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SubjectRe: linux-next: Signed-off-by missing for commit in the rcu tree
On Thu, Feb 13, 2020 at 04:38:21PM -0500, Joel Fernandes wrote:
> On Thu, Feb 13, 2020 at 09:25:04AM +1100, Stephen Rothwell wrote:
> > Hi all,
> >
> > Commit
> >
> > 8e3a97174c3b ("doc: Add some more RCU list patterns in the kernel")
> >
> > is missing a Signed-off-by from its author (but does have an
> > Co-developed-by).
>
> Paul, I believe the issue is my SOB was missing from the patch, could you
> take the below patch instead which has to SOB? That should correct the issue
> in -next as they pull from your tree periodically right? Also I fixed
> Co-developed-by to be Amol.

Done! Here is hoping that it passes muster. ;-)

Thanx, Paul

> ---------8<----------
> From: "Joel Fernandes (Google)" <joel@joelfernandes.org>
> Subject: [PATCH] doc: Add some more RCU list patterns in the kernel
>
> - Add more information about RCU list patterns taking examples
> from audit subsystem in the linux kernel.
>
> - Keep the current audit examples, even though the kernel has changed.
>
> - Modify inline text for better passage quality.
>
> - Fix typo in code-blocks and improve code comments.
>
> - Add text formatting (italics, bold and code) for better emphasis.
>
> Patch originally submitted at
> https://lore.kernel.org/patchwork/patch/1082804/
>
> Co-developed-by: Amol Grover <frextrite@gmail.com>
> Signed-off-by: Amol Grover <frextrite@gmail.com>
> Signed-off-by: Joel Fernandes (Google) <joel@joelfernandes.org>
> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>
> ---
> Documentation/RCU/listRCU.rst | 275 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++--------
> 1 file changed, 211 insertions(+), 64 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/RCU/listRCU.rst b/Documentation/RCU/listRCU.rst
> index 7956ff33042b0..55d2b30db481c 100644
> --- a/Documentation/RCU/listRCU.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/RCU/listRCU.rst
> @@ -4,12 +4,61 @@ Using RCU to Protect Read-Mostly Linked Lists
> =============================================
>
> One of the best applications of RCU is to protect read-mostly linked lists
> -("struct list_head" in list.h). One big advantage of this approach
> +(``struct list_head`` in list.h). One big advantage of this approach
> is that all of the required memory barriers are included for you in
> the list macros. This document describes several applications of RCU,
> with the best fits first.
>
> -Example 1: Read-Side Action Taken Outside of Lock, No In-Place Updates
> +
> +Example 1: Read-mostly list: Deferred Destruction
> +-------------------------------------------------
> +
> +A widely used usecase for RCU lists in the kernel is lockless iteration over
> +all processes in the system. ``task_struct::tasks`` represents the list node that
> +links all the processes. The list can be traversed in parallel to any list
> +additions or removals.
> +
> +The traversal of the list is done using ``for_each_process()`` which is defined
> +by the 2 macros::
> +
> + #define next_task(p) \
> + list_entry_rcu((p)->tasks.next, struct task_struct, tasks)
> +
> + #define for_each_process(p) \
> + for (p = &init_task ; (p = next_task(p)) != &init_task ; )
> +
> +The code traversing the list of all processes typically looks like::
> +
> + rcu_read_lock();
> + for_each_process(p) {
> + /* Do something with p */
> + }
> + rcu_read_unlock();
> +
> +The simplified code for removing a process from a task list is::
> +
> + void release_task(struct task_struct *p)
> + {
> + write_lock(&tasklist_lock);
> + list_del_rcu(&p->tasks);
> + write_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
> + call_rcu(&p->rcu, delayed_put_task_struct);
> + }
> +
> +When a process exits, ``release_task()`` calls ``list_del_rcu(&p->tasks)`` under
> +``tasklist_lock`` writer lock protection, to remove the task from the list of
> +all tasks. The ``tasklist_lock`` prevents concurrent list additions/removals
> +from corrupting the list. Readers using ``for_each_process()`` are not protected
> +with the ``tasklist_lock``. To prevent readers from noticing changes in the list
> +pointers, the ``task_struct`` object is freed only after one or more grace
> +periods elapse (with the help of call_rcu()). This deferring of destruction
> +ensures that any readers traversing the list will see valid ``p->tasks.next``
> +pointers and deletion/freeing can happen in parallel with traversal of the list.
