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SubjectRe: [PATCH 2/2] media: uvcvideo: Convey full ycbcr colorspace information to v4l2
On Mon, Aug 24, 2020 at 10:38 AM Hans Verkuil <hverkuil-cisco@xs4all.nl> wrote:
>
> On 24/08/2020 15:56, Adam Goode wrote:
> > On Mon, Aug 24, 2020 at 4:48 AM Hans Verkuil <hverkuil-cisco@xs4all.nl> wrote:
> >>
> >> On 23/08/2020 17:08, Laurent Pinchart wrote:
> >>> Hi Adam,
> >>>
> >>> (CC'ing Hans Verkuil)
> >>>
> >>> On Sun, Aug 23, 2020 at 05:54:24PM +0300, Laurent Pinchart wrote:
> >>>> Hi Adam,
> >>>>
> >>>> Thank you for the patch.
> >>>>
> >>>> On Sat, Aug 22, 2020 at 09:21:34PM -0400, Adam Goode wrote:
> >>>>> The Color Matching Descriptor has been present in USB cameras since
> >>>>> the original version of UVC, but it has never been fully used
> >>>>> in Linux.
> >>>>>
> >>>>> This change informs V4L2 of all of the critical colorspace parameters:
> >>>>> colorspace (called "color primaries" in UVC), transfer function
> >>>>> (called "transfer characteristics" in UVC), ycbcr encoding (called
> >>>>> "matrix coefficients" in UVC), and quantization, which is always
> >>>>> LIMITED for UVC, see section 2.26 in USB_Video_FAQ_1.5.pdf.
> >>>>
> >>>> Isn't this valid for MJPEG only though ? There's not much else we can do
> >>>> though, as UVC cameras don't report quantization information. Shouldn't
> >>>> we however reflect this in the commit message, and in the comment below,
> >>>> to state that UVC requires limited quantization range for MJPEG, and
> >>>> while it doesn't explicitly specify the quantization range for other
> >>>> formats, we can only assume it should be limited as well ?
> >>>>
> >
> > Yes, I am happy to improve the comment to be clearer.
> >
> >
> >>>> The code otherwise looks good to me.
> >>>>
> >>>> Reviewed-by: Laurent Pinchart <laurent.pinchart@ideasonboard.com>
> >>>>
> >>>> Please let me know if you'd like to address the above issue.
> >>>>
> >>>>> The quantization is the most important improvement for this patch,
> >>>>> because V4L2 will otherwise interpret MJPEG as FULL range. Web browsers
> >>>>> such as Chrome and Firefox already ignore V4L2's quantization for USB
> >>>>> devices and use the correct LIMITED value, but other programs such
> >>>>> as qv4l2 will incorrectly interpret the output of MJPEG from USB
> >>>>> cameras without this change.
> >>>>>
> >>>>> Signed-off-by: Adam Goode <agoode@google.com>
> >>>>> ---
> >>>>> drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_driver.c | 52 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
> >>>>> drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_v4l2.c | 6 ++++
> >>>>> drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvcvideo.h | 5 ++-
> >>>>> 3 files changed, 58 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
> >>>>>
> >>>>> diff --git a/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_driver.c b/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_driver.c
> >>>>> index 431d86e1c94b..c0c81b089b7d 100644
> >>>>> --- a/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_driver.c
> >>>>> +++ b/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_driver.c
> >>>>> @@ -248,10 +248,10 @@ static struct uvc_format_desc *uvc_format_by_guid(const u8 guid[16])
> >>>>> return NULL;
> >>>>> }
> >>>>>
> >>>>> -static u32 uvc_colorspace(const u8 primaries)
> >>>>> +static enum v4l2_colorspace uvc_colorspace(const u8 primaries)
> >>>>> {
> >>>>> - static const u8 colorprimaries[] = {
> >>>>> - 0,
> >>>>> + static const enum v4l2_colorspace colorprimaries[] = {
> >>>>> + V4L2_COLORSPACE_DEFAULT, /* Unspecified */
> >>>>> V4L2_COLORSPACE_SRGB,
> >>>>> V4L2_COLORSPACE_470_SYSTEM_M,
> >>>>> V4L2_COLORSPACE_470_SYSTEM_BG,
> >>>>> @@ -262,7 +262,43 @@ static u32 uvc_colorspace(const u8 primaries)
> >>>>> if (primaries < ARRAY_SIZE(colorprimaries))
> >>>>> return colorprimaries[primaries];
> >>>>>
> >>>>> - return 0;
> >>>>> + return V4L2_COLORSPACE_DEFAULT; /* Reserved */
> >>>>> +}
> >>>>> +
> >>>>> +static enum v4l2_xfer_func uvc_xfer_func(const u8 transfer_characteristics)
> >>>>> +{
> >>>>> + static const enum v4l2_xfer_func xfer_funcs[] = {
> >>>>> + V4L2_XFER_FUNC_DEFAULT, /* Unspecified */
> >>>>> + V4L2_XFER_FUNC_709,
> >>>>> + V4L2_XFER_FUNC_709, /* BT.470-2 M */
> >>>>> + V4L2_XFER_FUNC_709, /* BT.470-2 B, G */
> >>>>> + V4L2_XFER_FUNC_709, /* SMPTE 170M */
> >>>>> + V4L2_XFER_FUNC_SMPTE240M,
> >>>>> + V4L2_XFER_FUNC_NONE, /* Linear (V = Lc) */
> >>>>> + V4L2_XFER_FUNC_SRGB,
> >>>>> + };
> >>>>> +
> >>>>> + if (transfer_characteristics < ARRAY_SIZE(xfer_funcs))
> >>>>> + return xfer_funcs[transfer_characteristics];
> >>>>> +
> >>>>> + return V4L2_XFER_FUNC_DEFAULT; /* Reserved */
> >>>>> +}
> >>>>> +
> >>>>> +static enum v4l2_ycbcr_encoding uvc_ycbcr_enc(const u8 matrix_coefficients)
> >>>>> +{
> >>>>> + static const enum v4l2_ycbcr_encoding ycbcr_encs[] = {
> >>>>> + V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_DEFAULT, /* Unspecified */
> >>>>> + V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_709,
> >>>>> + V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_601, /* FCC */
> >>>
> >>> I may have spoken a bit too fast. Doesn't FCC differ from BT.601 ?
