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Subject[RFC 16/20] mm/tlb: per-page table generation tracking
Date
From: Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com>

Detecting deferred TLB flushes per-VMA has two drawbacks:

1. It requires an atomic cmpxchg to record mm's TLB generation at the
time of the last TLB flush, as two deferred TLB flushes on the same VMA
can race.

2. It might be in coarse granularity for large VMAs.

On 64-bit architectures that have available space on page-struct, we can
resolve these two drawbacks by recording the TLB generation at the time
of the last deferred flush in page-struct of page-table whose TLB
flushes were deferred.

Introduce a new CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES config option. Record
when enabled the deferred TLB flush generation on page-struct, which is
protected by the page-table lock.

Signed-off-by: Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Cc: Yu Zhao <yuzhao@google.com>
Cc: x86@kernel.org
---
arch/x86/Kconfig | 1 +
arch/x86/include/asm/pgtable.h | 23 ++++++------
fs/proc/task_mmu.c | 6 ++--
include/asm-generic/tlb.h | 65 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++--------
include/linux/mm.h | 13 +++++++
include/linux/mm_types.h | 22 ++++++++++++
init/Kconfig | 7 ++++
mm/huge_memory.c | 2 +-
mm/mapping_dirty_helpers.c | 4 +--
mm/mprotect.c | 2 +-
10 files changed, 113 insertions(+), 32 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/Kconfig b/arch/x86/Kconfig
index d56b0f5cb00c..dfc6ee9dbe9c 100644
--- a/arch/x86/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/x86/Kconfig
@@ -250,6 +250,7 @@ config X86
select X86_FEATURE_NAMES if PROC_FS
select PROC_PID_ARCH_STATUS if PROC_FS
select MAPPING_DIRTY_HELPERS
+ select PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES if X86_64
imply IMA_SECURE_AND_OR_TRUSTED_BOOT if EFI

config INSTRUCTION_DECODER
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/pgtable.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/pgtable.h
index a0e069c15dbc..b380a849be90 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/pgtable.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/pgtable.h
@@ -774,17 +774,18 @@ static inline int pte_devmap(pte_t a)
}
#endif

-#define pte_accessible pte_accessible
-static inline bool pte_accessible(struct vm_area_struct *vma, pte_t *a)
-{
- if (pte_flags(*a) & _PAGE_PRESENT)
- return true;
-
- if ((pte_flags(*a) & _PAGE_PROTNONE) && pte_tlb_flush_pending(vma, a))
- return true;
-
- return false;
-}
+#define pte_accessible(vma, a) \
+ ({ \
+ pte_t *_a = (a); \
+ bool r = false; \
+ \
+ if (pte_flags(*_a) & _PAGE_PRESENT) \
+ r = true; \
+ else \
+ r = ((pte_flags(*_a) & _PAGE_PROTNONE) && \
+ pte_tlb_flush_pending((vma), _a)); \
+ r; \
+ })

static inline int pmd_present(pmd_t pmd)
{
diff --git a/fs/proc/task_mmu.c b/fs/proc/task_mmu.c
index d0cce961fa5c..00e116feb62c 100644
--- a/fs/proc/task_mmu.c
+++ b/fs/proc/task_mmu.c
@@ -1157,7 +1157,7 @@ static int clear_refs_pte_range(pmd_t *pmd, unsigned long addr,
/* Clear accessed and referenced bits. */
pmdp_test_and_clear_young(vma, addr, pmd);
test_and_clear_page_young(page);
- tlb_flush_pmd_range(&cp->tlb, addr, HPAGE_PMD_SIZE);
+ tlb_flush_pmd_range(&cp->tlb, pmd, addr, HPAGE_PMD_SIZE);
ClearPageReferenced(page);
out:
spin_unlock(ptl);
@@ -1174,7 +1174,7 @@ static int clear_refs_pte_range(pmd_t *pmd, unsigned long addr,

if (cp->type == CLEAR_REFS_SOFT_DIRTY) {
clear_soft_dirty(vma, addr, pte);
- tlb_flush_pte_range(&cp->tlb, addr, PAGE_SIZE);
+ tlb_flush_pte_range(&cp->tlb, pte, addr, PAGE_SIZE);
continue;
}

