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Subject[PATCH v3 2/7] arm64: trap to EL1 accesses to AMU counters from EL0
The activity monitors extension is an optional extension introduced
by the ARMv8.4 CPU architecture. In order to access the activity
monitors counters safely, if desired, the kernel should detect the
presence of the extension through the feature register, and mediate
the access.

Therefore, disable direct accesses to activity monitors counters
from EL0 (userspace) and trap them to EL1 (kernel).

To be noted that the ARM64_AMU_EXTN kernel config and the disable_amu
kernel parameter do not have an effect on this code. Given that the
amuserenr_el0 resets to an UNKNOWN value, setting the trap of EL0
accesses to EL1 is always attempted for safety and security
considerations. Therefore firmware should still ensure accesses to
AMU registers are not trapped in EL2/EL3 as this code cannot be
bypassed if the CPU implements the Activity Monitors Unit.

Signed-off-by: Ionela Voinescu <>
Cc: Catalin Marinas <>
Cc: Will Deacon <>
Cc: Mark Rutland <>
Cc: Steve Capper <>
arch/arm64/include/asm/assembler.h | 10 ++++++++++
arch/arm64/mm/proc.S | 3 +++
2 files changed, 13 insertions(+)

diff --git a/arch/arm64/include/asm/assembler.h b/arch/arm64/include/asm/assembler.h
index 2cc0dd8bd9f7..2dc6d7b19831 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/assembler.h
+++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/assembler.h
@@ -443,6 +443,16 @@ USER(\label, ic ivau, \tmp2) // invalidate I line PoU

+ * reset_amuserenr_el0 - reset AMUSERENR_EL0 if AMUv1 present
+ */
+ .macro reset_amuserenr_el0, tmpreg
+ mrs \tmpreg, id_aa64pfr0_el1 // Check ID_AA64PFR0_EL1
+ ubfx \tmpreg, \tmpreg, #ID_AA64PFR0_AMU_SHIFT, #4
+ cbz \tmpreg, .Lskip_\@ // Skip if no AMU present
+ msr_s SYS_AMUSERENR_EL0, xzr // Disable AMU access from EL0
+ .endm
* copy_page - copy src to dest using temp registers t1-t8
diff --git a/arch/arm64/mm/proc.S b/arch/arm64/mm/proc.S
index a1e0592d1fbc..d8aae1152c08 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/mm/proc.S
+++ b/arch/arm64/mm/proc.S
@@ -124,6 +124,7 @@ alternative_endif
ubfx x11, x11, #1, #1
msr oslar_el1, x11
reset_pmuserenr_el0 x0 // Disable PMU access from EL0
+ reset_amuserenr_el0 x0 // Disable AMU access from EL0

alternative_if ARM64_HAS_RAS_EXTN
msr_s SYS_DISR_EL1, xzr
@@ -415,6 +416,8 @@ ENTRY(__cpu_setup)
isb // Unmask debug exceptions now,
enable_dbg // since this is per-cpu
reset_pmuserenr_el0 x0 // Disable PMU access from EL0
+ reset_amuserenr_el0 x0 // Disable AMU access from EL0
* Memory region attributes for LPAE:
 \ /
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