> +This pattern is also called an **existence lock**, since RCU pins the object in
> +memory until all existing readers finish.
> +
> +
> +Example 2: Read-Side Action Taken Outside of Lock: No In-Place Updates
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------
>
> The best applications are cases where, if reader-writer locking were
> @@ -26,7 +75,7 @@ added or deleted, rather than being modified in place.
>
> A straightforward example of this use of RCU may be found in the
> system-call auditing support. For example, a reader-writer locked
> -implementation of audit_filter_task() might be as follows::
> +implementation of ``audit_filter_task()`` might be as follows::
>
> static enum audit_state audit_filter_task(struct task_struct *tsk)
> {
> @@ -34,7 +83,7 @@ implementation of audit_filter_task() might be as follows::
> enum audit_state state;
>
> read_lock(&auditsc_lock);
> - /* Note: audit_netlink_sem held by caller. */
> + /* Note: audit_filter_mutex held by caller. */
> list_for_each_entry(e, &audit_tsklist, list) {
> if (audit_filter_rules(tsk, &e->rule, NULL, &state)) {
> read_unlock(&auditsc_lock);
> @@ -58,7 +107,7 @@ This means that RCU can be easily applied to the read side, as follows::
> enum audit_state state;
>
> rcu_read_lock();
> - /* Note: audit_netlink_sem held by caller. */
> + /* Note: audit_filter_mutex held by caller. */
> list_for_each_entry_rcu(e, &audit_tsklist, list) {
> if (audit_filter_rules(tsk, &e->rule, NULL, &state)) {
> rcu_read_unlock();
> @@ -69,18 +118,18 @@ This means that RCU can be easily applied to the read side, as follows::
> return AUDIT_BUILD_CONTEXT;
> }
>
> -The read_lock() and read_unlock() calls have become rcu_read_lock()
> +The ``read_lock()`` and ``read_unlock()`` calls have become rcu_read_lock()
> and rcu_read_unlock(), respectively, and the list_for_each_entry() has
> -become list_for_each_entry_rcu(). The _rcu() list-traversal primitives
> +become list_for_each_entry_rcu(). The **_rcu()** list-traversal primitives
> insert the read-side memory barriers that are required on DEC Alpha CPUs.
>
> -The changes to the update side are also straightforward. A reader-writer
> -lock might be used as follows for deletion and insertion::
> +The changes to the update side are also straightforward. A reader-writer lock
> +might be used as follows for deletion and insertion::
>
> static inline int audit_del_rule(struct audit_rule *rule,
> struct list_head *list)
> {
> - struct audit_entry *e;
> + struct audit_entry *e;
>
> write_lock(&auditsc_lock);
> list_for_each_entry(e, list, list) {
> @@ -113,9 +162,9 @@ Following are the RCU equivalents for these two functions::
> static inline int audit_del_rule(struct audit_rule *rule,
> struct list_head *list)
> {
> - struct audit_entry *e;
> + struct audit_entry *e;
>
> - /* Do not use the _rcu iterator here, since this is the only
> + /* No need to use the _rcu iterator here, since this is the only
> * deletion routine. */
> list_for_each_entry(e, list, list) {
> if (!audit_compare_rule(rule, &e->rule)) {
> @@ -139,41 +188,41 @@ Following are the RCU equivalents for these two functions::
> return 0;
> }
>
> -Normally, the write_lock() and write_unlock() would be replaced by
> -a spin_lock() and a spin_unlock(), but in this case, all callers hold
> -audit_netlink_sem, so no additional locking is required. The auditsc_lock
> -can therefore be eliminated, since use of RCU eliminates the need for
> -writers to exclude readers. Normally, the write_lock() calls would
> -be converted into spin_lock() calls.
> +Normally, the ``write_lock()`` and ``write_unlock()`` would be replaced by a
> +spin_lock() and a spin_unlock(). But in this case, all callers hold
> +``audit_filter_mutex``, so no additional locking is required. The
> +``auditsc_lock`` can therefore be eliminated, since use of RCU eliminates the
> +need for writers to exclude readers.