@@ -1188,7 +1188,7 @@ static int clear_refs_pte_range(pmd_t *pmd, unsigned long addr,
/* Clear accessed and referenced bits. */
ptep_test_and_clear_young(vma, addr, pte);
test_and_clear_page_young(page);
- tlb_flush_pte_range(&cp->tlb, addr, PAGE_SIZE);
+ tlb_flush_pte_range(&cp->tlb, pte, addr, PAGE_SIZE);
ClearPageReferenced(page);
}
tlb_end_ptes(&cp->tlb);
diff --git a/include/asm-generic/tlb.h b/include/asm-generic/tlb.h
index f25d2d955076..74dbb56d816d 100644
--- a/include/asm-generic/tlb.h
+++ b/include/asm-generic/tlb.h
@@ -310,10 +310,12 @@ struct mmu_gather {
#ifdef CONFIG_MMU_GATHER_PAGE_SIZE
unsigned int page_size;
#endif
-
#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_TLB_GENERATIONS
u64 defer_gen;
#endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES
+ pte_t *last_pte;
+#endif
#endif
};

@@ -572,21 +574,45 @@ static inline void read_defer_tlb_flush_gen(struct mmu_gather *tlb)
}
}

+#ifndef CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES
+
/*
- * Store the deferred TLB generation in the VMA
+ * Store the deferred TLB generation in the VMA or page-table for PTEs or PMDs
*/
-static inline void store_deferred_tlb_gen(struct mmu_gather *tlb)
+static inline void store_deferred_tlb_gen(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
+ struct page *page)
{
tlb_update_generation(&tlb->vma->defer_tlb_gen, tlb->defer_gen);
}

+static inline void tlb_set_last_pte(struct mmu_gather *tlb, pte_t *pte) { }
+
+#else /* CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES */
+
+/*
+ * Store the deferred TLB generation in the VMA
+ */
+static inline void store_deferred_tlb_gen(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
+ struct page *page)
+{
+ page->deferred_tlb_gen = tlb->defer_gen;
+}
+
+static inline void tlb_set_last_pte(struct mmu_gather *tlb, pte_t *pte)
+{
+ tlb->last_pte = pte;
+}
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES */
+
/*
* Track deferred TLB flushes for PTEs and PMDs to allow fine granularity checks
* whether a PTE is accessible. The TLB generation after the PTE is flushed is
* saved in the mmu_gather struct. Once a flush is performed, the geneartion is
* advanced.
*/
-static inline void track_defer_tlb_flush(struct mmu_gather *tlb)
+static inline void track_defer_tlb_flush(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
+ struct page *page)
{
if (tlb->fullmm)
return;
@@ -594,7 +620,7 @@ static inline void track_defer_tlb_flush(struct mmu_gather *tlb)
BUG_ON(!tlb->vma);

read_defer_tlb_flush_gen(tlb);
- store_deferred_tlb_gen(tlb);
+ store_deferred_tlb_gen(tlb, page);
}

#define init_vma_tlb_generation(vma) \
@@ -610,6 +636,7 @@ static inline void init_vma_tlb_generation(struct vm_area_struct *vma) { }
flush_tlb_batched_pending(_tlb->mm); \
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_TLB_GENERATIONS)) \
_tlb->cleared_ptes_in_table = 0; \
+ tlb_set_last_pte(_tlb, NULL); \
} while (0)

static inline void tlb_end_ptes(struct mmu_gather *tlb)
@@ -617,24 +644,31 @@ static inline void tlb_end_ptes(struct mmu_gather *tlb)
if (!IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_TLB_GENERATIONS))
return;

+#ifdef CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES
+ if (tlb->last_pte)
+ track_defer_tlb_flush(tlb, pte_to_page(tlb->last_pte));
+#elif CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_TLB_GENERATIONS /* && !CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES */
if (tlb->cleared_ptes_in_table)
- track_defer_tlb_flush(tlb);
-
+ track_defer_tlb_flush(tlb, NULL);
tlb->cleared_ptes_in_table = 0;
+#endif /* CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES */
}

/*
* tlb_flush_{pte|pmd|pud|p4d}_range() adjust the tlb->start and tlb->end,
* and set corresponding cleared_*.
*/
-static inline void tlb_flush_pte_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
+static inline void tlb_flush_pte_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb, pte_t *pte,
unsigned long address, unsigned long size)
{
__tlb_adjust_range(tlb, address, size);
tlb->cleared_ptes = 1;

- if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_TLB_GENERATIONS))
+ if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_TLB_GENERATIONS) &&
+ !IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES))
tlb->cleared_ptes_in_table = 1;
+
+ tlb_set_last_pte(tlb, pte);
}

static inline void __tlb_flush_pmd_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
@@ -644,11 +678,11 @@ static inline void __tlb_flush_pmd_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
tlb->cleared_pmds = 1;
}

