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SubjectRe: [patch 5/8] ntp: Make the RTC synchronization more reliable
Hi Thomas,

On Sun, Dec 6, 2020 at 11:10 PM Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> wrote:
> Miroslav reported that the periodic RTC synchronization in the NTP code
> fails more often than not to hit the specified update window.
>
> The reason is that the code uses delayed_work to schedule the update which
> needs to be in thread context as the underlying RTC might be connected via
> a slow bus, e.g. I2C. In the update function it verifies whether the
> current time is correct vs. the requirements of the underlying RTC.
>
> But delayed_work is using the timer wheel for scheduling which is
> inaccurate by design. Depending on the distance to the expiry the wheel
> gets less granular to allow batching and to avoid the cascading of the
> original timer wheel. See 500462a9de65 ("timers: Switch to a non-cascading
> wheel") and the code for further details.
>
> The code already deals with this by splitting the 660 seconds period into a
> long 659 seconds timer and then retrying with a smaller delta.
>
> But looking at the actual granularities of the timer wheel (which depend on
> the HZ configuration) the 659 seconds timer ends up in an outer wheel level
> and is affected by a worst case granularity of:
>
> HZ Granularity
> 1000 32s
> 250 16s
> 100 40s
>
> So the initial timer can be already off by max 12.5% which is not a big
> issue as the period of the sync is defined as ~11 minutes.
>
> The fine grained second attempt schedules to the desired update point with
> a timer expiring less than a second from now. Depending on the actual delta
> and the HZ setting even the second attempt can end up in outer wheel levels
> which have a large enough granularity to make the correctness check fail.
>
> As this is a fundamental property of the timer wheel there is no way to
> make this more accurate short of iterating in one jiffies steps towards the
> update point.
>
> Switch it to an hrtimer instead which schedules the actual update work. The
> hrtimer will expire precisely (max 1 jiffie delay when high resolution
> timers are not available). The actual scheduling delay of the work is the
> same as before.
>
> The update is triggered from do_adjtimex() which is a bit racy but not much
> more racy than it was before:
>
> if (ntp_synced())
> queue_delayed_work(system_power_efficient_wq, &sync_work, 0);
>
> which is racy when the work is currently executed and has not managed to
> reschedule itself.
>
> This becomes now:
>
> if (ntp_synced() && !hrtimer_is_queued(&sync_hrtimer))
> queue_work(system_power_efficient_wq, &sync_work, 0);
>
> which is racy when the hrtimer has expired and the work is currently
> executed and has not yet managed to rearm the hrtimer.
>
> Not a big problem as it just schedules work for nothing.
>
> The new implementation has a safe guard in place to catch the case where
> the hrtimer is queued on entry to the work function and avoids an extra
> update attempt of the RTC that way.
>
> Reported-by: Miroslav Lichvar <mlichvar@redhat.com>
> Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>

Thanks for your patch, which is now commit c9e6189fb03123a7 ("ntp: Make
the RTC synchronization more reliable").

Since this commit, the I2C RTC on the R-Car M2-W Koelsch development
board is accessed every two seconds. Sticking a WARN() in the I2C
activation path gives e.g.