>
> The list_del(), list_add(), and list_add_tail() primitives have been
> replaced by list_del_rcu(), list_add_rcu(), and list_add_tail_rcu().
> -The _rcu() list-manipulation primitives add memory barriers that are
> -needed on weakly ordered CPUs (most of them!). The list_del_rcu()
> -primitive omits the pointer poisoning debug-assist code that would
> -otherwise cause concurrent readers to fail spectacularly.
> +The **_rcu()** list-manipulation primitives add memory barriers that are needed on
> +weakly ordered CPUs (most of them!). The list_del_rcu() primitive omits the
> +pointer poisoning debug-assist code that would otherwise cause concurrent
> +readers to fail spectacularly.
>
> -So, when readers can tolerate stale data and when entries are either added
> -or deleted, without in-place modification, it is very easy to use RCU!
> +So, when readers can tolerate stale data and when entries are either added or
> +deleted, without in-place modification, it is very easy to use RCU!
>
> -Example 2: Handling In-Place Updates
> +
> +Example 3: Handling In-Place Updates
> ------------------------------------
>
> -The system-call auditing code does not update auditing rules in place.
> -However, if it did, reader-writer-locked code to do so might look as
> -follows (presumably, the field_count is only permitted to decrease,
> -otherwise, the added fields would need to be filled in)::
> +The system-call auditing code does not update auditing rules in place. However,
> +if it did, the reader-writer-locked code to do so might look as follows
> +(assuming only ``field_count`` is updated, otherwise, the added fields would
> +need to be filled in)::
>
> static inline int audit_upd_rule(struct audit_rule *rule,
> struct list_head *list,
> __u32 newaction,
> __u32 newfield_count)
> {
> - struct audit_entry *e;
> - struct audit_newentry *ne;
> + struct audit_entry *e;
> + struct audit_entry *ne;
>
> write_lock(&auditsc_lock);
> - /* Note: audit_netlink_sem held by caller. */
> + /* Note: audit_filter_mutex held by caller. */
> list_for_each_entry(e, list, list) {
> if (!audit_compare_rule(rule, &e->rule)) {
> e->rule.action = newaction;
> @@ -188,16 +237,16 @@ otherwise, the added fields would need to be filled in)::
>
> The RCU version creates a copy, updates the copy, then replaces the old
> entry with the newly updated entry. This sequence of actions, allowing
> -concurrent reads while doing a copy to perform an update, is what gives
> -RCU ("read-copy update") its name. The RCU code is as follows::
> +concurrent reads while making a copy to perform an update, is what gives
> +RCU (*read-copy update*) its name. The RCU code is as follows::
>
> static inline int audit_upd_rule(struct audit_rule *rule,
> struct list_head *list,
> __u32 newaction,
> __u32 newfield_count)
> {
> - struct audit_entry *e;
> - struct audit_newentry *ne;
> + struct audit_entry *e;
> + struct audit_entry *ne;
>
> list_for_each_entry(e, list, list) {
> if (!audit_compare_rule(rule, &e->rule)) {
> @@ -215,34 +264,45 @@ RCU ("read-copy update") its name. The RCU code is as follows::
> return -EFAULT; /* No matching rule */
> }
>
> -Again, this assumes that the caller holds audit_netlink_sem. Normally,
> -the reader-writer lock would become a spinlock in this sort of code.
> +Again, this assumes that the caller holds ``audit_filter_mutex``. Normally, the
> +writer lock would become a spinlock in this sort of code.
>
> -Example 3: Eliminating Stale Data
> +Another use of this pattern can be found in the openswitch driver's *connection
> +tracking table* code in ``ct_limit_set()``. The table holds connection tracking
> +entries and has a limit on the maximum entries. There is one such table
> +per-zone and hence one *limit* per zone. The zones are mapped to their limits
> +through a hashtable using an RCU-managed hlist for the hash chains. When a new
> +limit is set, a new limit object is allocated and ``ct_limit_set()`` is called
> +to replace the old limit object with the new one using list_replace_rcu().
> +The old limit object is then freed after a grace period using kfree_rcu().
