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Subject[PATCH v2] objtool,ftrace: Implement UNWIND_HINT_RET_OFFSET
On Tue, Mar 31, 2020 at 04:20:40PM -0500, Josh Poimboeuf wrote:
> On Tue, Mar 31, 2020 at 04:17:58PM -0500, Josh Poimboeuf wrote:
> > > I'm not against adding a second/separate hint for this. In fact, I
> > > almost considered teaching objtool how to interpret the whole IRET frame
> > > so that we can do it without hints. It's just that that's too much code
> > > for this one case.
> > >
> > > HINT_IRET_SELF ?
> >
> > Despite my earlier complaint about stack size knowledge, we could just
> > forget the hint and make "iretq in C code" equivalent to "reduce stack
> > size by arch_exception_stack_size()" and keep going. There's
> > file->c_file which tells you it's a C file.
>
> Or maybe "iretq in an STT_FUNC" is better since this pattern could
> presumably happen in a callable asm function.

Like so then?

---
Subject: objtool,ftrace: Implement UNWIND_HINT_RET_OFFSET
From: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 13:16:52 +0200

This replaces the SAVE/RESTORE hints with a RET_OFFSET hint that
applies to any instruction that terminates a function, like: RETURN
and sibling calls. It allows the stack-frame to be off by @sp_offset,
ie. it allows stuffing the return stack.

For ftrace_64.S we split the return path and make sure the
ftrace_epilogue call is seen as a sibling/tail-call turning it into it's
own function.

By splitting the return path every instruction has a unique stack setup
and ORC can generate correct unwinds. Then employ the RET_OFFSET hint to
the tail-call exit that has the direct-call (orig_eax) stuffed on the
return stack.

For sync_core() we teach objtool that an IRET inside an STT_FUNC
simply consumes the exception stack and continues.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
---
arch/x86/include/asm/orc_types.h | 9 ++-
arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h | 2
arch/x86/include/asm/unwind_hints.h | 12 +---
arch/x86/kernel/ftrace.c | 12 ++++
arch/x86/kernel/ftrace_64.S | 27 ++++-------
tools/arch/x86/include/asm/orc_types.h | 9 ++-
tools/objtool/Makefile | 2
tools/objtool/arch.h | 3 +
tools/objtool/arch/x86/decode.c | 5 +-
tools/objtool/check.c | 80 ++++++++++-----------------------
tools/objtool/check.h | 4 +
11 files changed, 74 insertions(+), 91 deletions(-)

--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/orc_types.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/orc_types.h
@@ -58,8 +58,13 @@
#define ORC_TYPE_CALL 0
#define ORC_TYPE_REGS 1
#define ORC_TYPE_REGS_IRET 2
-#define UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_SAVE 3
-#define UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RESTORE 4
+
+/*
+ * RET_OFFSET: Used on instructions that terminate a function; mostly RETURN
+ * and sibling calls. On these, sp_offset denotes the expected offset from
+ * initial_func_cfi.
+ */
+#define UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RET_OFFSET 3

#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
/*
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h
@@ -738,7 +738,6 @@ static inline void sync_core(void)
unsigned int tmp;

asm volatile (
- UNWIND_HINT_SAVE
"mov %%ss, %0\n\t"
"pushq %q0\n\t"
"pushq %%rsp\n\t"
@@ -748,7 +747,6 @@ static inline void sync_core(void)
"pushq %q0\n\t"
"pushq $1f\n\t"
"iretq\n\t"
- UNWIND_HINT_RESTORE
"1:"
: "=&r" (tmp), ASM_CALL_CONSTRAINT : : "cc", "memory");
#endif
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/unwind_hints.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/unwind_hints.h
@@ -86,12 +86,8 @@
UNWIND_HINT sp_offset=\sp_offset
.endm

