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SubjectRe: lockdep warning in urb.c:363 usb_submit_urb
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On Sunday, March 29, 2020 6:27:38 PM CEST Alan Stern wrote:
> On Sun, 29 Mar 2020, Rafael J. Wysocki wrote:
>
> > On Sat, Mar 28, 2020 at 8:58 PM Alan Stern <stern@rowland.harvard.edu> wrote:
>
> > > > > A large part of the problem is related to an inconsistency between the
> > > > > documentation and the code. include/linux/pm.h says that
> > > > > DPM_FLAG_SMART_SUSPEND tells bus types and PM domains about what the
> > > > > driver wants. This strongly implies that the PM core will ignore
> > > > > SMART_SUSPEND. But in fact the core does check that flag and takes its
> > > > > own actions if the device has no subsystem-level callbacks!
> > > >
> > > > Right, which is because in those cases there is no "middle layer" between
> > > > the driver and the core and if you want the driver to work both with
> > > > something like genpd or the ACPI PM domain and without anything like that,
> > > > the core needs to take those actions for consistency.
> > >
> > > Sure, the core is acting as a proxy for the missing subsystem
> > > callbacks. Still, it should be documented properly.
> > >
> > > Also, couldn't we simplify the behavior? Right now the core checks
> > > that there are no subsystem-level callbacks for any of _early, _late,
> > > and _noirq variants before skipping a callback. Couldn't we forget
> > > about all that checking and simply skip the device-level callbacks?
> > > (Yes, I realize this could lead to inconsistent behavior if the
> > > subsystem has some callbacks defined but not others -- but subsystems
> > > should never do that, at least, not if it would lead to trouble.)
> >
> > In quite a few cases the middle layer has nothing specific to do in a
> > given phase of suspend/resume, but the driver may.
> >
> > Subsystems haven't been required to provide callbacks for all phases
> > so far, so this change would require some modifications in there.
> >
> > I actually prefer the core to do more, even if that means more
> > complexity in it, to avoid possible subtle differences in behavior
> > between subsystems.
>
> What I meant was that it might be reasonable to get rid of the
> no_subsys_cb checks. For example, change __device_suspend_noirq() as
> follows:
>
> - no_subsys_cb = !dpm_subsys_suspend_late_cb(dev, state, NULL);
> -
> - if (dev_pm_smart_suspend_and_suspended(dev) && no_subsys_cb)
> + if (dev_pm_smart_suspend_and_suspended(dev))
> goto Skip;
>
> with similar changes to the _suspend_late, _resume_noirq, and
> _resume_early. In each stage, we would bypass the driver's callback
> if SMART_SUSPEND was set and there was no subsystem-level callback for
> _that_ stage -- rather than there being no subsystem-level callbacks
> for _any_ of the stages.

I understand that.

As mentioned in the other message, I attempted to allow
pm_runtime_force_suspend/resume() to be used along with setting SMART_SUSPEND,
but that looks like a mistake now.

I agree that skipping the driver-level callbacks regardless of what is provided
by the subsystem would be more consistent.