-static inline void tlb_flush_pmd_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
+static inline void tlb_flush_pmd_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb, pmd_t *pmd,
unsigned long address, unsigned long size)
{
__tlb_flush_pmd_range(tlb, address, size);
- track_defer_tlb_flush(tlb);
+ track_defer_tlb_flush(tlb, pmd_to_page(pmd));
}

static inline void tlb_flush_pud_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
@@ -678,7 +712,8 @@ static inline void tlb_flush_p4d_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
*/
#define tlb_remove_tlb_entry(tlb, ptep, address) \
do { \
- tlb_flush_pte_range(tlb, address, PAGE_SIZE); \
+ tlb_flush_pte_range(tlb, ptep, address, \
+ PAGE_SIZE); \
__tlb_remove_tlb_entry(tlb, ptep, address); \
} while (0)

@@ -686,7 +721,8 @@ static inline void tlb_flush_p4d_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
do { \
unsigned long _sz = huge_page_size(h); \
if (_sz == PMD_SIZE) \
- tlb_flush_pmd_range(tlb, address, _sz); \
+ tlb_flush_pmd_range(tlb, (pmd_t *)ptep, \
+ address, _sz); \
else if (_sz == PUD_SIZE) \
tlb_flush_pud_range(tlb, address, _sz); \
__tlb_remove_tlb_entry(tlb, ptep, address); \
@@ -702,7 +738,8 @@ static inline void tlb_flush_p4d_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,

#define tlb_remove_pmd_tlb_entry(tlb, pmdp, address) \
do { \
- tlb_flush_pmd_range(tlb, address, HPAGE_PMD_SIZE); \
+ tlb_flush_pmd_range(tlb, pmdp, address, \
+ HPAGE_PMD_SIZE); \
__tlb_remove_pmd_tlb_entry(tlb, pmdp, address); \
} while (0)

diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index d78a79fbb012..a8a5bf82bd03 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -2208,11 +2208,21 @@ static inline void pgtable_init(void)
pgtable_cache_init();
}

+#ifdef CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES
+static inline void page_table_tlb_gen_init(struct page *page)
+{
+ page->deferred_tlb_gen = 0;
+}
+#else /* CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES */
+static inline void page_table_tlb_gen_init(struct page *page) { }
+#endif /* CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES */
+
static inline bool pgtable_pte_page_ctor(struct page *page)
{
if (!ptlock_init(page))
return false;
__SetPageTable(page);
+ page_table_tlb_gen_init(page);
inc_lruvec_page_state(page, NR_PAGETABLE);
return true;
}
@@ -2221,6 +2231,7 @@ static inline void pgtable_pte_page_dtor(struct page *page)
{
ptlock_free(page);
__ClearPageTable(page);
+ page_table_tlb_gen_init(page);
dec_lruvec_page_state(page, NR_PAGETABLE);
}

@@ -2308,6 +2319,7 @@ static inline bool pgtable_pmd_page_ctor(struct page *page)
if (!pmd_ptlock_init(page))
return false;
__SetPageTable(page);
+ page_table_tlb_gen_init(page);
inc_lruvec_page_state(page, NR_PAGETABLE);
return true;
}
@@ -2316,6 +2328,7 @@ static inline void pgtable_pmd_page_dtor(struct page *page)
{
pmd_ptlock_free(page);
__ClearPageTable(page);
+ page_table_tlb_gen_init(page);
dec_lruvec_page_state(page, NR_PAGETABLE);
}

diff --git a/include/linux/mm_types.h b/include/linux/mm_types.h
index bbe5d4a422f7..cae9e8bbf8e6 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm_types.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm_types.h
@@ -148,6 +148,9 @@ struct page {
pgtable_t pmd_huge_pte; /* protected by page->ptl */
unsigned long _pt_pad_2; /* mapping */
union {
+#ifdef CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES
+ u64 deferred_tlb_gen; /* x86 non-pgd protected by page->ptl */
+#endif
struct mm_struct *pt_mm; /* x86 pgds only */
atomic_t pt_frag_refcount; /* powerpc */
};
@@ -632,6 +635,7 @@ static inline bool mm_tlb_flush_pending(struct mm_struct *mm)
}