-.macro UNWIND_HINT_SAVE
- UNWIND_HINT type=UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_SAVE
-.endm
-
-.macro UNWIND_HINT_RESTORE
- UNWIND_HINT type=UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RESTORE
+.macro UNWIND_HINT_RET_OFFSET sp_offset=8
+ UNWIND_HINT type=UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RET_OFFSET sp_offset=\sp_offset
.endm

#else /* !__ASSEMBLY__ */
@@ -108,9 +104,7 @@
".balign 4 \n\t" \
".popsection\n\t"

-#define UNWIND_HINT_SAVE UNWIND_HINT(0, 0, UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_SAVE, 0)
-
-#define UNWIND_HINT_RESTORE UNWIND_HINT(0, 0, UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RESTORE, 0)
+#define UNWIND_HINT_RET_OFFSET(offset) UNWIND_HINT(0, (offset), UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RET_OFFSET, 0)

#endif /* __ASSEMBLY__ */

--- a/arch/x86/kernel/ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/ftrace.c
@@ -282,7 +282,8 @@ static inline void tramp_free(void *tram

/* Defined as markers to the end of the ftrace default trampolines */
extern void ftrace_regs_caller_end(void);
-extern void ftrace_epilogue(void);
+extern void ftrace_regs_caller_ret(void);
+extern void ftrace_caller_end(void);
extern void ftrace_caller_op_ptr(void);
extern void ftrace_regs_caller_op_ptr(void);

@@ -334,7 +335,7 @@ create_trampoline(struct ftrace_ops *ops
call_offset = (unsigned long)ftrace_regs_call;
} else {
start_offset = (unsigned long)ftrace_caller;
- end_offset = (unsigned long)ftrace_epilogue;
+ end_offset = (unsigned long)ftrace_caller_end;
op_offset = (unsigned long)ftrace_caller_op_ptr;
call_offset = (unsigned long)ftrace_call;
}
@@ -366,6 +367,13 @@ create_trampoline(struct ftrace_ops *ops
if (WARN_ON(ret < 0))
goto fail;

+ if (ops->flags & FTRACE_OPS_FL_SAVE_REGS) {
+ ip = ftrace_regs_caller_ret;
+ ret = probe_kernel_read(ip, (void *)retq, RET_SIZE);
+ if (WARN_ON(ret < 0))
+ goto fail;
+ }
+
/*
* The address of the ftrace_ops that is used for this trampoline
* is stored at the end of the trampoline. This will be used to
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/ftrace_64.S
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/ftrace_64.S
@@ -157,8 +157,12 @@ SYM_INNER_LABEL(ftrace_call, SYM_L_GLOBA
* think twice before adding any new code or changing the
* layout here.
*/
-SYM_INNER_LABEL(ftrace_epilogue, SYM_L_GLOBAL)
+SYM_INNER_LABEL(ftrace_caller_end, SYM_L_GLOBAL)

+ jmp ftrace_epilogue
+SYM_FUNC_END(ftrace_caller);
+
+SYM_FUNC_START(ftrace_epilogue)
#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
SYM_INNER_LABEL(ftrace_graph_call, SYM_L_GLOBAL)
jmp ftrace_stub
@@ -170,14 +174,12 @@ SYM_INNER_LABEL(ftrace_graph_call, SYM_L
*/
SYM_INNER_LABEL_ALIGN(ftrace_stub, SYM_L_WEAK)
retq
-SYM_FUNC_END(ftrace_caller)
+SYM_FUNC_END(ftrace_epilogue)

SYM_FUNC_START(ftrace_regs_caller)
/* Save the current flags before any operations that can change them */
pushfq

- UNWIND_HINT_SAVE
-
/* added 8 bytes to save flags */
save_mcount_regs 8
/* save_mcount_regs fills in first two parameters */
@@ -244,20 +246,14 @@ SYM_INNER_LABEL(ftrace_regs_call, SYM_L_
movq %rax, MCOUNT_REG_SIZE(%rsp)

restore_mcount_regs 8
+ /* Restore flags */
+ popfq

- jmp 2f
+SYM_INNER_LABEL(ftrace_regs_caller_ret, SYM_L_GLOBAL);
+ UNWIND_HINT_RET_OFFSET
+ jmp ftrace_epilogue

