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Subject[PATCH v4] kvm,x86: Exit to user space in case page fault error
Page fault error handling behavior in kvm seems little inconsistent when
page fault reports error. If we are doing fault synchronously
then we capture error (-EFAULT) returned by __gfn_to_pfn_memslot() and
exit to user space and qemu reports error, "error: kvm run failed Bad address".

But if we are doing async page fault, then async_pf_execute() will simply
ignore the error reported by get_user_pages_remote() or
by kvm_mmu_do_page_fault(). It is assumed that page fault was successful
and either a page ready event is injected in guest or guest is brought
out of artificial halt state and run again. In both the cases when guest
retries the instruction, it takes exit again as page fault was not
successful in previous attempt. And then this infinite loop continues

Trying fault in a loop will make sense if error is temporary and will
be resolved on retry. But I don't see any intention in the code to
determine if error is temporary or not. Whether to do fault synchronously
or asynchronously, depends on so many variables but none of the varibales
is whether error is temporary or not. (kvm_can_do_async_pf()).

And that makes it very inconsistent or unpredictable to figure out whether
kvm will exit to qemu with error or it will just retry and go into an
infinite loop.

This patch tries to make this behavior consistent. That is instead of
getting into infinite loop of retrying page fault, exit to user space
and stop VM if page fault error happens.

In future this can be improved by injecting errors into guest. As of
now we don't have any race free method to inject errors in guest.

When page fault error happens in async path save that pfn and when next
time guest retries, do a sync fault instead of async fault. So that if error
is encountered, we exit to qemu and avoid infinite loop.

We maintain a cache of error gfns and force sync fault if a gfn is
found in cache of error gfn. There is a small possibility that we
miss an error gfn (as it got overwritten by a new error gfn). But
its just a hint and sooner or later some error pfn will match
and we will force sync fault and exit to user space.

Changes from v3:
- Added function kvm_find_and_remove_error_gfn() and removed
kvm_find_error_gfn() and kvm_del_error_gfn(). (Vitaly)

- Added a macro GFN_INVALID (Vitaly).

- Used gpa_to_gfn() to convert gpa to gfn (Vitaly)

Change from v2:
- Fixed a warning by converting kvm_find_error_gfn() static.

Change from v1:
- Maintain a cache of error gfns, instead of single gfn. (Vitaly)

Signed-off-by: Vivek Goyal <>
arch/x86/include/asm/kvm_host.h | 2 ++
arch/x86/kvm/mmu.h | 2 +-
arch/x86/kvm/mmu/mmu.c | 2 +-
arch/x86/kvm/x86.c | 54 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
include/linux/kvm_types.h | 1 +
5 files changed, 56 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/kvm_host.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/kvm_host.h
index be5363b21540..e6f8d3f1a377 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/kvm_host.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/kvm_host.h
@@ -137,6 +137,7 @@ static inline gfn_t gfn_to_index(gfn_t gfn, gfn_t base_gfn, int level)
#define KVM_NR_VAR_MTRR 8

#define ASYNC_PF_PER_VCPU 64
+#define ERROR_GFN_PER_VCPU 64

enum kvm_reg {
@@ -778,6 +779,7 @@ struct kvm_vcpu_arch {
unsigned long nested_apf_token;
bool delivery_as_pf_vmexit;
bool pageready_pending;
+ gfn_t error_gfns[ERROR_GFN_PER_VCPU];
} apf;

/* OSVW MSRs (AMD only) */
diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/mmu.h b/arch/x86/kvm/mmu.h
index 444bb9c54548..d0a2a12c7bb6 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kvm/mmu.h
+++ b/arch/x86/kvm/mmu.h
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ void kvm_init_mmu(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, bool reset_roots);
void kvm_init_shadow_mmu(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, u32 cr0, u32 cr4, u32 efer);
void kvm_init_shadow_ept_mmu(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, bool execonly,
bool accessed_dirty, gpa_t new_eptp);
-bool kvm_can_do_async_pf(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu);
+bool kvm_can_do_async_pf(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, gfn_t gfn);
int kvm_handle_page_fault(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, u64 error_code,
u64 fault_address, char *insn, int insn_len);

diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/mmu/mmu.c b/arch/x86/kvm/mmu/mmu.c
index 6d6a0ae7800c..b51d4aa405e0 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kvm/mmu/mmu.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kvm/mmu/mmu.c
@@ -4078,7 +4078,7 @@ static bool try_async_pf(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, bool prefault, gfn_t gfn,
if (!async)
return false; /* *pfn has correct page already */

