KUnit test case gets a ``struct kunit`` context
> > +object passed to it that tracks a running test. The KUnit assertion
> > +macros and other KUnit utilities use the ``struct kunit`` context
> > +object. As an exception, there are two fields:
> > +
> > +- ``->priv``: The setup functions can use it to store arbitrary test
> > + user data.
> > +
> > +- ``->param_value``: It contains the parameter value which can be
> > + retrieved in the parameterized tests.
> > +
> > +Test Suites
> > +-----------
> > +
> > +A KUnit suite includes a collection of test cases. The KUnit suites
> > +are represented by the ``struct kunit_suite``. For example:
> > +
> > +.. code-block:: c
> > +
> > + static struct kunit_case example_test_cases[] = {
> > + KUNIT_CASE(example_test_foo),
> > + KUNIT_CASE(example_test_bar),
> > + KUNIT_CASE(example_test_baz),
> > + {}
> > + };
> > +
> > + static struct kunit_suite example_test_suite = {
> > + .name = "example",
> > + .init = example_test_init,
> > + .exit = example_test_exit,
> > + .test_cases = example_test_cases,
> > + };
> > + kunit_test_suite(example_test_suite);
> > +
> > +In the above example, the test suite ``example_test_suite``, runs the
> > +test cases ``example_test_foo``, ``example_test_bar``, and
> > +``example_test_baz``. Before running the test, the ``example_test_init``
> > +is called and after running the test, ``example_test_exit`` is called.
> > +The ``kunit_test_suite(example_test_suite)`` registers the test suite
> > +with the KUnit test framework.
> > +
> > +Executor
> > +--------
> > +
> > +The KUnit executor can list and run built-in KUnit tests on boot.
> > +The Test suites are stored in a linker section
> > +called ``.kunit_test_suites``. For code, see:
> > +https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v5.12/source/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h#L918.
> > +The linker section consists of an array of pointers to
> > +``struct kunit_suite``, and is populated by the ``kunit_test_suites()``
> > +macro. To run all tests compiled into the kernel, the KUnit executor
> > +iterates over the linker section array.
> > +
> > +.. kernel-figure:: kunit_suitememorydiagram.png
> > + :alt: KUnit Suite Memory
> > +
> > + KUnit Suite Memory Diagram
> > +
> > +On the kernel boot, the KUnit executor uses the start and end addresses
> > +of this section to iterate over and run all tests. For code, see:
> > +https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/latest/source/lib/kunit/executor.c
> > +
> > +When built as a module, the ``kunit_test_suites()`` macro defines a
> > +``module_init()`` function, which runs all the tests in the compilation
> > +unit instead of utilizing the executor.
> > +
> > +In KUnit tests, some error classes do not affect other tests
> > +or parts of the kernel, each KUnit case executes in a separate thread
> > +context. For code, see:
> > +https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/latest/source/lib/kunit/try-catch.c#L58
> > +
> > +Assertion Macros
> > +----------------
> > +
> > +KUnit tests verify state using expectations/assertions.
> > +All expectations/assertions are formatted as:
> > +``KUNIT_{EXPECT|ASSERT}_<op>[_MSG](kunit, property[, message])``
> > +
> > +- ``{EXPECT|ASSERT}`` determines whether the check is an assertion or an
> > + expectation.
> > +
> > + - For an expectation, if the check fails, marks the test as failed
> > + and logs the failure.
> > +
> > + - An assertion, on failure, causes the test case to terminate
> > + immediately.
> > +
> > + - Assertions call function:
> > + ``void __noreturn kunit_abort(struct kunit *)``.
> > +
> > + - ``kunit_abort`` calls function:
> > + ``void __noreturn kunit_try_catch_throw(struct kunit_try_catch *try_catch)``.
> > +
> > + - ``kunit_try_catch_throw`` calls function:
> > + ``void complete_and_exit(struct completion *, long) __noreturn;``
> > + and terminates the special thread context.
> > +
> > +- ``<op>`` denotes a check with options: ``TRUE`` (supplied property
> > + has the boolean value “true”), ``EQ`` (two supplied properties are
> > + equal), ``NOT_ERR_OR_NULL`` (supplied pointer is not null and does not
> > + contain an “err” value).
> > +
> > +- ``[_MSG]`` prints a custom message on failure.
> > +
> > +Test Result Reporting
> > +---------------------
> > +KUnit prints test results in KTAP format. KTAP is based on TAP14, see:
> > +https://github.com/isaacs/testanything.github.io/blob/tap14/tap-version-14-specification.md.
> > +KTAP (yet to be standardized format) works with KUnit and Kselftest.
> > +The KUnit executor prints KTAP results to dmesg, and debugfs
> > +(if configured).
> > +
> > +Parameterized Tests
> > +-------------------
> > +
> > +Each KUnit parameterized test is associated with a collection of
> > +parameters. The test is invoked multiple times, once for each parameter
> > +value and the parameter is stored in the ``param_value`` field.
> > +The test case includes a ``KUNIT_CASE_PARAM()`` macro that accepts a
> > +generator function.
> > +The generator function returns the next parameter given to the
> > +previous parameter in parameterized tests. It also provides a macro to
> > +generate common-case generators based on arrays.
> > +
> > +For code, see:
> > +https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v5.12/source/include/kunit/test.h#L1783
>
> This is a link to an external mirror of the kernel, which should not
> be used. If you must point to a specific version and line of the
> kernel, use a kernel.org link:
> https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/include/kunit/test.h?h=v5.15#n1872
>
