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Subject[PATCH V5 0/3] percpu_ref & block: reduce memory footprint of percpu_ref in fast path

The 1st patch removes memory footprint of percpu_ref in fast path
from 7 words to 2 words, since it is often used in fast path and
embedded in user struct.

The 2nd patch moves .q_usage_counter to 1st cacheline of

Simple test on null_blk shows ~2% IOPS boost on one 16cores(two threads
per core) machine, dual socket/numa.

- fix memory leak on ref->data, only percpu_ref_exit() of patch 2
is modified.

- rename percpu_ref_inited as percpu_ref_is_initialized

- fix kernel oops on MD
- add patch for avoiding to use percpu-refcount internal from md
- pass Red Hat CKI test which is done by Veronika Kabatova

- pass 'gfp' to kzalloc() for fixing block/027 failure reported by
kernel test robot
- protect percpu_ref_is_zero() with destroying percpu-refcount by
spin lock

Ming Lei (3):
percpu_ref: add percpu_ref_is_initialized for MD
percpu_ref: reduce memory footprint of percpu_ref in fast path
block: move 'q_usage_counter' into front of 'request_queue'

drivers/infiniband/sw/rdmavt/mr.c | 2 +-
drivers/md/md.c | 2 +-
include/linux/blkdev.h | 3 +-
include/linux/percpu-refcount.h | 46 ++++------
lib/percpu-refcount.c | 137 +++++++++++++++++++++++-------
5 files changed, 126 insertions(+), 64 deletions(-)

Cc: Veronika Kabatova <>
Cc: Sagi Grimberg <>
Cc: Tejun Heo <>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <>
Cc: Jens Axboe <>
Cc: Bart Van Assche <>

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