> >>> According to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3AYCbCr, the former uses
> >>>
> >>> E'Y = 0.59 E'G + 0.11 E'B + 0.30 E'R
> >>> E'PB = – 0.331 E'G + 0.500 E'B – 0.169 E'R
> >>> E'PR = – 0.421 E'G – 0.079 E'B + 0.500 E'R
> >>>
> >>> while the latter uses
> >>>
> >>> E'Y = 0.587 E'G + 0.114 E'B + 0.299 E'R
> >>> E'PB = – 0.331 E'G + 0.500 E'B – 0.169 E'R
> >>> E'PR = – 0.419 E'G – 0.081 E'B + 0.500 E'R
> >>>
> >>> We seems to be missing FCC in the V4L2 color space definitions.
> >>
> >> The differences between the two are minuscule. Add to that that NTSC 1953
> >> hasn't been in use for many decades. So I have no plans to add another YCC
> >> encoding for this. I'll double check this in a few weeks time when I have
> >> access to a better book on colorimetry.
> >>
> >
> > I can add a comment directly to clarify, but I am following the
> > mappings described in videodev2.h (with the assumption that "FCC" is
> > close enough to 601):
> >
> > /*
> > * Mapping of V4L2_XFER_FUNC_DEFAULT to actual transfer functions
> > * for the various colorspaces:
> > *
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_SMPTE170M, V4L2_COLORSPACE_470_SYSTEM_M,
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_470_SYSTEM_BG, V4L2_COLORSPACE_REC709 and
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_BT2020: V4L2_XFER_FUNC_709
> > *
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_SRGB, V4L2_COLORSPACE_JPEG: V4L2_XFER_FUNC_SRGB
> > *
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_OPRGB: V4L2_XFER_FUNC_OPRGB
> > *
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_SMPTE240M: V4L2_XFER_FUNC_SMPTE240M
> > *
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_RAW: V4L2_XFER_FUNC_NONE
> > *
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_DCI_P3: V4L2_XFER_FUNC_DCI_P3
> > */
> >
> > /*
> > * Mapping of V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_DEFAULT to actual encodings for the
> > * various colorspaces:
> > *
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_SMPTE170M, V4L2_COLORSPACE_470_SYSTEM_M,
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_470_SYSTEM_BG, V4L2_COLORSPACE_SRGB,
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_OPRGB and V4L2_COLORSPACE_JPEG: V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_601
> > *
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_REC709 and V4L2_COLORSPACE_DCI_P3: V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_709
> > *
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_BT2020: V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_BT2020
> > *
> > * V4L2_COLORSPACE_SMPTE240M: V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_SMPTE240M
> > */
> >
> > We could potentially do with some more xfer functions, though.
> >
> >>>
> >>>>> + V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_601, /* BT.470-2 B, G */
> >>>>> + V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_601, /* SMPTE 170M */
> >>>>> + V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_SMPTE240M,
> >>>>> + };
> >>>>> +
> >>>>> + if (matrix_coefficients < ARRAY_SIZE(ycbcr_encs))
> >>>>> + return ycbcr_encs[matrix_coefficients];
> >>>>> +
> >>>>> + return V4L2_YCBCR_ENC_DEFAULT; /* Reserved */
> >>>>> }
> >>>>>
> >>>>> /* Simplify a fraction using a simple continued fraction decomposition. The
> >>>>> @@ -704,6 +740,14 @@ static int uvc_parse_format(struct uvc_device *dev,
> >>>>> }
> >>>>>
> >>>>> format->colorspace = uvc_colorspace(buffer[3]);
> >>>>> + format->xfer_func = uvc_xfer_func(buffer[4]);
> >>>>> + format->ycbcr_enc = uvc_ycbcr_enc(buffer[5]);
> >>>>> + /* All USB YCbCr encodings use LIMITED range as of UVC 1.5.
> >>>>> + * This is true even for MJPEG, which V4L2 otherwise assumes to
> >>>>> + * be FULL.
> >>>>> + * See section 2.26 in USB_Video_FAQ_1.5.pdf.
> >>
> >> Not true. I checked the FAQ: the FAQ describes what happens when a video renderer
> >> incorrectly interprets the decoded JPEG color components as limited range instead
> >> of full range (which they are to be JPEG compliant). JPEG always encodes YCbCr as
> >> full range.
> >>
> >
> > Here is what the FAQ says:
> >
> > "If the images are encoded with the luma and chroma units in the 0-255
> > range that is used
> > for typical JPEG still images, then the saturation and contrast will
> > look artificially boosted
> > when the video is rendered under the assumption that the levels were
> > in the YCbCr color
> > space. BT601 specifies eight-bit coding where Y is in the range of 16
> > (black) to 235 (white)
> > inclusive."
> >
> > I read this as saying "if you encode MJPEG the same as typical JPEG
> > still images, it is wrong because Y must be in the range 16-235". Am I
> > reading this incorrectly?
>
> I think so. It's the 'when the video is rendered under the assumption that
> the levels were in the YCbCr color space.' that is the reason why the colors
> are boosted. Normally a JPEG is either decoded to full range RGB or limited
> range YCbCr. If it is decoded to full range YCbCr, then the renderer should
> take that into account, otherwise the colors will be wrong ('boosted').
>
> The text is a bit ambiguous, but JPEG always uses full range YCbCr, that's
> just part of the JPEG standard.
>
> Regards,
>
> Hans
>

