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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 15/28] init: lto: ensure initcall ordering
On Thu, Sep 03, 2020 at 01:30:40PM -0700, Sami Tolvanen wrote:
> With LTO, the compiler doesn't necessarily obey the link order for
> initcalls, and initcall variables need globally unique names to avoid
> collisions at link time.
>
> This change exports __KBUILD_MODNAME and adds the initcall_id() macro,
> which uses it together with __COUNTER__ and __LINE__ to help ensure
> these variables have unique names, and moves each variable to its own
> section when LTO is enabled, so the correct order can be specified using
> a linker script.
>
> The generate_initcall_ordering.pl script uses nm to find initcalls from
> the object files passed to the linker, and generates a linker script
> that specifies the intended order. With LTO, the script is called in
> link-vmlinux.sh.

I think I asked before about this being made unconditional, but the hit
on final link time was noticeable. Am I remembering that right? If so,
sure, let's keep it separate.

>
> Signed-off-by: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
> ---
> include/linux/init.h | 52 +++++-
> scripts/Makefile.lib | 6 +-
> scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl | 270 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> scripts/link-vmlinux.sh | 14 ++
> 4 files changed, 333 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)
> create mode 100755 scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/init.h b/include/linux/init.h
> index 212fc9e2f691..af638cd6dd52 100644
> --- a/include/linux/init.h
> +++ b/include/linux/init.h
> @@ -184,19 +184,57 @@ extern bool initcall_debug;
> * as KEEP() in the linker script.
> */
>
> +/* Format: <modname>__<counter>_<line>_<fn> */
> +#define __initcall_id(fn) \
> + __PASTE(__KBUILD_MODNAME, \
> + __PASTE(__, \
> + __PASTE(__COUNTER__, \
> + __PASTE(_, \
> + __PASTE(__LINE__, \
> + __PASTE(_, fn))))))
> +
> +/* Format: __<prefix>__<iid><id> */
> +#define __initcall_name(prefix, __iid, id) \
> + __PASTE(__, \
> + __PASTE(prefix, \
> + __PASTE(__, \
> + __PASTE(__iid, id))))
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_LTO_CLANG
> +/*
> + * With LTO, the compiler doesn't necessarily obey link order for
> + * initcalls. In order to preserve the correct order, we add each
> + * variable into its own section and generate a linker script (in
> + * scripts/link-vmlinux.sh) to specify the order of the sections.
> + */
> +#define __initcall_section(__sec, __iid) \
> + #__sec ".init.." #__iid
> +#else
> +#define __initcall_section(__sec, __iid) \
> + #__sec ".init"
> +#endif
> +
> #ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_ARCH_PREL32_RELOCATIONS
> -#define ___define_initcall(fn, id, __sec) \
> +#define ____define_initcall(fn, __name, __sec) \
> __ADDRESSABLE(fn) \
> - asm(".section \"" #__sec ".init\", \"a\" \n" \
> - "__initcall_" #fn #id ": \n" \
> + asm(".section \"" __sec "\", \"a\" \n" \
> + __stringify(__name) ": \n" \
> ".long " #fn " - . \n" \
> ".previous \n");
> #else
> -#define ___define_initcall(fn, id, __sec) \
> - static initcall_t __initcall_##fn##id __used \
> - __attribute__((__section__(#__sec ".init"))) = fn;
> +#define ____define_initcall(fn, __name, __sec) \
> + static initcall_t __name __used \
> + __attribute__((__section__(__sec))) = fn;
> #endif
>
> +#define __unique_initcall(fn, id, __sec, __iid) \
