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SubjectRe: [PATCH 1/1] selftests/bpf: add cls_redirect classifier
On Sun, 26 Apr 2020 at 18:33, Alexei Starovoitov
<alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com> wrote:
>
> On Fri, Apr 24, 2020 at 07:55:55PM +0100, Lorenz Bauer wrote:
> > cls_redirect is a TC clsact based replacement for the glb-redirect iptables
> > module available at [1]. It enables what GitHub calls "second chance"
> > flows [2], similarly proposed by the Beamer paper [3]. In contrast to
> > glb-redirect, it also supports migrating UDP flows as long as connected
> > sockets are used. cls_redirect is in production at Cloudflare, as part of
> > our own L4 load balancer.
>
> This is awesome. Thank you for contributing!
> Applied.
>
> > There are two major distinctions from glb-redirect: first, cls_redirect
> > relies on receiving encapsulated packets directly from a router. This is
> > because we don't have access to the neighbour tables from BPF, yet. See
>
> Let's make it available then :)

Yes, I've been dragging my feet on this. It seems like the fib_lookup does
almost what we want, but I need to experiment with it. In the best case,
we'd have a helper that does the following:

* Try and find a neighbour
* Return it if one exists
* Otherwise, asynchronously trigger neighbour discovery (if it makes sense)
* And return the default gateway

I should probably start a new thread about this on the list.

>
> > The code base started it's life on v4.19, so there are most likely still
> > hold overs from old workarounds. In no particular order:
> >
> > - The function buf_off is required to defeat a clang optimization
> > that leads to the verifier rejecting the program due to pointer
> > arithmetic in the wrong order.
> >
> > - The function pkt_parse_ipv6 is force inlined, because it would
> > otherwise be rejected due to returning a pointer to stack memory.
> >
> > - The functions fill_tuple and classify_tcp contain kludges, because
> > we've run out of function arguments.
> >
> > - The logic in general is rather nested, due to verifier restrictions.
> > I think this is either because the verifier loses track of constants
> > on the stack, or because it can't track enum like variables.
>
> Have you tried undoing these workarounds to check the latest verifier?
> If they're still needed we certainly have to improve the verifier.
>
> > +#include "test_cls_redirect.skel.h"
>
> Do you use skeleton internally as well or was it just for selftests? ;)

Only for selftests :) Our internal tooling is all Go based. skeleton
is really nice
though, so I'll make sure to steal some ideas!

>
> > +_Static_assert(
> > + sizeof(flow_ports_t) !=
> > + offsetofend(struct bpf_sock_tuple, ipv4.dport) -
> > + offsetof(struct bpf_sock_tuple, ipv4.sport) - 1,
> > + "flow_ports_t must match sport and dport in struct bpf_sock_tuple");
>
> Nice. I didn't realize clang supports it. Of course it should.
>
> > +/* Linux packet pointers are either aligned to NET_IP_ALIGN (aka 2 bytes),
> > + * or not aligned if the arch supports efficient unaligned access.
> > + *
> > + * Since the verifier ensures that eBPF packet accesses follow these rules,
> > + * we can tell LLVM to emit code as if we always had a larger alignment.
> > + * It will yell at us if we end up on a platform where this is not valid.
> > + */
> > +typedef uint8_t *net_ptr __attribute__((align_value(8)));
>
> Wow. I didn't know about this attribute.
> I wonder whether it can help Daniel's memcpy hack.

Yes, I think so.

> > +
> > +typedef struct buf {
> > + struct __sk_buff *skb;
> > + net_ptr head;
> > + /* NB: tail musn't have alignment other than 1, otherwise
> > + * LLVM will go and eliminate code, e.g. when checking packet lengths.
> > + */
> > + uint8_t *const tail;
> > +} buf_t;
> > +
> > +static size_t buf_off(const buf_t *buf)
> > +{
> > + /* Clang seems to optimize constructs like
> > + * a - b + c
> > + * if c is known:
> > + * r? = c
> > + * r? -= b
> > + * r? += a
> > + *
> > + * This is a problem if a and b are packet pointers,
> > + * since the verifier allows subtracting two pointers to
> > + * get a scalar, but not a scalar and a pointer.
> > + *
> > + * Use inline asm to break this optimization.
> > + */
> > + size_t off = (size_t)buf->head;
> > + asm("%0 -= %1" : "+r"(off) : "r"(buf->skb->data));
> > + return off;
> > +}
>
> We need to look into this one.
> This part is not gated by allow_ptr_leaks.
> if (dst_reg == off_reg) {
> /* scalar -= pointer. Creates an unknown scalar */
> verbose(env, "R%d tried to subtract pointer from scalar\n",
> dst);
> return -EACCES;
> }
> Hopefully not too hard to fix.
>
> > +
> > +static bool pkt_skip_ipv6_extension_headers(buf_t *pkt,
> > + const struct ipv6hdr *ipv6,
> > + uint8_t *upper_proto,
> > + bool *is_fragment)
> > +{
> > + /* We understand five extension headers.
> > + * https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8200#section-4.1 states that all
> > + * headers should occur once, except Destination Options, which may
> > + * occur twice. Hence we give up after 6 headers.
> > + */
> > + struct {
> > + uint8_t next;
> > + uint8_t len;
> > + } exthdr = {
> > + .next = ipv6->nexthdr,
> > + };
> > + *is_fragment = false;
> > +
> > +#pragma clang loop unroll(full)
> > + for (int i = 0; i < 6; i++) {
>
> unroll is still needed even with bounded loop support in the verifier?