#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_TLB_GENERATIONS
+#ifndef CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES
static inline bool pte_tlb_flush_pending(struct vm_area_struct *vma, pte_t *pte)
{
struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
@@ -645,6 +649,24 @@ static inline bool pmd_tlb_flush_pending(struct vm_area_struct *vma, pmd_t *pmd)

return atomic64_read(&vma->defer_tlb_gen) < atomic64_read(&mm->tlb_gen_completed);
}
+#else /* CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES */
+#define pte_tlb_flush_pending(vma, pte) \
+ ({ \
+ struct mm_struct *mm = (vma)->vm_mm; \
+ \
+ (pte_to_page(pte))->deferred_tlb_gen < \
+ atomic64_read(&mm->tlb_gen_completed); \
+ })
+
+#define pmd_tlb_flush_pending(vma, pmd) \
+ ({ \
+ struct mm_struct *mm = (vma)->vm_mm; \
+ \
+ (pmd_to_page(pmd))->deferred_tlb_gen < \
+ atomic64_read(&mm->tlb_gen_completed); \
+ })
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES */
#else /* CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_TLB_GENERATIONS */
static inline bool pte_tlb_flush_pending(struct vm_area_struct *vma, pte_t *pte)
{
diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
index 14a599a48738..e0d8a9ea7dd0 100644
--- a/init/Kconfig
+++ b/init/Kconfig
@@ -857,6 +857,13 @@ config ARCH_WANT_AGGRESSIVE_TLB_FLUSH_BATCHING
bool
depends on !CONFIG_MMU_GATHER_NO_GATHER

+#
+# For architectures that prefer to save deferred TLB generations in the
+# page-table instead of the VMA.
+config PER_TABLE_DEFERRED_FLUSHES
+ bool
+ depends on ARCH_HAS_TLB_GENERATIONS && 64BIT
+
config CC_HAS_INT128
def_bool !$(cc-option,$(m64-flag) -D__SIZEOF_INT128__=0) && 64BIT

diff --git a/mm/huge_memory.c b/mm/huge_memory.c
index c4b7c00cc69c..8f6c0e1a7ff7 100644
--- a/mm/huge_memory.c
+++ b/mm/huge_memory.c
@@ -1886,7 +1886,7 @@ int change_huge_pmd(struct vm_area_struct *vma, pmd_t *pmd,
entry = pmd_clear_uffd_wp(entry);
}
ret = HPAGE_PMD_NR;
- tlb_flush_pmd_range(tlb, addr, HPAGE_PMD_SIZE);
+ tlb_flush_pmd_range(tlb, pmd, addr, HPAGE_PMD_SIZE);
set_pmd_at(mm, addr, pmd, entry);
BUG_ON(vma_is_anonymous(vma) && !preserve_write && pmd_write(entry));
unlock:
diff --git a/mm/mapping_dirty_helpers.c b/mm/mapping_dirty_helpers.c
index 063419ade304..923b8c0ec837 100644
--- a/mm/mapping_dirty_helpers.c
+++ b/mm/mapping_dirty_helpers.c
@@ -48,7 +48,7 @@ static int wp_pte(pte_t *pte, unsigned long addr, unsigned long end,
wpwalk->total++;

if (pte_may_need_flush(old_pte, ptent))
- tlb_flush_pte_range(&wpwalk->tlb, addr, PAGE_SIZE);
+ tlb_flush_pte_range(&wpwalk->tlb, pte, addr, PAGE_SIZE);
tlb_end_ptes(&wpwalk->tlb);
}

@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@ static int clean_record_pte(pte_t *pte, unsigned long addr,
ptep_modify_prot_commit(walk->vma, addr, pte, old_pte, ptent);

wpwalk->total++;
- tlb_flush_pte_range(&wpwalk->tlb, addr, PAGE_SIZE);
+ tlb_flush_pte_range(&wpwalk->tlb, pte, addr, PAGE_SIZE);
tlb_end_ptes(&wpwalk->tlb);

__set_bit(pgoff, cwalk->bitmap);
diff --git a/mm/mprotect.c b/mm/mprotect.c
index 1258bbe42ee1..c3aa3030f4d9 100644
--- a/mm/mprotect.c
+++ b/mm/mprotect.c
@@ -140,7 +140,7 @@ static unsigned long change_pte_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
}
ptep_modify_prot_commit(vma, addr, pte, oldpte, ptent);
if (pte_may_need_flush(oldpte, ptent))
- tlb_flush_pte_range(tlb, addr, PAGE_SIZE);
+ tlb_flush_pte_range(tlb, pte, addr, PAGE_SIZE);
pages++;
} else if (is_swap_pte(oldpte)) {
swp_entry_t entry = pte_to_swp_entry(oldpte);
--
2.25.1
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