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Subject[PATCH 11/11 v2.1] ftrace: Add recording of functions that caused recursion
From: "Steven Rostedt (VMware)" <rostedt@goodmis.org>

This adds CONFIG_FTRACE_RECORD_RECURSION that will record to a file
"recursed_functions" all the functions that caused recursion while a
callback to the function tracer was running.

Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
Cc: Guo Ren <guoren@kernel.org>
Cc: "James E.J. Bottomley" <James.Bottomley@HansenPartnership.com>
Cc: Helge Deller <deller@gmx.de>
Cc: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>
Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org>
Cc: Heiko Carstens <hca@linux.ibm.com>
Cc: Vasily Gorbik <gor@linux.ibm.com>
Cc: Christian Borntraeger <borntraeger@de.ibm.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: x86@kernel.org
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Anton Vorontsov <anton@enomsg.org>
Cc: Colin Cross <ccross@android.com>
Cc: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
Cc: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Jiri Kosina <jikos@kernel.org>
Cc: Miroslav Benes <mbenes@suse.cz>
Cc: Petr Mladek <pmladek@suse.com>
Cc: Joe Lawrence <joe.lawrence@redhat.com>
Cc: Kamalesh Babulal <kamalesh@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab+huawei@kernel.org>
Cc: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@linutronix.de>
Cc: linux-doc@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-csky@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linux-parisc@vger.kernel.org
Cc: linuxppc-dev@lists.ozlabs.org
Cc: linux-s390@vger.kernel.org
Cc: live-patching@vger.kernel.org
Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt (VMware) <rostedt@goodmis.org>
---
Documentation/trace/ftrace-uses.rst | 6 +-
arch/csky/kernel/probes/ftrace.c | 2 +-
arch/parisc/kernel/ftrace.c | 2 +-
arch/powerpc/kernel/kprobes-ftrace.c | 2 +-
arch/s390/kernel/ftrace.c | 2 +-
arch/x86/kernel/kprobes/ftrace.c | 2 +-
fs/pstore/ftrace.c | 2 +-
include/linux/trace_recursion.h | 32 +++-
kernel/livepatch/patch.c | 2 +-
kernel/trace/Kconfig | 25 +++
kernel/trace/Makefile | 1 +
kernel/trace/ftrace.c | 4 +-
kernel/trace/trace_event_perf.c | 2 +-
kernel/trace/trace_functions.c | 2 +-
kernel/trace/trace_output.c | 6 +-
kernel/trace/trace_output.h | 1 +
kernel/trace/trace_recursion_record.c | 235 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
17 files changed, 308 insertions(+), 20 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/trace_recursion_record.c

diff --git a/Documentation/trace/ftrace-uses.rst b/Documentation/trace/ftrace-uses.rst
index 86cd14b8e126..5981d5691745 100644
--- a/Documentation/trace/ftrace-uses.rst
+++ b/Documentation/trace/ftrace-uses.rst
@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@ can help in this regard. If you start your code with:

int bit;

- bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock();
+ bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(ip, parent_ip);
if (bit < 0)
return;

@@ -130,7 +130,9 @@ The code in between will be safe to use, even if it ends up calling a
function that the callback is tracing. Note, on success,
ftrace_test_recursion_trylock() will disable preemption, and the
ftrace_test_recursion_unlock() will enable it again (if it was previously
-enabled).
+enabled). The instruction pointer (ip) and its parent (parent_ip) is passed to
+ftrace_test_recursion_trylock() to record where the recursion happened
+(if CONFIG_FTRACE_RECORD_RECURSION is set).

Alternatively, if the FTRACE_OPS_FL_RECURSION flag is set on the ftrace_ops
(as explained below), then a helper trampoline will be used to test
diff --git a/arch/csky/kernel/probes/ftrace.c b/arch/csky/kernel/probes/ftrace.c
index 5eb2604fdf71..f30b179924ef 100644
--- a/arch/csky/kernel/probes/ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/csky/kernel/probes/ftrace.c
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ void kprobe_ftrace_handler(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip,
struct kprobe *p;
struct kprobe_ctlblk *kcb;

- bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock();
+ bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(ip, parent_ip);
if (bit < 0)
return;

diff --git a/arch/parisc/kernel/ftrace.c b/arch/parisc/kernel/ftrace.c
index 4b1fdf15662c..8b0ed7c5a4ab 100644
--- a/arch/parisc/kernel/ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/parisc/kernel/ftrace.c
@@ -210,7 +210,7 @@ void kprobe_ftrace_handler(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip,
struct kprobe *p = get_kprobe((kprobe_opcode_t *)ip);
int bit;

- bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock();
+ bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(ip, parent_ip);
if (bit < 0)
return;

diff --git a/arch/powerpc/kernel/kprobes-ftrace.c b/arch/powerpc/kernel/kprobes-ftrace.c
index 5df8d50c65ae..fdfee39938ea 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/kernel/kprobes-ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/kernel/kprobes-ftrace.c
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ void kprobe_ftrace_handler(unsigned long nip, unsigned long parent_nip,
struct kprobe_ctlblk *kcb;
int bit;

- bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock();
+ bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(nip, parent_nip);
if (bit < 0)
return;

diff --git a/arch/s390/kernel/ftrace.c b/arch/s390/kernel/ftrace.c
index 88466d7fb6b2..a1556333d481 100644
--- a/arch/s390/kernel/ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/s390/kernel/ftrace.c
@@ -204,7 +204,7 @@ void kprobe_ftrace_handler(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip,
struct kprobe *p = get_kprobe((kprobe_opcode_t *)ip);
int bit;

- bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock();
+ bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(ip, parent_ip);
if (bit < 0)
return;

diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes/ftrace.c b/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes/ftrace.c
index a40a6cdfcca3..954d930a7127 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes/ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes/ftrace.c
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ void kprobe_ftrace_handler(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip,
struct kprobe_ctlblk *kcb;
int bit;

- bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock();
+ bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(ip, parent_ip);
if (bit < 0)
return;

diff --git a/fs/pstore/ftrace.c b/fs/pstore/ftrace.c
index 816210fc5d3a..adb0935eb062 100644
--- a/fs/pstore/ftrace.c
+++ b/fs/pstore/ftrace.c
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@ static void notrace pstore_ftrace_call(unsigned long ip,
if (unlikely(oops_in_progress))
return;

- bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock();
+ bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(ip, parent_ip);
if (bit < 0)
return;

diff --git a/include/linux/trace_recursion.h b/include/linux/trace_recursion.h
index ac3d73484cb2..1cba5fe8777a 100644
--- a/include/linux/trace_recursion.h
+++ b/include/linux/trace_recursion.h
@@ -142,7 +142,28 @@ static __always_inline int trace_get_context_bit(void)
pc & HARDIRQ_MASK ? TRACE_CTX_IRQ : TRACE_CTX_SOFTIRQ;
}

-static __always_inline int trace_test_and_set_recursion(int start, int max)
+#ifdef CONFIG_FTRACE_RECORD_RECURSION
+extern void ftrace_record_recursion(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip);
+/*
+* The paranoid_test check can cause dropped reports (unlikely), but
+* if the recursion is common, it will likely still be recorded later.
+* But the paranoid_test is needed to make sure we don't crash.
+*/
+# define do_ftrace_record_recursion(ip, pip) \
+ do { \
+ static atomic_t paranoid_test; \
+ if (!atomic_read(&paranoid_test)) { \
+ atomic_inc(&paranoid_test); \
+ ftrace_record_recursion(ip, pip); \
+ atomic_dec(&paranoid_test); \
+ } \
+ } while (0)
+#else
+# define do_ftrace_record_recursion(ip, pip) do { } while (0)
+#endif
+
+static __always_inline int trace_test_and_set_recursion(unsigned long ip, unsigned long pip,
+ int start, int max)
{
unsigned int val = current->trace_recursion;
int bit;
@@ -158,8 +179,10 @@ static __always_inline int trace_test_and_set_recursion(int start, int max)
* a switch between contexts. Allow for a single recursion.
*/
bit = TRACE_TRANSITION_BIT;
- if (trace_recursion_test(bit))
+ if (trace_recursion_test(bit)) {
+ do_ftrace_record_recursion(ip, pip);
return -1;
+ }
trace_recursion_set(bit);
barrier();
return bit + 1;
@@ -199,9 +222,10 @@ static __always_inline void trace_clear_recursion(int bit)
* Returns: -1 if a recursion happened.
* >= 0 if no recursion
*/
-static __always_inline int ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(void)
+static __always_inline int ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(unsigned long ip,
+ unsigned long parent_ip)
{
- return trace_test_and_set_recursion(TRACE_FTRACE_START, TRACE_FTRACE_MAX);
+ return trace_test_and_set_recursion(ip, parent_ip, TRACE_FTRACE_START, TRACE_FTRACE_MAX);
}