> + ____define_initcall(fn, \
> + __initcall_name(initcall, __iid, id), \
> + __initcall_section(__sec, __iid))
> +
> +#define ___define_initcall(fn, id, __sec) \
> + __unique_initcall(fn, id, __sec, __initcall_id(fn))
> +
> #define __define_initcall(fn, id) ___define_initcall(fn, id, .initcall##id)
>
> /*
> @@ -236,7 +274,7 @@ extern bool initcall_debug;
> #define __exitcall(fn) \
> static exitcall_t __exitcall_##fn __exit_call = fn
>
> -#define console_initcall(fn) ___define_initcall(fn,, .con_initcall)
> +#define console_initcall(fn) ___define_initcall(fn, con, .con_initcall)
>
> struct obs_kernel_param {
> const char *str;
> diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.lib b/scripts/Makefile.lib
> index 3d599716940c..7e382d12d309 100644
> --- a/scripts/Makefile.lib
> +++ b/scripts/Makefile.lib
> @@ -117,9 +117,11 @@ target-stem = $(basename $(patsubst $(obj)/%,%,$@))
> # These flags are needed for modversions and compiling, so we define them here
> # $(modname_flags) defines KBUILD_MODNAME as the name of the module it will
> # end up in (or would, if it gets compiled in)
> -name-fix = $(call stringify,$(subst $(comma),_,$(subst -,_,$1)))
> +name-fix-token = $(subst $(comma),_,$(subst -,_,$1))
> +name-fix = $(call stringify,$(call name-fix-token,$1))
> basename_flags = -DKBUILD_BASENAME=$(call name-fix,$(basetarget))
> -modname_flags = -DKBUILD_MODNAME=$(call name-fix,$(modname))
> +modname_flags = -DKBUILD_MODNAME=$(call name-fix,$(modname)) \
> + -D__KBUILD_MODNAME=kmod_$(call name-fix-token,$(modname))
> modfile_flags = -DKBUILD_MODFILE=$(call stringify,$(modfile))
>
> _c_flags = $(filter-out $(CFLAGS_REMOVE_$(target-stem).o), \
> diff --git a/scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl b/scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl
> new file mode 100755
> index 000000000000..fe83aec2b51e
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl
> @@ -0,0 +1,270 @@
> +#!/usr/bin/env perl
> +# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +#
> +# Generates a linker script that specifies the correct initcall order.
> +#
> +# Copyright (C) 2019 Google LLC
> +
> +use strict;
> +use warnings;
> +use IO::Handle;
> +use IO::Select;
> +use POSIX ":sys_wait_h";
> +
> +my $nm = $ENV{'NM'} || die "$0: ERROR: NM not set?";
> +my $objtree = $ENV{'objtree'} || '.';
> +
> +## currently active child processes
> +my $jobs = {}; # child process pid -> file handle
> +## results from child processes
> +my $results = {}; # object index -> [ { level, secname }, ... ]
> +
> +## reads _NPROCESSORS_ONLN to determine the maximum number of processes to
> +## start
> +sub get_online_processors {
> + open(my $fh, "getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN 2>/dev/null |")
> + or die "$0: ERROR: failed to execute getconf: $!";
> + my $procs = <$fh>;
> + close($fh);
> +
> + if (!($procs =~ /^\d+$/)) {
> + return 1;
> + }
> +
> + return int($procs);
> +}
> +
> +## writes results to the parent process
> +## format: <file index> <initcall level> <base initcall section name>
> +sub write_results {
> + my ($index, $initcalls) = @_;
> +
> + # sort by the counter value to ensure the order of initcalls within
> + # each object file is correct
> + foreach my $counter (sort { $a <=> $b } keys(%{$initcalls})) {
> + my $level = $initcalls->{$counter}->{'level'};
> +
> + # section name for the initcall function
> + my $secname = $initcalls->{$counter}->{'module'} . '__' .
> + $counter . '_' .
