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SubjectRe: [PATCH 00/23] proc: Introduce /proc/namespaces/ directory to expose namespaces lineary
On Tue, Aug 11, 2020 at 01:23:35PM +0300, Kirill Tkhai wrote:
> On 10.08.2020 20:34, Andrei Vagin wrote:
> > On Fri, Aug 07, 2020 at 11:47:57AM +0300, Kirill Tkhai wrote:
> >> On 06.08.2020 11:05, Andrei Vagin wrote:
> >>> On Mon, Aug 03, 2020 at 01:03:17PM +0300, Kirill Tkhai wrote:
> >>>> On 31.07.2020 01:13, Eric W. Biederman wrote:
> >>>>> Kirill Tkhai <> writes:
> >>>>>
> >>>>>> On 30.07.2020 17:34, Eric W. Biederman wrote:
> >>>>>>> Kirill Tkhai <> writes:
> >>>>>>>
> >>>>>>>> Currently, there is no a way to list or iterate all or subset of namespaces
> >>>>>>>> in the system. Some namespaces are exposed in /proc/[pid]/ns/ directories,
> >>>>>>>> but some also may be as open files, which are not attached to a process.
> >>>>>>>> When a namespace open fd is sent over unix socket and then closed, it is
> >>>>>>>> impossible to know whether the namespace exists or not.
> >>>>>>>>
> >>>>>>>> Also, even if namespace is exposed as attached to a process or as open file,
> >>>>>>>> iteration over /proc/*/ns/* or /proc/*/fd/* namespaces is not fast, because
> >>>>>>>> this multiplies at tasks and fds number.
> >>>>>>>
> >>>>>>> I am very dubious about this.
> >>>>>>>
> >>>>>>> I have been avoiding exactly this kind of interface because it can
> >>>>>>> create rather fundamental problems with checkpoint restart.
> >>>>>>
> >>>>>> restart/restore :)
> >>>>>>
> >>>>>>> You do have some filtering and the filtering is not based on current.
> >>>>>>> Which is good.
> >>>>>>>
> >>>>>>> A view that is relative to a user namespace might be ok. It almost
> >>>>>>> certainly does better as it's own little filesystem than as an extension
> >>>>>>> to proc though.
> >>>>>>>
> >>>>>>> The big thing we want to ensure is that if you migrate you can restore
> >>>>>>> everything. I don't see how you will be able to restore these files
> >>>>>>> after migration. Anything like this without having a complete
> >>>>>>> checkpoint/restore story is a non-starter.
> >>>>>>
> >>>>>> There is no difference between files in /proc/namespaces/ directory and /proc/[pid]/ns/.
> >>>>>>
> >>>>>> CRIU can restore open files in /proc/[pid]/ns, the same will be with /proc/namespaces/ files.
> >>>>>> As a person who worked deeply for pid_ns and user_ns support in CRIU, I don't see any
> >>>>>> problem here.
> >>>>>
> >>>>> An obvious diffference is that you are adding the inode to the inode to
> >>>>> the file name. Which means that now you really do have to preserve the
> >>>>> inode numbers during process migration.
> >>>>>
> >>>>> Which means now we have to do all of the work to make inode number
> >>>>> restoration possible. Which means now we need to have multiple
> >>>>> instances of nsfs so that we can restore inode numbers.
> >>>>>
> >>>>> I think this is still possible but we have been delaying figuring out
> >>>>> how to restore inode numbers long enough that may be actual technical
> >>>>> problems making it happen.
> >>>>
> >>>> Yeah, this matters. But it looks like here is not a dead end. We just need
> >>>> change the names the namespaces are exported to particular fs and to support
> >>>> rename().
> >>>>
> >>>> Before introduction a principally new filesystem type for this, can't
> >>>> this be solved in current /proc?
> >>>
> >>> do you mean to introduce names for namespaces which users will be able
> >>> to change? By default, this can be uuid.
> >>
> >> Yes, I mean this.
> >>
> >> Currently I won't give a final answer about UUID, but I planned to show some
> >> default names, which based on namespace type and inode num. Completely custom
> >> names for any /proc by default will waste too much memory.
> >>
> >> So, I think the good way will be:
> >>
> >> 1)Introduce a function, which returns a hash/uuid based on ino, ns type and some static
> >> random seed, which is generated on boot;
> >>
> >> 2)Use the hash/uuid as default names in newly create /proc/namespaces: pid-{hash/uuid(ino, "pid")}
> >>
> >> 3)Allow rename, and allocate space only for renamed names.
> >>
> >> Maybe 2 and 3 will be implemented as shrinkable dentries and non-shrinkable.
> >>
> >>> And I have a suggestion about the structure of /proc/namespaces/.
> >>>
> >>> Each namespace is owned by one of user namespaces. Maybe it makes sense
> >>> to group namespaces by their user-namespaces?
> >>>
> >>> /proc/namespaces/
> >>> user
> >>> mnt-X
> >>> mnt-Y
> >>> pid-X
> >>> uts-Z
> >>> user-X/
> >>> user
> >>> mnt-A
> >>> mnt-B
> >>> user-C
> >>> user-C/
> >>> user
> >>> user-Y/
> >>> user
> >>
> >> Hm, I don't think that user namespace is a generic key value for everybody.
> >> For generic people tasks a user namespace is just a namespace among another
> >> namespace types. For me it will look a bit strage to iterate some user namespaces
> >> to build container net topology.
> >
> > I can’t agree with you that the user namespace is one of others. It is
> > the namespace for namespaces. It sets security boundaries in the system
> > and we need to know them to understand the whole system.
> >
> > If user namespaces are not used in the system or on a container, you
> > will see all namespaces in one directory. But if the system has a more
> > complicated structure, you will be able to build a full picture of it.
> >
> > You said that one of the users of this feature is CRIU (the tool to
> > checkpoint/restore containers) and you said that it would be good if
> > CRIU will be able to collect all container namespaces before dumping
> > processes, sockets, files etc. But how will we be able to do this if we
> > will list all namespaces in one directory?
> There is no a problem, this looks rather simple. Two cases are possible:
> 1)a container has dedicated namespaces set, and CRIU just has to iterate
> files in /proc/namespaces of root pid namespace of the container.
> The relationships between parents and childs of pid and user namespaces
> are founded via ioctl(NS_GET_PARENT).
> 2)container has no dedicated namespaces set. Then CRIU just has to iterate
> all host namespaces. There is no another way to do that, because container
> may have any host namespaces, and hierarchy in /proc/namespaces won't
> help you.
> > Here are my thoughts why we need to the suggested structure is better
> > than just a list of namespaces:
> >
> > * Users will be able to understand securies bondaries in the system.
> > Each namespace in the system is owned by one of user namespace and we
> > need to know these relationshipts to understand the whole system.
> Here are already NS_GET_PARENT and NS_GET_USERNS. What is the problem to use
> this interfaces?