> > > > > Furthermore, the PM core's actions don't seem to make sense. If the
> > > > > flag is set and the device is runtime-suspended when the system sleep
> > > > > begins, the core will skip issuing the suspend_late and suspend_noirq
> > > > > callbacks to the driver. But it doesn't skip issuing the suspend
> > > > > callback! I can't figure that out.
> > > >
> > > > That's because if the core gets to executing ->suspend_late, PM-runtime has
> > > > been disabled for the device and if the device is runtime-suspended at that
> > > > point, so (at least if SMART_SUSPEND is set for the device) there is no reason
> > > > to do anything more to it.
> > >
> > > But if SMART_SUSPEND is set and the device is runtime-suspended, why
> > > issue the ->suspend callback?
> >
> > The driver itself or the middle-layer may want to resume the device.
> >
> > Arguably, it may do that in ->prepare() too, but see below.
> >
> > > Why not just do pm_runtime_disable()
> > > then (to prevent the device from resuming) and skip the callback?
> >
> > Because another driver may want to runtime-resume that device in order
> > to use it for something before ->suspend_late(). Of course, you may
> > argue that this means a missing device link or similar, so it is not
> > clear-cut.
> >
> > The general rule is that "synchronous" PM-runtime can be expected to
> > work before ->suspend_late(), so ->suspend() callbacks should be able
> > to use it safely in all cases in principle.
>
> (With one exception: Since the PM core does pm_runtime_get_noresume()
> during the prepare stage, going _into_ runtime suspend is impossible
> during ->prepare and ->suspend. Of course, drivers can always call
> their runtime_suspend routines directly, but that wouldn't affect the
> power.runtime_status value.)
>
> > That expectation goes against direct_complete in some cases, so
> > drivers need to set NEVER_SKIP (or whatever it will be called in the
> > future) to avoid that problem.
>
> Ah, okay. Very well, let's spell this out explicitly in the
> documentation; it's an important difference.
>
> > > > > Furthermore, the decisions about
> > > > > whether to skip the resume_noirq, resume_early, and resume callbacks
> > > > > are based on different criteria from the decisions on the suspend side.
> > > >
> > > > Right, because there are drivers that don't want devices to stay in suspend
> > > > after system resume even though they have been left in suspend by it.
> > >
> > > This suggests that sometimes we may want to issue non-matching
> > > callbacks. For example, ->resume_noirq, ->resume_early, and ->resume
> > > but not ->suspend, ->suspend_late, or ->suspend_noirq. Is that what
> > > you are saying?
> >
> > Yes.
> >
> > As per devices.rst:
> >
> > "the driver must be prepared to
> > cope with the invocation of its system-wide resume callbacks back-to-back with
> > its ``->runtime_suspend`` one (without the intervening ``->runtime_resume`` and
> > so on) and the final state of the device must reflect the "active" runtime PM
> > status in that case."
>
> Here would also be a good place to mention the difference between "keep
> the device in runtime suspend" and "not issue the various resume
> callbacks". In theory, a subsystem and a driver could collaborate to
> make their resume-side callbacks keep the device runtime-suspended, so
> these two concepts are not identical.
>
> Alternatively, we could specify that this sort of thing is never
> allowed: When the ->resume callback returns, the device _must_ be
> powered-up and runtime-active. If we do this, then the _only_ way to
> avoid powering up the device (and to let it remain in runtime suspend)
> is for the core to skip issuing the resume-side callbacks. Or at
> least, skip issuing the ->resume callback.

Basically, all devices with SMART_SUSPEND set whose late/noirq suspend callbacks
were skipped can be left in suspend during system-wide resume by skipping their
callbacks, so that they can be resumed by PM-runtime (that becomes kind of like
direct-complete at that point), but some drivers may not want that for earlier
device response after system-wide resume (if it is resumed by the system-wide
code, it will be immediately ready when user space is unfrozen).

It is expected that LEAVE_SUSPENDED will be used along with SMART_SUSPEND unless
the above is the case.

> > > > > SMART_SUSPEND seems to have two different meanings. (1) If the device
> > > > > is already in runtime suspend when a system sleep starts, skip the
> > > > > suspend_late and suspend_noirq callbacks. (2) Under certain (similar)
> > > > > circumstances, skip the resume callbacks. The documentation only
> > > > > mentions (1) but the code also handles (2).
> > > >
> > > > That's because (2) is the THAW case and I was distracted before I got
> > > > to documenting it properly. Sorry.
> > > >
> > > > The problem is that if you leave the device in runtime suspend, calling
> > > > ->freeze_late() or ->freeze_noirq() on it is not useful and if you have
> > > > skipped those, running the corresponding "thaw" callbacks is not useful
> > > > either (what would they do, specifically?).
> > > >
> > > > There is a whole problem of whether or not devices should be left in
> > > > runtime suspend during hibernation and I have not had a chance to get
> > > > to the bottom of that yet.
> > >
> > > Not only that. The distinction between SMART_SUSPEND and
> > > direct_complete is rather subtle, and it doesn't seem to be carefully
> > > explained anywhere. In fact, I'm not sure I understand it myself. :-)
> > > For example, the direct_complete mechanism is very careful about not
> > > leaving a device in runtime suspend if a descendant (or other dependent
> > > device) will remain active. Does SMART_SUSPEND behave similarly? If
> > > so, it isn't documented.
> >
> > The difference is that SMART_SUSPEND allows the ->suspend callback to
> > be invoked which may decide to resume the device (or reconfigure it
> > for system wakeup if that doesn't require resuming it). IOW, this
> > means "I can cope with a runtime-suspended device going forward".
> > [But if the device is still runtime-suspended during ->suspend_late(),
> > its configuration is regarded as "final".]
> >
> > In turn, direct_complete means something like "if this device is
> > runtime-suspended, leave it as is and don't touch it during the whole
> > suspend-resume cycle".
>
> Right; let's spell this out in the documentation too.
>
> > > > > At a couple of points in the code, THAW and RESTORE events are each
> > > > > treatedly specially, with no explanation.
> > > >
> > > > Right, which is related to the kind of work in progress situation regarding
> > > > the flags and hibernation mentioned above. Again, sorry about that.
> > >
> > > I haven't thought about those issues as much as you have. Still, it
> > > seems obvious that the FREEZE/THAW phases should be very happy to leave
> > > devices in runtime suspend throughout (without even worrying about
> > > wakeup settings), and the RESTORE phase should always bring everything
> > > back out of runtime suspend.
> >
> > These were exactly my original thoughts, but then when I started to
> > consider possible interactions the restore kernel (which also carries
> > out the "freeze" transition before jumping into the image kernel), it
> > became less clear.
> >
> > The concerns is basically whether or not attempting to power on
> > devices that are already powered on can always be guaranteed to work.
>
> This doesn't affect THAW, because during THAW the driver knows what
> state the device is in. It only affects RESTORE. But during RESTORE
> the driver really doesn't know anything about the device state, even
> with the current code. The restore kernel doesn't even know whether
> the boot kernel put the device through a FREEZE transition, because
> it's possible that the driver was in a module that hadn't been loaded
> yet when the resume-from-hibernation started.
>
> Thus, drivers face this problem already. I don't think we need to
> worry about it.