> + $initcalls->{$counter}->{'line'} . '_' .
> + $initcalls->{$counter}->{'function'};
> +
> + print "$index $level $secname\n";
> + }
> +}
> +
> +## reads a result line from a child process and adds it to the $results array
> +sub read_results{
> + my ($fh) = @_;
> +
> + # each child prints out a full line w/ autoflush and exits after the
> + # last line, so even if buffered I/O blocks here, it shouldn't block
> + # very long
> + my $data = <$fh>;
> +
> + if (!defined($data)) {
> + return 0;
> + }
> +
> + chomp($data);
> +
> + my ($index, $level, $secname) = $data =~
> + /^(\d+)\ ([^\ ]+)\ (.*)$/;
> +
> + if (!defined($index) ||
> + !defined($level) ||
> + !defined($secname)) {
> + die "$0: ERROR: child process returned invalid data: $data\n";
> + }
> +
> + $index = int($index);
> +
> + if (!exists($results->{$index})) {
> + $results->{$index} = [];
> + }
> +
> + push (@{$results->{$index}}, {
> + 'level' => $level,
> + 'secname' => $secname
> + });
> +
> + return 1;
> +}
> +
> +## finds initcalls from an object file or all object files in an archive, and
> +## writes results back to the parent process
> +sub find_initcalls {
> + my ($index, $file) = @_;
> +
> + die "$0: ERROR: file $file doesn't exist?" if (! -f $file);
> +
> + open(my $fh, "\"$nm\" --defined-only \"$file\" 2>/dev/null |")
> + or die "$0: ERROR: failed to execute \"$nm\": $!";
> +
> + my $initcalls = {};
> +
> + while (<$fh>) {
> + chomp;
> +
> + # check for the start of a new object file (if processing an
> + # archive)
> + my ($path)= $_ =~ /^(.+)\:$/;
> +
> + if (defined($path)) {
> + write_results($index, $initcalls);
> + $initcalls = {};
> + next;
> + }
> +
> + # look for an initcall
> + my ($module, $counter, $line, $symbol) = $_ =~
> + /[a-z]\s+__initcall__(\S*)__(\d+)_(\d+)_(.*)$/;
> +
> + if (!defined($module)) {
> + $module = ''
> + }
> +
> + if (!defined($counter) ||
> + !defined($line) ||
> + !defined($symbol)) {
> + next;
> + }
> +
> + # parse initcall level
> + my ($function, $level) = $symbol =~
> + /^(.*)((early|rootfs|con|[0-9])s?)$/;
> +
> + die "$0: ERROR: invalid initcall name $symbol in $file($path)"
> + if (!defined($function) || !defined($level));
> +
> + $initcalls->{$counter} = {
> + 'module' => $module,
> + 'line' => $line,
> + 'function' => $function,
> + 'level' => $level,
> + };
> + }
> +
> + close($fh);
> + write_results($index, $initcalls);
> +}
> +
> +## waits for any child process to complete, reads the results, and adds them to
> +## the $results array for later processing
> +sub wait_for_results {
> + my ($select) = @_;
> +
> + my $pid = 0;
> + do {
> + # unblock children that may have a full write buffer
> + foreach my $fh ($select->can_read(0)) {
> + read_results($fh);
> + }
> +
> + # check for children that have exited, read the remaining data
> + # from them, and clean up
> + $pid = waitpid(-1, WNOHANG);
> + if ($pid > 0) {
> + if (!exists($jobs->{$pid})) {
> + next;
> + }
> +
> + my $fh = $jobs->{$pid};
> + $select->remove($fh);
> +
> + while (read_results($fh)) {
> + # until eof
> + }
> +
> + close($fh);
> + delete($jobs->{$pid});
> + }
> + } while ($pid > 0);
> +}
> +
> +## forks a child to process each file passed in the command line and collects
> +## the results
> +sub process_files {
> + my $index = 0;
> + my $njobs = get_online_processors();
> + my $select = IO::Select->new();
> +
> + while (my $file = shift(@ARGV)) {
> + # fork a child process and read it's stdout
> + my $pid = open(my $fh, '-|');