1: restore_mcount_regs
-
-
-2:
- /*
- * The stack layout is nondetermistic here, depending on which path was
- * taken. This confuses objtool and ORC, rightfully so. For now,
- * pretend the stack always looks like the non-direct case.
- */
- UNWIND_HINT_RESTORE
-
/* Restore flags */
popfq

@@ -268,7 +264,6 @@ SYM_INNER_LABEL(ftrace_regs_call, SYM_L_
* to the return.
*/
SYM_INNER_LABEL(ftrace_regs_caller_end, SYM_L_GLOBAL)
-
jmp ftrace_epilogue

SYM_FUNC_END(ftrace_regs_caller)
--- a/tools/arch/x86/include/asm/orc_types.h
+++ b/tools/arch/x86/include/asm/orc_types.h
@@ -58,8 +58,13 @@
#define ORC_TYPE_CALL 0
#define ORC_TYPE_REGS 1
#define ORC_TYPE_REGS_IRET 2
-#define UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_SAVE 3
-#define UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RESTORE 4
+
+/*
+ * RET_OFFSET: Used on instructions that terminate a function; mostly RETURN
+ * and sibling calls. On these, sp_offset denotes the expected offset from
+ * initial_func_cfi.
+ */
+#define UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RET_OFFSET 3

#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
/*
--- a/tools/objtool/Makefile
+++ b/tools/objtool/Makefile
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ INCLUDES := -I$(srctree)/tools/include \
-I$(srctree)/tools/arch/$(HOSTARCH)/include/uapi \
-I$(srctree)/tools/arch/$(SRCARCH)/include
WARNINGS := $(EXTRA_WARNINGS) -Wno-switch-default -Wno-switch-enum -Wno-packed
-CFLAGS := -Werror $(WARNINGS) $(KBUILD_HOSTCFLAGS) -g $(INCLUDES) $(LIBELF_FLAGS)
+CFLAGS := -Werror $(WARNINGS) $(KBUILD_HOSTCFLAGS) -ggdb3 $(INCLUDES) $(LIBELF_FLAGS)
LDFLAGS += $(LIBELF_LIBS) $(LIBSUBCMD) $(KBUILD_HOSTLDFLAGS)

# Allow old libelf to be used:
--- a/tools/objtool/arch.h
+++ b/tools/objtool/arch.h
@@ -19,6 +19,7 @@ enum insn_type {
INSN_CALL,
INSN_CALL_DYNAMIC,
INSN_RETURN,
+ INSN_EXCEPTION_RETURN,
INSN_CONTEXT_SWITCH,
INSN_STACK,
INSN_BUG,
@@ -75,4 +76,6 @@ int arch_decode_instruction(struct elf *

bool arch_callee_saved_reg(unsigned char reg);

+static const int arch_exception_frame_size = 5*8;
+
#endif /* _ARCH_H */
--- a/tools/objtool/arch/x86/decode.c
+++ b/tools/objtool/arch/x86/decode.c
@@ -431,10 +431,13 @@ int arch_decode_instruction(struct elf *

case 0xca: /* retf */
case 0xcb: /* retf */
- case 0xcf: /* iret */
*type = INSN_CONTEXT_SWITCH;
break;

+ case 0xcf: /* iret */
+ *type = INSN_EXCEPTION_RETURN;
+ break;
+
case 0xe8:
*type = INSN_CALL;
break;
--- a/tools/objtool/check.c
+++ b/tools/objtool/check.c
@@ -1246,13 +1246,8 @@ static int read_unwind_hints(struct objt

cfa = &insn->state.cfa;

- if (hint->type == UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_SAVE) {
- insn->save = true;
- continue;
-
- } else if (hint->type == UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RESTORE) {
- insn->restore = true;
- insn->hint = true;
+ if (hint->type == UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RET_OFFSET) {
+ insn->ret_offset = hint->sp_offset;
continue;
}