OK

> > > What to do during the POWEROFF phase isn't so clear, because it depends
> > > on how the platform handles the poweroff transition.
> >
> > POWEROFF is exactly analogous to SUSPEND AFAICS.
>
> The difference is that on many platforms (such as desktop PCs) the
> POWEROFF callbacks don't have to power-down the device, because the
> firmware will power _everything_ off (except the devices needed for
> wakeup, of course). But on other platforms this isn't true, so on them
> POWEROFF does need to behave like SUSPEND.

And there are platforms where the firmware turns off everything (except for
wakeup devices) at the end of system-wide suspend too.

There really isn't that much of a difference in general.

> > > Okay, let's start with direct_complete. The direct_complete mechanism
> > > is applied to the SUSPEND and RESUME phases under the following
> > > conditions:
> > >
> > > DPM_FLAG_NEVER_SKIP (or better, DPM_FLAG_NO_DIRECT_COMPLETE)
> > > is clear; [Incidentally, since a driver can set this flag
> > > whenever its ->prepare routine returns 0, why do we need
> > > DPM_FLAG_SMART_PREPARE?]
> >
> > Because the former allows the driver to avoid providing a ->prepare
> > callback always returning 1.
>
> Do you mean NEVER_SKIP allows the driver to avoid providing a ->prepare
> callback which always returns _0_? If that's not what you meant, I
> don't understand.

Yes, I thought 0 and wrote 1, sorry.

> > > Either the device has no system-PM callbacks at all or else the
> > > ->prepare callback returns a positive value;
> >
> > Why so?
>
> Isn't that exactly what __device_prepare() does? After your latest
> patch, we have:
>
> dev->power.direct_complete = state.event == PM_EVENT_SUSPEND &&
> (ret > 0 || dev->power.no_pm_callbacks) &&
> !dev_pm_test_driver_flags(dev, DPM_FLAG_NEVER_SKIP);
>
> which is exactly what I said, isn't it?

I misread what you wrote, so agreed.

> > > All of the device's descendants and dependents also want to use
> > > direct_complete;
> >
> > Yes.
> >
> > > Neither the device nor any of its descendants/dependents is
> > > enabled for wakeup;
> >
> > Yes.
> >
> > > The device is runtime suspended just before the ->suspend
> > > callback would normally be issued.
> >
> > Yes.
> >
> > > When the mechanism applies, none of the suspend or resume callbacks (in
> > > any of their normal, _early, _late, or _noirq variants) are issued,
> > > only ->complete. Consequently the device remains in runtime suspend
> > > throughout the system sleep.
> > >
> > > Currently, direct_complete is never applied during any of the system
> > > hibernation phases (FREEZE, THAW, POWEROFF, RESTORE). This may change
> > > in the future.
> > >
> > > Is this description correct and complete?
> >
> > It is mostly. :-)
>
> I forgot to mention that if power.syscore is set then none of these
> mechanisms apply because none of the callbacks are issued. Does
> anything else need to be changed?

No, I don't think so.



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