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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 00/28] The new cgroup slab memory controller
Guys,

There is a convoluted deadlock that I just root caused, and that is
fixed by this work (at least based on my code inspection it appears to
be fixed); but the deadlock exists in older and stable kernels, and I
am not sure whether to create a separate patch for it, or backport
this whole thing.

Thread #1: Hot-removes memory
device_offline
memory_subsys_offline
offline_pages
__offline_pages
mem_hotplug_lock <- write access
waits for Thread #3 refcnt for pfn 9e5113 to get to 1 so it can
migrate it.

Thread #2: ccs killer kthread
css_killed_work_fn
cgroup_mutex <- Grab this Mutex
mem_cgroup_css_offline
memcg_offline_kmem.part
memcg_deactivate_kmem_caches
get_online_mems
mem_hotplug_lock <- waits for Thread#1 to get read access

Thread #3: crashing userland program
do_coredump
elf_core_dump
get_dump_page() -> get page with pfn#9e5113, and increment refcnt
dump_emit
__kernel_write
__vfs_write
new_sync_write
pipe_write
pipe_wait -> waits for Thread #4 systemd-coredump to
read the pipe

Thread #4: systemd-coredump
ksys_read
vfs_read
__vfs_read
seq_read
proc_single_show
proc_cgroup_show
cgroup_mutex -> waits from Thread #2 for this lock.

In Summary:
Thread#1 waits for Thread#3 for refcnt, Thread#3 waits for Thread#4 to
read pipe. Thread#4 waits for Thread#2 for cgroup_mutex lock; Thread#2
waits for Thread#1 for mem_hotplug_lock rwlock.

This work appears to fix this deadlock because cgroup_mutex is not
called anymore before mem_hotplug_lock (unless I am missing it), as it
removes memcg_deactivate_kmem_caches.

Thank you,
Pasha

On Wed, Jan 29, 2020 at 9:42 PM Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com> wrote:
>
> On Thu, Jan 30, 2020 at 07:36:26AM +0530, Bharata B Rao wrote:
> > On Mon, Jan 27, 2020 at 09:34:25AM -0800, Roman Gushchin wrote:
> > > The existing cgroup slab memory controller is based on the idea of
> > > replicating slab allocator internals for each memory cgroup.
> > > This approach promises a low memory overhead (one pointer per page),
> > > and isn't adding too much code on hot allocation and release paths.
> > > But is has a very serious flaw: it leads to a low slab utilization.
> > >
> > > Using a drgn* script I've got an estimation of slab utilization on
> > > a number of machines running different production workloads. In most
> > > cases it was between 45% and 65%, and the best number I've seen was
> > > around 85%. Turning kmem accounting off brings it to high 90s. Also
> > > it brings back 30-50% of slab memory. It means that the real price
> > > of the existing slab memory controller is way bigger than a pointer
> > > per page.
> > >
> > > The real reason why the existing design leads to a low slab utilization
> > > is simple: slab pages are used exclusively by one memory cgroup.
> > > If there are only few allocations of certain size made by a cgroup,
> > > or if some active objects (e.g. dentries) are left after the cgroup is
> > > deleted, or the cgroup contains a single-threaded application which is
> > > barely allocating any kernel objects, but does it every time on a new CPU:
> > > in all these cases the resulting slab utilization is very low.
> > > If kmem accounting is off, the kernel is able to use free space
> > > on slab pages for other allocations.
> > >
> > > Arguably it wasn't an issue back to days when the kmem controller was
> > > introduced and was an opt-in feature, which had to be turned on
> > > individually for each memory cgroup. But now it's turned on by default
> > > on both cgroup v1 and v2. And modern systemd-based systems tend to
> > > create a large number of cgroups.
> > >
> > > This patchset provides a new implementation of the slab memory controller,
> > > which aims to reach a much better slab utilization by sharing slab pages
> > > between multiple memory cgroups. Below is the short description of the new
> > > design (more details in commit messages).
> > >
> > > Accounting is performed per-object instead of per-page. Slab-related
> > > vmstat counters are converted to bytes. Charging is performed on page-basis,
> > > with rounding up and remembering leftovers.
> > >
> > > Memcg ownership data is stored in a per-slab-page vector: for each slab page
> > > a vector of corresponding size is allocated. To keep slab memory reparenting
> > > working, instead of saving a pointer to the memory cgroup directly an
> > > intermediate object is used. It's simply a pointer to a memcg (which can be
> > > easily changed to the parent) with a built-in reference counter. This scheme
> > > allows to reparent all allocated objects without walking them over and
> > > changing memcg pointer to the parent.
> > >
> > > Instead of creating an individual set of kmem_caches for each memory cgroup,
> > > two global sets are used: the root set for non-accounted and root-cgroup
> > > allocations and the second set for all other allocations. This allows to
> > > simplify the lifetime management of individual kmem_caches: they are
> > > destroyed with root counterparts. It allows to remove a good amount of code
> > > and make things generally simpler.
> > >
> > > The patchset* has been tested on a number of different workloads in our
> > > production. In all cases it saved significant amount of memory, measured
> > > from high hundreds of MBs to single GBs per host. On average, the size
> > > of slab memory has been reduced by 35-45%.
> >
> > Here are some numbers from multiple runs of sysbench and kernel compilation
> > with this patchset on a 10 core POWER8 host:
> >
> > ==========================================================================
> > Peak usage of memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes, memory.usage_in_bytes and
> > meminfo:Slab for Sysbench oltp_read_write with mysqld running as part
> > of a mem cgroup (Sampling every 5s)
> > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > 5.5.0-rc7-mm1 +slab patch %reduction
> > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes 15859712 4456448 72
> > memory.usage_in_bytes 337510400 335806464 .5
> > Slab: (kB) 814336 607296 25
> >
> > memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes 16187392 4653056 71
> > memory.usage_in_bytes 318832640 300154880 5
> > Slab: (kB) 789888 559744 29
> > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> >
> >
> > Peak usage of memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes, memory.usage_in_bytes and
> > meminfo:Slab for kernel compilation (make -s -j64) Compilation was
> > done from bash that is in a memory cgroup. (Sampling every 5s)
> > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > 5.5.0-rc7-mm1 +slab patch %reduction
> > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes 338493440 231931904 31
> > memory.usage_in_bytes 7368015872 6275923968 15
> > Slab: (kB) 1139072 785408 31
> >
> > memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes 341835776 236453888 30
> > memory.usage_in_bytes 6540427264 6072893440 7
> > Slab: (kB) 1074304 761280 29
> >
> > memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes 340525056 233570304 31
> > memory.usage_in_bytes 6406209536 6177357824 3
> > Slab: (kB) 1244288 739712 40
> > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> >
> > Slab consumption right after boot
> > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > 5.5.0-rc7-mm1 +slab patch %reduction
> > --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> > Slab: (kB) 821888 583424 29
> > ==========================================================================
> >
> > Summary:
> >
> > With sysbench and kernel compilation, memory.kmem.usage_in_bytes shows
> > around 70% and 30% reduction consistently.
> >
> > Didn't see consistent reduction of memory.usage_in_bytes with sysbench and
> > kernel compilation.
> >
> > Slab usage (from /proc/meminfo) shows consistent 30% reduction and the
> > same is seen right after boot too.
>
> That's just perfect!
>
> memory.usage_in_bytes was most likely the same because the freed space
> was taken by pagecache.
>
> Thank you very much for testing!
>
> Roman

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