Hmm. The text is definitely confusing. Here are some facts I know:

About JPEG and JFIF:
- JPEG itself doesn't mandate the YCbCr encoding (this is specified in
JFIF). [https://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/jfif3.pdf]
- JFIF specifies YCbCr encoding and range as 601 but with an explicit
change: "Y, Cb, and Cr are converted from R, G, and B as defined in
CCIR Recommendation 601 but are normalized so as to occupy the full
256 levels of a 8-bit binary encoding".
- A JPEG file isn't JFIF unless it has an APP0 with 'JFIF'.

About MJPEG:
- MJPEG doesn't specify explicit YCbCr encoding information (there
isn't really a specification?).
- The USB devices I have that output MJPEG do not output JFIF (no APP0
with 'JFIF').

About color in UVC:
- MJPEG in UVC is required to be 8-bit YCbCr encoded
[USB_Video_Payload_MJPEG_1.5.pdf, section 3.3] with the color encoding
information specified via the Color Matching descriptor
[USB_Video_Payload_MJPEG_1.5.pdf, section 3].
- The UVC Color Matching descriptor cites BT.601 and other standards
without mentioning any changes to them [UVC Class Specification
1.5.pdf, 3.9.2.6].
- BT.601 and BT.709 require limited-range YCbCr encoding.