Modules linked in:
CPU: 0 PID: 12 Comm: kworker/0:1 Not tainted
5.10.0-rc1-koelsch-00038-gc9e6189fb031-dirty #1021
Hardware name: Generic R-Car Gen2 (Flattened Device Tree)
Workqueue: events rtc_timer_do_work
[<c020ea7c>] (unwind_backtrace) from [<c020a4dc>] (show_stack+0x10/0x14)
[<c020a4dc>] (show_stack) from [<c090e314>] (dump_stack+0xa0/0xc8)
[<c090e314>] (dump_stack) from [<c02228a8>] (__warn+0xbc/0xfc)
[<c02228a8>] (__warn) from [<c090b434>] (warn_slowpath_fmt+0x78/0xb0)
[<c090b434>] (warn_slowpath_fmt) from [<c058f184>]
(cpg_mstp_clock_endisable+0x94/0x1f4)
[<c058f184>] (cpg_mstp_clock_endisable) from [<c05881c8>]
(clk_core_enable+0x194/0x29c)
[<c05881c8>] (clk_core_enable) from [<c05882e8>]
(clk_core_enable_lock+0x18/0x2c)
[<c05882e8>] (clk_core_enable_lock) from [<c063b5c4>]
(pm_clk_resume+0x68/0xa0)
[<c063b5c4>] (pm_clk_resume) from [<c063a738>]
(genpd_runtime_resume+0xc8/0x174)
[<c063a738>] (genpd_runtime_resume) from [<c063236c>]
(__rpm_callback+0x30/0xe0)
[<c063236c>] (__rpm_callback) from [<c063248c>] (rpm_callback+0x70/0x80)
[<c063248c>] (rpm_callback) from [<c063216c>] (rpm_resume+0x438/0x4dc)
[<c063216c>] (rpm_resume) from [<c0632274>] (__pm_runtime_resume+0x64/0x80)
[<c0632274>] (__pm_runtime_resume) from [<c0731ab4>]
(sh_mobile_i2c_xfer+0x38/0x554)
[<c0731ab4>] (sh_mobile_i2c_xfer) from [<c072a6c4>]
(__i2c_transfer+0x4e4/0x680)
[<c072a6c4>] (__i2c_transfer) from [<c072a8b8>] (i2c_transfer+0x58/0xf8)
[<c072a8b8>] (i2c_transfer) from [<c0645688>] (regmap_i2c_read+0x58/0x94)
[<c0645688>] (regmap_i2c_read) from [<c0641490>]
(_regmap_raw_read+0x19c/0x2f4)
[<c0641490>] (_regmap_raw_read) from [<c064162c>]
(_regmap_bus_read+0x44/0x68)
[<c064162c>] (_regmap_bus_read) from [<c0640308>] (_regmap_read+0x84/0x1a4)
[<c0640308>] (_regmap_read) from [<c0640984>]
(_regmap_update_bits+0xa8/0xf4)
[<c0640984>] (_regmap_update_bits) from [<c0641b5c>]
(regmap_update_bits_base+0x4c/0x70)
[<c0641b5c>] (regmap_update_bits_base) from [<c0728244>]
(regmap_update_bits+0x18/0x20)
[<c0728244>] (regmap_update_bits) from [<c072491c>]
(rtc_alarm_disable+0x28/0x38)
[<c072491c>] (rtc_alarm_disable) from [<c0726408>]
(rtc_timer_do_work+0x88/0x294)
[<c0726408>] (rtc_timer_do_work) from [<c023e27c>]
(process_one_work+0x308/0x524)
[<c023e27c>] (process_one_work) from [<c023ec80>]
(worker_thread+0x22c/0x2ec)
[<c023ec80>] (worker_thread) from [<c024417c>] (kthread+0x128/0x138)
[<c024417c>] (kthread) from [<c020010c>] (ret_from_fork+0x14/0x28)
Exception stack(0xc220ffb0 to 0xc220fff8)
ffa0: 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000000
ffc0: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000000
ffe0: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000013 00000000
irq event stamp: 74448
hardirqs last enabled at (74447): [<c02a5f90>]
seqcount_lockdep_reader_access.constprop.0+0x58/0x68
hardirqs last disabled at (74448): [<c0919a68>]
_raw_spin_lock_irqsave+0x20/0x70
softirqs last enabled at (74360): [<c02012b0>] __do_softirq+0x1b8/0x468
softirqs last disabled at (74353): [<c0228f24>] __irq_exit_rcu+0x110/0x17c
---[ end trace 8c279400e5758606 ]---

Before, the synchronization happened only every 696s.