> +
> +
> +Example 4: Eliminating Stale Data
> ---------------------------------
>
> -The auditing examples above tolerate stale data, as do most algorithms
> +The auditing example above tolerates stale data, as do most algorithms
> that are tracking external state. Because there is a delay from the
> time the external state changes before Linux becomes aware of the change,
> -additional RCU-induced staleness is normally not a problem.
> +additional RCU-induced staleness is generally not a problem.
>
> However, there are many examples where stale data cannot be tolerated.
> One example in the Linux kernel is the System V IPC (see the ipc_lock()
> -function in ipc/util.c). This code checks a "deleted" flag under a
> -per-entry spinlock, and, if the "deleted" flag is set, pretends that the
> +function in ipc/util.c). This code checks a *deleted* flag under a
> +per-entry spinlock, and, if the *deleted* flag is set, pretends that the
> entry does not exist. For this to be helpful, the search function must
> -return holding the per-entry spinlock, as ipc_lock() does in fact do.
> +return holding the per-entry lock, as ipc_lock() does in fact do.
> +
> +.. _quick_quiz:
>
> Quick Quiz:
> - Why does the search function need to return holding the per-entry lock for
> - this deleted-flag technique to be helpful?
> + For the deleted-flag technique to be helpful, why is it necessary
> + to hold the per-entry lock while returning from the search function?
>
> -:ref:`Answer to Quick Quiz <answer_quick_quiz_list>`
> +:ref:`Answer to Quick Quiz <quick_quiz_answer>`
>
> -If the system-call audit module were to ever need to reject stale data,
> -one way to accomplish this would be to add a "deleted" flag and a "lock"
> -spinlock to the audit_entry structure, and modify audit_filter_task()
> -as follows::
> +If the system-call audit module were to ever need to reject stale data, one way
> +to accomplish this would be to add a ``deleted`` flag and a ``lock`` spinlock to the
> +audit_entry structure, and modify ``audit_filter_task()`` as follows::
>
> static enum audit_state audit_filter_task(struct task_struct *tsk)
> {
> @@ -267,20 +327,20 @@ as follows::
> }
>
> Note that this example assumes that entries are only added and deleted.
> -Additional mechanism is required to deal correctly with the
> -update-in-place performed by audit_upd_rule(). For one thing,
> -audit_upd_rule() would need additional memory barriers to ensure
> -that the list_add_rcu() was really executed before the list_del_rcu().
> +Additional mechanism is required to deal correctly with the update-in-place
> +performed by ``audit_upd_rule()``. For one thing, ``audit_upd_rule()`` would
> +need additional memory barriers to ensure that the list_add_rcu() was really
> +executed before the list_del_rcu().
>
> -The audit_del_rule() function would need to set the "deleted"
> -flag under the spinlock as follows::
> +The ``audit_del_rule()`` function would need to set the ``deleted`` flag under the
> +spinlock as follows::
>
> static inline int audit_del_rule(struct audit_rule *rule,
> struct list_head *list)
> {
> - struct audit_entry *e;
> + struct audit_entry *e;
>
> - /* Do not need to use the _rcu iterator here, since this
> + /* No need to use the _rcu iterator here, since this
> * is the only deletion routine. */
> list_for_each_entry(e, list, list) {
> if (!audit_compare_rule(rule, &e->rule)) {
> @@ -295,6 +355,91 @@ flag under the spinlock as follows::
> return -EFAULT; /* No matching rule */
> }
>
> +This too assumes that the caller holds ``audit_filter_mutex``.