> and ideally using a ReST link.
>
> Furthermore, ReST actually lets you select to inline certain
> documentation, which would be appropriate in this case. This can be
> done via the ".. kernel-doc: <file>" directive, and you can select
> which identifier you want to render in the final document. See
> https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/doc-guide/kernel-doc.html#including-kernel-doc-comments
>
> > +
> > +kunit_tool (Command Line Test Harness)
> > +======================================
> > +
> > +kunit_tool is a Python script ``(tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py)``
> > +that can be used to configure, build, exec, parse and run (runs other
> > +commands in order) test results. You can either run KUnit tests using
> > +kunit_tool or can include KUnit in kernel and parse manually.
> > +
> > +- ``configure`` command generates the kernel ``.config`` from a
> > + ``.kunitconfig`` file (and any architecture-specific options).
> > + For some architectures, additional config options are specified in the
> > + ``qemu_config`` Python script
> > + (For example: ``tools/testing/kunit/qemu_configs/powerpc.py``).
> > + It parses both the existing ``.config`` and the ``.kunitconfig`` files
> > + and ensures that ``.config`` is a superset of ``.kunitconfig``.
> > + If this is not the case, it will combine the two and run
> > + ``make olddefconfig`` to regenerate the ``.config`` file. It then
> > + verifies that ``.config`` is now a superset. This checks if all
> > + Kconfig dependencies are correctly specified in ``.kunitconfig``.
> > + ``kunit_config.py`` includes the parsing Kconfigs code. The code which
> > + runs ``make olddefconfig`` is a part of ``kunit_kernel.py``. You can
> > + invoke this command via: ``./tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py config`` and
> > + generate a ``.config`` file.
> > +- ``build`` runs ``make`` on the kernel tree with required options
> > + (depends on the architecture and some options, for example: build_dir)
> > + and reports any errors.
> > + To build a KUnit kernel from the current ``.config``, you can use the
> > + ``build`` argument: ``./tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py build``.
> > +- ``exec`` command executes kernel results either directly (using
> > + User-mode Linux configuration), or via an emulator such
> > + as QEMU. It reads results from the log via standard
> > + output (stdout), and passes them to ``parse`` to be parsed.
> > + If you already have built a kernel with built-in KUnit tests,
> > + you can run the kernel and display the test results with the ``exec``
> > + argument: ``./tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py exec``.
> > +- ``parse`` extracts the KTAP output from a kernel log, parses
> > + the test results, and prints a summary. For failed tests, any
> > + diagnostic output will be included.
> > diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/index.rst b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/index.rst
> > index ebf4bffaa1ca..75e4ae85adbb 100644
> > --- a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/index.rst
> > +++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/index.rst
> > @@ -9,6 +9,7 @@ KUnit - Linux Kernel Unit Testing
> > :caption: Contents:
> >
> > start
> > + architecture
> > usage
> > kunit-tool
> > api/index
> > @@ -96,6 +97,7 @@ How do I use it?
> > ================
> >
> > * Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst - for KUnit new users.
> > +* Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst - KUnit architecture.
> > * Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/usage.rst - KUnit features.
> > * Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/tips.rst - best practices with
> > examples.
> > diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/kunit_suitememorydiagram.png b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/kunit_suitememorydiagram.png
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..a1aa7c3b0f63edfea83eb1cef3e2257b47b5ca7b
> > GIT binary patch
>
> I think adding binary blobs like this is quite unusual.
>
> There currently are no .png files in the kernel repo, and this would
> be the first.
>
> How difficult is it to create an ascii diagram?
>
There are a lot of .svg files in the documentation. I think it is fine
to add .png files. We are not creating a new president here.
I do not have experience of creating ASCII diagrams. This diagram is
somewhat complicated. We can try that in a follow up patch. Is this
ok?

> > diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst
> > index 55f8df1abd40..5dd2c88fa2bd 100644
> > --- a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst
> > +++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst
> > @@ -240,6 +240,7 @@ Congrats! You just wrote your first KUnit test.
> > Next Steps
> > ==========
> >
> > +* Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst - KUnit architecture.
> > * Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/usage.rst - KUnit features.
> > * Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/tips.rst - best practices with
> > examples.
> > --
> > 2.34.1.400.ga245620fadb-goog
> >
> > --
> > You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "KUnit Development" group.
> > To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to kunit-dev+unsubscribe@googlegroups.com.
> > To view this discussion on the web visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/kunit-dev/20211207054019.1455054-4-sharinder%40google.com.

Thanks,
Harinder Singh

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