Worse, this synchronization may also happen while the system is partly
suspended, sometimes triggering a WARNING during resume from s2ram:

Disabling non-boot CPUs ...
Enabling non-boot CPUs ...
+------------[ cut here ]------------
+WARNING: CPU: 0 PID: 21 at drivers/i2c/i2c-core.h:54
__i2c_transfer+0x464/0x4a0
+i2c i2c-6: Transfer while suspended
+CPU: 0 PID: 21 Comm: kworker/0:1 Not tainted
5.11.0-rc1-shmobile-00107-gcf9760aa181f #829
+Hardware name: Generic R-Car Gen2 (Flattened Device Tree)
+Workqueue: events_power_efficient sync_hw_clock
+[<c010dba4>] (unwind_backtrace) from [<c0109b28>] (show_stack+0x10/0x14)
+[<c0109b28>] (show_stack) from [<c07a120c>] (dump_stack+0x8c/0xa8)
+[<c07a120c>] (dump_stack) from [<c011c538>] (__warn+0xc0/0xec)
+[<c011c538>] (__warn) from [<c079a7bc>] (warn_slowpath_fmt+0x78/0xb0)
+[<c079a7bc>] (warn_slowpath_fmt) from [<c0566574>]
(__i2c_transfer+0x464/0x4a0)
+[<c0566574>] (__i2c_transfer) from [<c0566608>] (i2c_transfer+0x58/0xf8)
+[<c0566608>] (i2c_transfer) from [<c0489f80>] (regmap_i2c_read+0x58/0x94)
+[<c0489f80>] (regmap_i2c_read) from [<c0485e00>]
(_regmap_raw_read+0x108/0x1bc)
+[<c0485e00>] (_regmap_raw_read) from [<c0485ef8>]
(_regmap_bus_read+0x44/0x68)
+[<c0485ef8>] (_regmap_bus_read) from [<c0484018>] (_regmap_read+0x84/0x100)
+[<c0484018>] (_regmap_read) from [<c0485444>]
(_regmap_update_bits+0xa8/0xf4)
+[<c0485444>] (_regmap_update_bits) from [<c0485574>]
(_regmap_select_page+0xe4/0x100)
+[<c0485574>] (_regmap_select_page) from [<c0485664>]
(_regmap_raw_write_impl+0xd4/0x608)
+[<c0485664>] (_regmap_raw_write_impl) from [<c04863f4>]
(_regmap_raw_write+0xd8/0x114)
+[<c04863f4>] (_regmap_raw_write) from [<c0486488>]
(regmap_raw_write+0x58/0x7c)
+[<c0486488>] (regmap_raw_write) from [<c04866cc>]
(regmap_bulk_write+0x118/0x13c)
+[<c04866cc>] (regmap_bulk_write) from [<c05605b4>]
(da9063_rtc_set_time+0x44/0x8c)
+[<c05605b4>] (da9063_rtc_set_time) from [<c055e428>]
(rtc_set_time+0x8c/0x15c)
+[<c055e428>] (rtc_set_time) from [<c01872cc>] (sync_hw_clock+0x12c/0x210)
+[<c01872cc>] (sync_hw_clock) from [<c01337d0>]
(process_one_work+0x1bc/0x2ac)
+[<c01337d0>] (process_one_work) from [<c0133b18>]
(worker_thread+0x22c/0x2d0)
+[<c0133b18>] (worker_thread) from [<c01388a8>] (kthread+0x100/0x10c)
+[<c01388a8>] (kthread) from [<c0100150>] (ret_from_fork+0x14/0x24)
+Exception stack(0xc1195fb0 to 0xc1195ff8)
+5fa0: 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000000
+5fc0: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000000
+5fe0: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000013 00000000
+---[ end trace 5d3a7a10ee0cec3d ]---
+da9063-rtc da9063-rtc: Failed to set RTC time data: -108
+da9063-rtc da9063-rtc: Failed to read RTC time data: -108
CPU1 is up

The latter is probably a pre-existing issue, just more likely to trigger
now the sync interval is 2s.

Gr{oetje,eeting}s,

Geert

--
Geert Uytterhoeven -- There's lots of Linux beyond ia32 -- geert@linux-m68k.org

In personal conversations with technical people, I call myself a hacker. But
when I'm talking to journalists I just say "programmer" or something like that.
-- Linus Torvalds

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