I've just tried removing this on bpf-next. pkt_ipv4_checksum works
without the pragma,
pkt_skip_ipv6_extension_headers fails with the following message:

libbpf: load bpf program failed: Invalid argument
libbpf: -- BEGIN DUMP LOG ---
libbpf:
476: for (int i = 0; i < 6; i++) {
477: switch (exthdr.next) {
back-edge from insn 476 to 477
processed 0 insns (limit 1000000) max_states_per_insn 0 total_states 0
peak_states 0 mark_read 0

libbpf: -- END LOG --
libbpf: failed to load program 'classifier/cls_redirect'
libbpf: failed to load object 'test_cls_redirect'
libbpf: failed to load BPF skeleton 'test_cls_redirect': -4007
test_cls_redirect:FAIL:385
#10 cls_redirect:FAIL
Summary: 0/0 PASSED, 0 SKIPPED, 1 FAILED

>
>
> > +/* This function has to be inlined, because the verifier otherwise rejects it
> > + * due to returning a pointer to the stack. This is technically correct, since
> > + * scratch is allocated on the stack. However, this usage should be safe since
> > + * it's the callers stack after all.
> > + */
>
> Interesting. The verifier can recognize that ptr to stack can be safe in some cases.
> When I added that check I didn't think that the code can be as tricky as this :)
>
> > +static verdict_t process_ipv4(buf_t *pkt, metrics_t *metrics)
> > +{
> > + switch (ipv4->protocol) {
> > + case IPPROTO_ICMP:
> > + return process_icmpv4(pkt, metrics);
> > +
> > + case IPPROTO_TCP:
> > + return process_tcp(pkt, ipv4, sizeof(*ipv4), metrics);
> > +
> > + case IPPROTO_UDP:
> > + return process_udp(pkt, ipv4, sizeof(*ipv4), metrics);
> > +
> > + default:
> > + metrics->errors_total_unknown_l4_proto++;
> > + return INVALID;
> > + }
> > +}
> > +
> > +static verdict_t process_ipv6(buf_t *pkt, metrics_t *metrics)
> > + if (is_fragment) {
> > + metrics->errors_total_fragmented_ip++;
> > + return INVALID;
> > + }
> > +
> > + switch (l4_proto) {
> > + case IPPROTO_ICMPV6:
> > + return process_icmpv6(pkt, metrics);
> > +
> > + case IPPROTO_TCP:
> > + return process_tcp(pkt, ipv6, sizeof(*ipv6), metrics);
> > +
> > + case IPPROTO_UDP:
> > + return process_udp(pkt, ipv6, sizeof(*ipv6), metrics);
> > +
> > + default:
> > + metrics->errors_total_unknown_l4_proto++;
> > + return INVALID;
> > + }
> > +}
> > +
> > +SEC("classifier/cls_redirect")
> > +int cls_redirect(struct __sk_buff *skb)
> > +{
> ...
> > + verdict_t verdict;
> > + switch (encap->gue.proto_ctype) {
> > + case IPPROTO_IPIP:
> > + verdict = process_ipv4(&pkt, metrics);
> > + break;
> > +
> > + case IPPROTO_IPV6:
> > + verdict = process_ipv6(&pkt, metrics);
> > + break;
>
> The code flow looks pretty clean.
> I didn't find the copy-paste of ipv[46] -> tcp/udp
> you were mentioning.
> So that old issue is now gone?

The biggest offenders are fill_tuple (which is purely a hack) as well
as classify_tcp.
I'd really like to call classify_tcp from cls_redirect(), using saved
packet pointers and lengths.
Right now the function is called starting from process_ipv4 and
process_ipv6, which
means all of those arguments have to be passed down somehow.

--
Lorenz Bauer | Systems Engineer
6th Floor, County Hall/The Riverside Building, SE1 7PB, UK

www.cloudflare.com

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