@@ -1416,20 +1411,26 @@ static bool is_fentry_call(struct instru
return false;
}

-static bool has_modified_stack_frame(struct insn_state *state)
+static bool has_modified_stack_frame(struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
{
+ u8 ret_offset = insn->ret_offset;
int i;

- if (state->cfa.base != initial_func_cfi.cfa.base ||
- state->cfa.offset != initial_func_cfi.cfa.offset ||
- state->stack_size != initial_func_cfi.cfa.offset ||
- state->drap)
+ if (state->cfa.base != initial_func_cfi.cfa.base || state->drap)
+ return true;
+
+ if (state->cfa.offset != initial_func_cfi.cfa.offset &&
+ !(ret_offset && state->cfa.offset == initial_func_cfi.cfa.offset + ret_offset))
+ return true;
+
+ if (state->stack_size != initial_func_cfi.cfa.offset + ret_offset)
return true;

- for (i = 0; i < CFI_NUM_REGS; i++)
+ for (i = 0; i < CFI_NUM_REGS; i++) {
if (state->regs[i].base != initial_func_cfi.regs[i].base ||
state->regs[i].offset != initial_func_cfi.regs[i].offset)
return true;
+ }

return false;
}
@@ -1971,7 +1972,7 @@ static int validate_call(struct instruct

static int validate_sibling_call(struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
{
- if (has_modified_stack_frame(state)) {
+ if (has_modified_stack_frame(insn, state)) {
WARN_FUNC("sibling call from callable instruction with modified stack frame",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
@@ -2000,7 +2001,7 @@ static int validate_return(struct symbol
return 1;
}

- if (func && has_modified_stack_frame(state)) {
+ if (func && has_modified_stack_frame(insn, state)) {
WARN_FUNC("return with modified stack frame",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
@@ -2063,47 +2064,9 @@ static int validate_branch(struct objtoo
return 0;
}

- if (insn->hint) {
- if (insn->restore) {
- struct instruction *save_insn, *i;
-
- i = insn;
- save_insn = NULL;
- sym_for_each_insn_continue_reverse(file, func, i) {
- if (i->save) {
- save_insn = i;
- break;
- }
- }
-
- if (!save_insn) {
- WARN_FUNC("no corresponding CFI save for CFI restore",
- sec, insn->offset);
- return 1;
- }
-
- if (!save_insn->visited) {
- /*
- * Oops, no state to copy yet.
- * Hopefully we can reach this
- * instruction from another branch
- * after the save insn has been
- * visited.
- */
- if (insn == first)
- return 0;
-
- WARN_FUNC("objtool isn't smart enough to handle this CFI save/restore combo",
- sec, insn->offset);
- return 1;
- }
-
- insn->state = save_insn->state;
- }
-
+ if (insn->hint)
state = insn->state;
-
- } else
+ else
insn->state = state;

insn->visited |= visited;
@@ -2185,6 +2148,13 @@ static int validate_branch(struct objtoo

break;

+ case INSN_EXCEPTION_RETURN:
+ if (func) {
+ state.stack_size -= arch_exception_frame_size;
+ break;
+ }
+
+ /* fallthrough */
case INSN_CONTEXT_SWITCH:
if (func && (!next_insn || !next_insn->hint)) {
WARN_FUNC("unsupported instruction in callable function",
--- a/tools/objtool/check.h
+++ b/tools/objtool/check.h
@@ -33,9 +33,11 @@ struct instruction {
unsigned int len;
enum insn_type type;
unsigned long immediate;
- bool alt_group, dead_end, ignore, hint, save, restore, ignore_alts;
+ bool alt_group, dead_end, ignore, ignore_alts;
+ bool hint;
bool retpoline_safe;
u8 visited;
+ u8 ret_offset;
struct symbol *call_dest;
struct instruction *jump_dest;
struct instruction *first_jump_src;
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