/me makes noises about make -jN and the jobserver and not using all
processors on a machine if we were asked nicely not to.

I wrote a jobserver aware tool for the documentation builds, but it's in
python (scripts/jobserver-exec). Instead of reinventing that wheel (and
in Perl), we could:

1) ignore this problem and assume anyone using LTO is fine with using all CPUs

2) implement a jobserver-aware Perl script to do this

3) make Python a build dependency of CONFIG_LTO and re-use scripts/jobserver-exec

> +
> + if (!defined($pid)) {
> + die "$0: ERROR: failed to fork: $!";
> + } elsif ($pid) {
> + # save the child process pid and the file handle
> + $select->add($fh);
> + $jobs->{$pid} = $fh;
> + } else {
> + # in the child process
> + STDOUT->autoflush(1);
> + find_initcalls($index, "$objtree/$file");
> + exit;
> + }
> +
> + $index++;
> +
> + # limit the number of children to $njobs
> + if (scalar(keys(%{$jobs})) >= $njobs) {
> + wait_for_results($select);
> + }
> + }
> +
> + # wait for the remaining children to complete
> + while (scalar(keys(%{$jobs})) > 0) {
> + wait_for_results($select);
> + }
> +}
> +
> +sub generate_initcall_lds() {
> + process_files();
> +
> + my $sections = {}; # level -> [ secname, ...]
> +
> + # sort results to retain link order and split to sections per
> + # initcall level
> + foreach my $index (sort { $a <=> $b } keys(%{$results})) {
> + foreach my $result (@{$results->{$index}}) {
> + my $level = $result->{'level'};
> +
> + if (!exists($sections->{$level})) {
> + $sections->{$level} = [];
> + }
> +
> + push(@{$sections->{$level}}, $result->{'secname'});
> + }
> + }
> +
> + die "$0: ERROR: no initcalls?" if (!keys(%{$sections}));
> +
> + # print out a linker script that defines the order of initcalls for
> + # each level
> + print "SECTIONS {\n";
> +
> + foreach my $level (sort(keys(%{$sections}))) {
> + my $section;
> +
> + if ($level eq 'con') {
> + $section = '.con_initcall.init';
> + } else {
> + $section = ".initcall${level}.init";
> + }
> +
> + print "\t${section} : {\n";
> +
> + foreach my $secname (@{$sections->{$level}}) {
> + print "\t\t*(${section}..${secname}) ;\n";
> + }
> +
> + print "\t}\n";
> + }
> +
> + print "}\n";
> +}
> +
> +generate_initcall_lds();
> diff --git a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
> index a352a5ad9ef7..1d5730176bed 100755
> --- a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
> +++ b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
> @@ -43,6 +43,16 @@ info()
> fi
> }
>
> +# Generate a linker script to ensure correct ordering of initcalls.
> +gen_initcalls()
> +{
> + info GEN .tmp_initcalls.lds
> +
> + ${srctree}/scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl \
> + ${KBUILD_VMLINUX_OBJS} ${KBUILD_VMLINUX_LIBS} \
> + > .tmp_initcalls.lds
> +}
> +
> # If CONFIG_LTO_CLANG is selected, collect generated symbol versions into
> # .tmp_symversions.lds
> gen_symversions()
> @@ -74,6 +84,9 @@ modpost_link()
> --end-group"
>
> if [ -n "${CONFIG_LTO_CLANG}" ]; then
> + gen_initcalls
> + lds="-T .tmp_initcalls.lds"

Oh, I think lds should be explicitly a "local" at the start of this
function, perhaps back in the symversions patch that touches this?

> +
> if [ -n "${CONFIG_MODVERSIONS}" ]; then
> gen_symversions
> lds="${lds} -T .tmp_symversions.lds"
> @@ -285,6 +298,7 @@ cleanup()
> {
> rm -f .btf.*
> rm -f .tmp_System.map
> + rm -f .tmp_initcalls.lds
> rm -f .tmp_symversions.lds
> rm -f .tmp_vmlinux*
> rm -f System.map
> --
> 2.28.0.402.g5ffc5be6b7-goog
>

--
Kees Cook

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