> +
> +
> +Example 5: Skipping Stale Objects
> +---------------------------------
> +
> +For some usecases, reader performance can be improved by skipping stale objects
> +during read-side list traversal if the object in concern is pending destruction
> +after one or more grace periods. One such example can be found in the timerfd
> +subsystem. When a ``CLOCK_REALTIME`` clock is reprogrammed - for example due to
> +setting of the system time, then all programmed timerfds that depend on this
> +clock get triggered and processes waiting on them to expire are woken up in
> +advance of their scheduled expiry. To facilitate this, all such timers are added
> +to an RCU-managed ``cancel_list`` when they are setup in
> +``timerfd_setup_cancel()``::
> +
> + static void timerfd_setup_cancel(struct timerfd_ctx *ctx, int flags)
> + {
> + spin_lock(&ctx->cancel_lock);
> + if ((ctx->clockid == CLOCK_REALTIME &&
> + (flags & TFD_TIMER_ABSTIME) && (flags & TFD_TIMER_CANCEL_ON_SET)) {
> + if (!ctx->might_cancel) {
> + ctx->might_cancel = true;
> + spin_lock(&cancel_lock);
> + list_add_rcu(&ctx->clist, &cancel_list);
> + spin_unlock(&cancel_lock);
> + }
> + }
> + spin_unlock(&ctx->cancel_lock);
> + }
> +
> +When a timerfd is freed (fd is closed), then the ``might_cancel`` flag of the
> +timerfd object is cleared, the object removed from the ``cancel_list`` and
> +destroyed::
> +
> + int timerfd_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
> + {
> + struct timerfd_ctx *ctx = file->private_data;
> +
> + spin_lock(&ctx->cancel_lock);
> + if (ctx->might_cancel) {
> + ctx->might_cancel = false;
> + spin_lock(&cancel_lock);
> + list_del_rcu(&ctx->clist);
> + spin_unlock(&cancel_lock);
> + }
> + spin_unlock(&ctx->cancel_lock);
> +
> + hrtimer_cancel(&ctx->t.tmr);
> + kfree_rcu(ctx, rcu);
> + return 0;
> + }
> +
> +If the ``CLOCK_REALTIME`` clock is set, for example by a time server, the
> +hrtimer framework calls ``timerfd_clock_was_set()`` which walks the
> +``cancel_list`` and wakes up processes waiting on the timerfd. While iterating
> +the ``cancel_list``, the ``might_cancel`` flag is consulted to skip stale
> +objects::
> +
> + void timerfd_clock_was_set(void)
> + {
> + struct timerfd_ctx *ctx;
> + unsigned long flags;
> +
> + rcu_read_lock();
> + list_for_each_entry_rcu(ctx, &cancel_list, clist) {
> + if (!ctx->might_cancel)
> + continue;
> + spin_lock_irqsave(&ctx->wqh.lock, flags);
> + if (ctx->moffs != ktime_mono_to_real(0)) {
> + ctx->moffs = KTIME_MAX;
> + ctx->ticks++;
> + wake_up_locked_poll(&ctx->wqh, EPOLLIN);
> + }
> + spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ctx->wqh.lock, flags);
> + }
> + rcu_read_unlock();
> + }
> +
> +The key point here is, because RCU-traversal of the ``cancel_list`` happens
> +while objects are being added and removed to the list, sometimes the traversal
> +can step on an object that has been removed from the list. In this example, it
> +is seen that it is better to skip such objects using a flag.
> +
> +
> Summary
> -------
>
> @@ -303,19 +448,21 @@ the most amenable to use of RCU. The simplest case is where entries are
> either added or deleted from the data structure (or atomically modified
> in place), but non-atomic in-place modifications can be handled by making
> a copy, updating the copy, then replacing the original with the copy.
> -If stale data cannot be tolerated, then a "deleted" flag may be used
> +If stale data cannot be tolerated, then a *deleted* flag may be used
> in conjunction with a per-entry spinlock in order to allow the search
> function to reject newly deleted data.
>
> -.. _answer_quick_quiz_list:
> +.. _quick_quiz_answer:
>
> Answer to Quick Quiz:
> - Why does the search function need to return holding the per-entry
> - lock for this deleted-flag technique to be helpful?
> + For the deleted-flag technique to be helpful, why is it necessary
> + to hold the per-entry lock while returning from the search function?
>
> If the search function drops the per-entry lock before returning,
> then the caller will be processing stale data in any case. If it
> is really OK to be processing stale data, then you don't need a
> - "deleted" flag. If processing stale data really is a problem,
> + *deleted* flag. If processing stale data really is a problem,
> then you need to hold the per-entry lock across all of the code
> that uses the value that was returned.
> +
> +:ref:`Back to Quick Quiz <quick_quiz>`
> --
> 2.25.0.265.gbab2e86ba0-goog
>

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