We can use these ioctl-s, but we will need to enumerate all namespaces in
the system to build a view of the namespace hierarchy. This will be very
expensive. The kernel can show this hierarchy without additional cost.

> > * This is simplify collecting namespaces which belong to one container.
> >
> > For example, CRIU collects all namespaces before dumping file
> > descriptors. Then it collects all sockets with socket-diag in network
> > namespaces and collects mount points via /proc/pid/mountinfo in mount
> > namesapces. Then these information is used to dump socket file
> > descriptors and opened files.
> This is just the thing I say. This allows to avoid writing recursive dump.

I don't understand this. How are you going to collect namespaces in CRIU
without knowing which are used by a dumped container?

> But this has nothing about advantages of hierarchy in /proc/namespaces.

Really? You said that you implemented this series to help CRIU dumping
namespaces. I think we need to implement the CRIU part to prove that
this interface is usable for this case. Right now, I have doubts about

> > * We are going to assign names to namespaces. But this means that we
> > need to guarantee that all names in one directory are unique. The
> > initial proposal was to enumerate all namespaces in one proc directory,
> > that means names of all namespaces have to be unique. This can be
> > problematic in some cases. For example, we may want to dump a container
> > and then restore it more than once on the same host. How are we going to
> > avoid namespace name conficts in such cases?
> Previous message I wrote about .rename of proc files, Alexey Dobriyan
> said this is not a taboo. Are there problem which doesn't cover the case
> you point?

Yes, there is. Namespace names will be visible from a container, so they
have to be restored. But this means that two containers can't be
restored from the same snapshot due to namespace name conflicts.

But if we will show namespaces how I suggest, each container will see
only its sub-tree of namespaces and we will be able to specify any name
for the container root user namespace.

> > If we will have per-user-namespace directories, we will need to
> > guarantee that names are unique only inside one user namespace.
> Unique names inside one user namespace won't introduce a new /proc
> mount. You can't pass a sub-directory of /proc/namespaces/ to a specific
> container. To give a virtualized name you have to have a dedicated pid ns.
> Let we have in one /proc mount:
> /mnt1/proc/namespaces/userns1/.../[namespaceX_name1 -- inode XXX]
> In another another /proc mount we have:
> /mnt2/proc/namespaces/userns1/.../[namespaceX_name1_synonym -- inode XXX]
> The virtualization is made per /proc (i.e., per pid ns). Container should
> receive either /mnt1/proc or /mnt2/proc on restore as it's /proc.
> There is no a sense of directory hierarchy for virtualization, since
> you can't use specific sub-directory as a root directory of /proc/namespaces
> to a container. You still have to introduce a new pid ns to have virtualized
> /proc.

I think we can figure out how to implement this. As the first idea, we
can use the same way how /proc/net is implemented.

> > * With the suggested structure, for each user namepsace, we will show
> > only its subtree of namespaces. This looks more natural than
> > filltering content of one directory.
> It's rather subjectively I think. /proc is related to pid ns, and user ns
> hierarchy does not look more natural for me.

or /proc is wrong place for this.

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