Real-world observations:
- The USB webcams I have (Logitech) output limited-range UVC MJPEG.
- The ATEM Mini outputs full-range UVC MJPEG, but this is considered
to be incorrect behavior
(https://forum.blackmagicdesign.com/viewtopic.php?f=4&t=108315,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BEXQ5s2HpwE).
- Chrome, Firefox, and Safari interpret UVC MJPEG as limited-range.


I would agree that if the MJPEG coming out of UVC has JFIF headers, we
would have a problem, because we would have conflicting YCbCr encoding
metadata.

But since:
1. UVC is pretty clear about how to encode color,
2. JPEG-without-JFIF doesn't define YCbCr encoding,
3. MJPEG devices output non-JFIF JPEG,
4. UVC only specifies limited-range encoding for YCbCr,

I would conclude that UVC MJPEG should be expected to be limited-range.



Thanks,

Adam

> >
> >>>>> + */
> >>>>> + format->quantization = V4L2_QUANTIZATION_LIM_RANGE;
> >>
> >> What about sRGB? That uses full range.
> >>
> >
> > It is a little confusing in the code, but I only set the quantization
> > explicitly when we get a Color Matching descriptor from the device. My
> > reading of the spec says that this descriptor isn't present for RGB
> > formats, only YCrCb. When the spec mentions sRGB in Color Matching, it
> > is referring only to primaries or gamma.
> >
> >> Regards,
> >>
> >> Hans
> >>
> >>>>>
> >>>>> buflen -= buffer[0];
> >>>>> buffer += buffer[0];
> >>>>> diff --git a/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_v4l2.c b/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_v4l2.c
> >>>>> index 7f14096cb44d..79daf46b3dcd 100644
> >>>>> --- a/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_v4l2.c
> >>>>> +++ b/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_v4l2.c
> >>>>> @@ -279,6 +279,9 @@ static int uvc_v4l2_try_format(struct uvc_streaming *stream,
> >>>>> fmt->fmt.pix.sizeimage = probe->dwMaxVideoFrameSize;
> >>>>> fmt->fmt.pix.pixelformat = format->fcc;
> >>>>> fmt->fmt.pix.colorspace = format->colorspace;
> >>>>> + fmt->fmt.pix.xfer_func = format->xfer_func;
> >>>>> + fmt->fmt.pix.ycbcr_enc = format->ycbcr_enc;
> >>>>> + fmt->fmt.pix.quantization = format->quantization;
> >>>>>
> >>>>> if (uvc_format != NULL)
> >>>>> *uvc_format = format;
> >>>>> @@ -315,6 +318,9 @@ static int uvc_v4l2_get_format(struct uvc_streaming *stream,
> >>>>> fmt->fmt.pix.bytesperline = uvc_v4l2_get_bytesperline(format, frame);
> >>>>> fmt->fmt.pix.sizeimage = stream->ctrl.dwMaxVideoFrameSize;
> >>>>> fmt->fmt.pix.colorspace = format->colorspace;
> >>>>> + fmt->fmt.pix.xfer_func = format->xfer_func;
> >>>>> + fmt->fmt.pix.ycbcr_enc = format->ycbcr_enc;
> >>>>> + fmt->fmt.pix.quantization = format->quantization;
> >>>>>
> >>>>> done:
> >>>>> mutex_unlock(&stream->mutex);
> >>>>> diff --git a/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvcvideo.h b/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvcvideo.h
> >>>>> index 6ab972c643e3..6508192173dd 100644
> >>>>> --- a/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvcvideo.h
> >>>>> +++ b/drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvcvideo.h
> >>>>> @@ -370,7 +370,10 @@ struct uvc_format {
> >>>>> u8 type;
> >>>>> u8 index;
> >>>>> u8 bpp;
> >>>>> - u8 colorspace;
> >>>>> + enum v4l2_colorspace colorspace;
> >>>>> + enum v4l2_xfer_func xfer_func;
> >>>>> + enum v4l2_ycbcr_encoding ycbcr_enc;
> >>>>> + enum v4l2_quantization quantization;
> >>>>> u32 fcc;
> >>>>> u32 flags;
> >>>>>
> >>>
> >>
>

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