/**
diff --git a/kernel/livepatch/patch.c b/kernel/livepatch/patch.c
index 15480bf3ce88..875c5dbbdd33 100644
--- a/kernel/livepatch/patch.c
+++ b/kernel/livepatch/patch.c
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ static void notrace klp_ftrace_handler(unsigned long ip,

ops = container_of(fops, struct klp_ops, fops);

- bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock();
+ bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(ip, parent_ip);
if (WARN_ON_ONCE(bit < 0))
return;
/*
diff --git a/kernel/trace/Kconfig b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
index a4020c0b4508..9b11c096d139 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/Kconfig
+++ b/kernel/trace/Kconfig
@@ -727,6 +727,31 @@ config TRACE_EVAL_MAP_FILE

If unsure, say N.

+config FTRACE_RECORD_RECURSION
+ bool "Record functions that recurse in function tracing"
+ depends on FUNCTION_TRACER
+ help
+ All callbacks that attach to the function tracing have some sort
+ of protection against recursion. Even though the protection exists,
+ it adds overhead. This option will create a file in the tracefs
+ file system called "recursed_functions" that will list the functions
+ that triggered a recursion.
+
+ This will add more overhead to cases that have recursion.
+
+ If unsure, say N
+
+config FTRACE_RECORD_RECURSION_SIZE
+ int "Max number of recursed functions to record"
+ default 128
+ depends on FTRACE_RECORD_RECURSION
+ help
+ This defines the limit of number of functions that can be
+ listed in the "recursed_functions" file, that lists all
+ the functions that caused a recursion to happen.
+ This file can be reset, but the limit can not change in
+ size at runtime.
+
config GCOV_PROFILE_FTRACE
bool "Enable GCOV profiling on ftrace subsystem"
depends on GCOV_KERNEL
diff --git a/kernel/trace/Makefile b/kernel/trace/Makefile
index e153be351548..7e44cea89fdc 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/trace/Makefile
@@ -92,6 +92,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_EVENTS) += trace_dynevent.o
obj-$(CONFIG_PROBE_EVENTS) += trace_probe.o
obj-$(CONFIG_UPROBE_EVENTS) += trace_uprobe.o
obj-$(CONFIG_BOOTTIME_TRACING) += trace_boot.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_FTRACE_RECORD_RECURSION) += trace_recursion_record.o

obj-$(CONFIG_TRACEPOINT_BENCHMARK) += trace_benchmark.o

diff --git a/kernel/trace/ftrace.c b/kernel/trace/ftrace.c
index 39f2bba89b76..03aad2b5cd5e 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/ftrace.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/ftrace.c
@@ -6918,7 +6918,7 @@ __ftrace_ops_list_func(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip,
struct ftrace_ops *op;
int bit;

- bit = trace_test_and_set_recursion(TRACE_LIST_START, TRACE_LIST_MAX);
+ bit = trace_test_and_set_recursion(ip, parent_ip, TRACE_LIST_START, TRACE_LIST_MAX);
if (bit < 0)
return;

@@ -6993,7 +6993,7 @@ static void ftrace_ops_assist_func(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip,
{
int bit;

- bit = trace_test_and_set_recursion(TRACE_LIST_START, TRACE_LIST_MAX);
+ bit = trace_test_and_set_recursion(ip, parent_ip, TRACE_LIST_START, TRACE_LIST_MAX);
if (bit < 0)
return;

diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_event_perf.c b/kernel/trace/trace_event_perf.c
index a2b9fddb8148..1b202e28dfaa 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace_event_perf.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_event_perf.c
@@ -447,7 +447,7 @@ perf_ftrace_function_call(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip,
if ((unsigned long)ops->private != smp_processor_id())
return;

- bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock();
+ bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(ip, parent_ip);
if (bit < 0)
return;

diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_functions.c b/kernel/trace/trace_functions.c
index 89c414ce1388..646eda6c44a5 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace_functions.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_functions.c
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ function_trace_call(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip,
if (unlikely(!tr->function_enabled))
return;

- bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock();
+ bit = ftrace_test_recursion_trylock(ip, parent_ip);
if (bit < 0)
return;

diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_output.c b/kernel/trace/trace_output.c
index 000e9dc224c6..92b1575ae0ca 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace_output.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_output.c
@@ -353,8 +353,8 @@ static inline const char *kretprobed(const char *name)
}
#endif /* CONFIG_KRETPROBES */

-static void
-seq_print_sym(struct trace_seq *s, unsigned long address, bool offset)
+void
+trace_seq_print_sym(struct trace_seq *s, unsigned long address, bool offset)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_KALLSYMS
char str[KSYM_SYMBOL_LEN];
@@ -420,7 +420,7 @@ seq_print_ip_sym(struct trace_seq *s, unsigned long ip, unsigned long sym_flags)
goto out;
}

- seq_print_sym(s, ip, sym_flags & TRACE_ITER_SYM_OFFSET);
+ trace_seq_print_sym(s, ip, sym_flags & TRACE_ITER_SYM_OFFSET);

if (sym_flags & TRACE_ITER_SYM_ADDR)
trace_seq_printf(s, " <" IP_FMT ">", ip);
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_output.h b/kernel/trace/trace_output.h
index 2f742b74e7e6..4c954636caf0 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace_output.h
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_output.h
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@ extern int
seq_print_ip_sym(struct trace_seq *s, unsigned long ip,
unsigned long sym_flags);

+extern void trace_seq_print_sym(struct trace_seq *s, unsigned long address, bool offset);
extern int trace_print_context(struct trace_iterator *iter);
extern int trace_print_lat_context(struct trace_iterator *iter);

diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_recursion_record.c b/kernel/trace/trace_recursion_record.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a1859843781b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_recursion_record.c
@@ -0,0 +1,235 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+#include <linux/seq_file.h>
+#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/ftrace.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+
+#include "trace_output.h"
+
+struct recursed_functions {
+ unsigned long ip;
+ unsigned long parent_ip;
+};
+
+static struct recursed_functions recursed_functions[CONFIG_FTRACE_RECORD_RECURSION_SIZE];
+static atomic_t nr_records;
+
+/*
+ * Cache the last found function. Yes, updates to this is racey, but
+ * so is memory cache ;-)
+ */
+static unsigned long cached_function;
+
+void ftrace_record_recursion(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip)
+{
+ int index = 0;
+ int i;
+ unsigned long old;
+
+ again:
+ /* First check the last one recorded */
+ if (ip == cached_function)
+ return;
+
+ i = atomic_read(&nr_records);
+ /* nr_records is -1 when clearing records */
+ smp_mb__after_atomic();
+ if (i < 0)
+ return;
+
+ /*
+ * If there's two writers and this writer comes in second,
+ * the cmpxchg() below to update the ip will fail. Then this
+ * writer will try again. It is possible that index will now
+ * be greater than nr_records. This is because the writer
+ * that succeeded has not updated the nr_records yet.
+ * This writer could keep trying again until the other writer
+ * updates nr_records. But if the other writer takes an
+ * interrupt, and that interrupt locks up that CPU, we do
+ * not want this CPU to lock up due to the recursion protection,
+ * and have a bug report showing this CPU as the cause of
+ * locking up the computer. To not lose this record, this
+ * writer will simply use the next position to update the
+ * recursed_functions, and it will update the nr_records
+ * accordingly.
+ */
+ if (index < i)
+ index = i;
+ if (index >= CONFIG_FTRACE_RECORD_RECURSION_SIZE)
+ return;
+
+ for (i = index - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
+ if (recursed_functions[i].ip == ip) {
+ cached_function = ip;
+ return;
+ }
+ }
+
+ cached_function = ip;
+
+ /*
+ * We only want to add a function if it hasn't been added before.
+ * Add to the current location before incrementing the count.
+ * If it fails to add, then increment the index (save in i)
+ * and try again.
+ */
+ old = cmpxchg(&recursed_functions[index].ip, 0, ip);
+ if (old != 0) {
+ /* Did something else already added this for us? */
+ if (old == ip)
+ return;
+ /* Try the next location (use i for the next index) */
+ index++;
+ goto again;
+ }
+
+ recursed_functions[index].parent_ip = parent_ip;
+
+ /*
+ * It's still possible that we could race with the clearing
+ * CPU0 CPU1
+ * ---- ----
+ * ip = func
+ * nr_records = -1;
+ * recursed_functions[0] = 0;
+ * i = -1
+ * if (i < 0)
+ * nr_records = 0;
+ * (new recursion detected)
+ * recursed_functions[0] = func
+ * cmpxchg(recursed_functions[0],
+ * func, 0)
+ *
+ * But the worse that could happen is that we get a zero in
+ * the recursed_functions array, and it's likely that "func" will
+ * be recorded again.
+ */
+ i = atomic_read(&nr_records);
+ smp_mb__after_atomic();
+ if (i < 0)
+ cmpxchg(&recursed_functions[index].ip, ip, 0);
+ else if (i <= index)
+ atomic_cmpxchg(&nr_records, i, index + 1);
+}
+
+static DEFINE_MUTEX(recursed_function_lock);
+static struct trace_seq *tseq;
+
+static void *recursed_function_seq_start(struct seq_file *m, loff_t *pos)
+{
+ void *ret = NULL;
+ int index;
+
+ mutex_lock(&recursed_function_lock);
+ index = atomic_read(&nr_records);
+ if (*pos < index) {
+ ret = &recursed_functions[*pos];
+ }
+
+ tseq = kzalloc(sizeof(*tseq), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!tseq)
+ return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
+
+ trace_seq_init(tseq);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static void *recursed_function_seq_next(struct seq_file *m, void *v, loff_t *pos)
+{
+ int index;
+ int p;
+
+ index = atomic_read(&nr_records);
+ p = ++(*pos);
+
+ return p < index ? &recursed_functions[p] : NULL;
+}
+
+static void recursed_function_seq_stop(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
+{
+ kfree(tseq);
+ mutex_unlock(&recursed_function_lock);
+}
+
+static int recursed_function_seq_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
+{
+ struct recursed_functions *record = v;
+ int ret = 0;
+
+ if (record) {
+ trace_seq_print_sym(tseq, record->parent_ip, true);
+ trace_seq_puts(tseq, ":\t");
+ trace_seq_print_sym(tseq, record->ip, true);
+ trace_seq_putc(tseq, '\n');
+ ret = trace_print_seq(m, tseq);
+ }
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static const struct seq_operations recursed_function_seq_ops = {
+ .start = recursed_function_seq_start,
+ .next = recursed_function_seq_next,
+ .stop = recursed_function_seq_stop,
+ .show = recursed_function_seq_show
+};
+
+static int recursed_function_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+ int ret = 0;
+
+ mutex_lock(&recursed_function_lock);
+ /* If this file was opened for write, then erase contents */
+ if ((file->f_mode & FMODE_WRITE) && (file->f_flags & O_TRUNC)) {
+ /* disable updating records */
+ atomic_set(&nr_records, -1);
+ smp_mb__after_atomic();
+ memset(recursed_functions, 0, sizeof(recursed_functions));
+ smp_wmb();
+ /* enable them again */
+ atomic_set(&nr_records, 0);
+ }
+ if (file->f_mode & FMODE_READ)
+ ret = seq_open(file, &recursed_function_seq_ops);
+ mutex_unlock(&recursed_function_lock);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static ssize_t recursed_function_write(struct file *file,
+ const char __user *buffer,
+ size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+ return count;
+}
+
+static int recursed_function_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+ if (file->f_mode & FMODE_READ)
+ seq_release(inode, file);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations recursed_functions_fops = {
+ .open = recursed_function_open,
+ .write = recursed_function_write,
+ .read = seq_read,
+ .llseek = seq_lseek,
+ .release = recursed_function_release,
+};
+
+__init static int create_recursed_functions(void)
+{
+ struct dentry *dentry;
+
+ dentry = trace_create_file("recursed_functions", 0644, NULL, NULL,
+ &recursed_functions_fops);
+ if (!dentry)
+ pr_warn("WARNING: Failed to create recursed_functions\n");
+ return 0;
+}
+
+fs_initcall(create_recursed_functions);
--
2.25.4
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