- if (!prefault && kvm_can_do_async_pf(vcpu)) {
+ if (!prefault && kvm_can_do_async_pf(vcpu, gpa_to_gfn(cr2_or_gpa))) {
trace_kvm_try_async_get_page(cr2_or_gpa, gfn);
if (kvm_find_async_pf_gfn(vcpu, gfn)) {
trace_kvm_async_pf_doublefault(cr2_or_gpa, gfn);
diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c b/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c
index 88c593f83b28..c1f5094d6e53 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kvm/x86.c
@@ -263,6 +263,13 @@ static inline void kvm_async_pf_hash_reset(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
vcpu->arch.apf.gfns[i] = ~0;

+static inline void kvm_error_gfn_hash_reset(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
+ int i;
+ for (i = 0; i < ERROR_GFN_PER_VCPU; i++)
+ vcpu->arch.apf.error_gfns[i] = GFN_INVALID;
static void kvm_on_user_return(struct user_return_notifier *urn)
unsigned slot;
@@ -9484,6 +9491,7 @@ int kvm_arch_vcpu_create(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
vcpu->arch.pat = MSR_IA32_CR_PAT_DEFAULT;

+ kvm_error_gfn_hash_reset(vcpu);

vcpu->arch.pending_external_vector = -1;
@@ -9608,6 +9616,7 @@ void kvm_vcpu_reset(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, bool init_event)

+ kvm_error_gfn_hash_reset(vcpu);
vcpu->arch.apf.halted = false;

if (kvm_mpx_supported()) {
@@ -10369,6 +10378,36 @@ void kvm_set_rflags(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, unsigned long rflags)

+static inline u32 kvm_error_gfn_hash_fn(gfn_t gfn)
+ BUILD_BUG_ON(!is_power_of_2(ERROR_GFN_PER_VCPU));
+ return hash_32(gfn & 0xffffffff, order_base_2(ERROR_GFN_PER_VCPU));
+static void kvm_add_error_gfn(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, gfn_t gfn)
+ u32 key = kvm_error_gfn_hash_fn(gfn);
+ /*
+ * Overwrite the previous gfn. This is just a hint to do
+ * sync page fault.
+ */
+ vcpu->arch.apf.error_gfns[key] = gfn;
+/* Returns true if gfn was found in hash table, false otherwise */
+static bool kvm_find_and_remove_error_gfn(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, gfn_t gfn)
+ u32 key = kvm_error_gfn_hash_fn(gfn);
+ if (vcpu->arch.apf.error_gfns[key] != gfn)
+ return 0;
+ vcpu->arch.apf.error_gfns[key] = GFN_INVALID;
+ return true;
void kvm_arch_async_page_ready(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, struct kvm_async_pf *work)
int r;
@@ -10385,7 +10424,9 @@ void kvm_arch_async_page_ready(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, struct kvm_async_pf *work)
work->arch.cr3 != vcpu->arch.mmu->get_guest_pgd(vcpu))

- kvm_mmu_do_page_fault(vcpu, work->cr2_or_gpa, 0, true);
+ r = kvm_mmu_do_page_fault(vcpu, work->cr2_or_gpa, 0, true);
+ if (r < 0)
+ kvm_add_error_gfn(vcpu, gpa_to_gfn(work->cr2_or_gpa));

static inline u32 kvm_async_pf_hash_fn(gfn_t gfn)
@@ -10495,7 +10536,7 @@ static bool kvm_can_deliver_async_pf(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
return true;

-bool kvm_can_do_async_pf(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
+bool kvm_can_do_async_pf(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, gfn_t gfn)
if (unlikely(!lapic_in_kernel(vcpu) ||
kvm_event_needs_reinjection(vcpu) ||
@@ -10509,7 +10550,14 @@ bool kvm_can_do_async_pf(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
* If interrupts are off we cannot even use an artificial
* halt state.
- return kvm_arch_interrupt_allowed(vcpu);
+ if (!kvm_arch_interrupt_allowed(vcpu))
+ return false;
+ /* Found gfn in error gfn cache. Force sync fault */
+ if (kvm_find_and_remove_error_gfn(vcpu, gfn))
+ return false;
+ return true;

bool kvm_arch_async_page_not_present(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu,
diff --git a/include/linux/kvm_types.h b/include/linux/kvm_types.h
index 68e84cf42a3f..677bb8269cd3 100644
--- a/include/linux/kvm_types.h
+++ b/include/linux/kvm_types.h
@@ -36,6 +36,7 @@ typedef u64 gpa_t;
typedef u64 gfn_t;

#define GPA_INVALID (~(gpa_t)0)
+#define GFN_INVALID (~(gfn_t)0)

typedef unsigned long hva_t;
typedef u64 hpa_t;
 \ /
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