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SubjectRe: [PATCH v3 01/11] counters: Introduce counter_atomic* counters
Em Fri,  9 Oct 2020 09:55:56 -0600
Shuah Khan <skhan@linuxfoundation.org> escreveu:

> Introduce Simple atomic counters.
>
> There are a number of atomic_t usages in the kernel where atomic_t api
> is used strictly for counting and not for managing object lifetime. In
> some cases, atomic_t might not even be needed.
>
> The purpose of these counters is to clearly differentiate atomic_t
> counters from atomic_t usages that guard object lifetimes, hence prone
> to overflow and underflow errors. It allows tools that scan for underflow
> and overflow on atomic_t usages to detect overflow and underflows to scan
> just the cases that are prone to errors.
>
> Simple atomic counters api provides interfaces for simple atomic counters
> that just count, and don't guard resource lifetimes. The interfaces are
> built on top of atomic_t api, providing a smaller subset of atomic_t
> interfaces necessary to support simple counters.
>
> Counter wraps around to INT_MIN when it overflows and should not be used
> to guard resource lifetimes, device usage and open counts that control
> state changes, and pm states. Overflowing to INT_MIN is consistent with
> the atomic_t api, which it is built on top of.
>
> Using counter_atomic* to guard lifetimes could lead to use-after free
> when it overflows and undefined behavior when used to manage state
> changes and device usage/open states.
>
> Reviewed-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
> Signed-off-by: Shuah Khan <skhan@linuxfoundation.org>

Did you try building this with htmldocs? It produces 3 new warnings
due to wrong usage of the "ref" tag:

.../Documentation/core-api/counters.rst:46: WARNING: undefined label: test counters module (if the link has no caption the label must precede a section header)
.../Documentation/core-api/counters.rst:49: WARNING: undefined label: selftest for counters (if the link has no caption the label must precede a section header)
.../Documentation/core-api/counters.rst:62: WARNING: undefined label: atomic_ops (if the link has no caption the label must precede a section header)

(plus another one that I'll be sending a fixup patch anytime soon)

Are those referring to some documents that don't exist yet uptream?
Or are you trying to force Sphinx to generate a cross-reference for
a C file at the tree? If it is the latter, then this won't work,
as it will only generate cross-references for files that are placed
inside the documentation output dir (Documentation/output, by default).

Regards,
Mauro


> ---
> Documentation/core-api/counters.rst | 109 +++++++++++++++++
> MAINTAINERS | 7 ++
> include/linux/counters.h | 176 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> lib/Kconfig | 9 ++
> lib/Makefile | 1 +
> lib/test_counters.c | 162 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 6 files changed, 464 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/core-api/counters.rst
> create mode 100644 include/linux/counters.h
> create mode 100644 lib/test_counters.c
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/core-api/counters.rst b/Documentation/core-api/counters.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..642d907f4d3a
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/core-api/counters.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,109 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +======================
> +Simple atomic counters
> +======================
> +
> +:Author: Shuah Khan
> +:Copyright: |copy| 2020, The Linux Foundation
> +:Copyright: |copy| 2020, Shuah Khan <skhan@linuxfoundation.org>
> +
> +There are a number of atomic_t usages in the kernel where atomic_t api
> +is used strictly for counting and not for managing object lifetime. In
> +some cases, atomic_t might not even be needed.
> +
> +The purpose of these counters is to clearly differentiate atomic_t counters
> +from atomic_t usages that guard object lifetimes, hence prone to overflow
> +and underflow errors. It allows tools that scan for underflow and overflow
> +on atomic_t usages to detect overflow and underflows to scan just the cases
> +that are prone to errors.
> +
> +Simple atomic counters api provides interfaces for simple atomic counters
> +that just count, and don't guard resource lifetimes. The interfaces are
> +built on top of atomic_t api, providing a smaller subset of atomic_t
> +interfaces necessary to support simple counters.
> +
> +Counter wraps around to INT_MIN when it overflows and should not be used
> +to guard resource lifetimes, device usage and open counts that control
> +state changes, and pm states. Overflowing to INT_MIN is consistent with
> +the atomic_t api, which it is built on top of.
> +
> +Using counter_atomic32_* to guard lifetimes could lead to use-after free
> +when it overflows and undefined behavior when used to manage state
> +changes and device usage/open states.
> +
> +Use refcount_t interfaces for guarding resources.
> +
> +.. warning::
> + Counter wraps around to INT_MIN when it overflows.
> + Should not be used to guard resource lifetimes.
> + Should not be used to manage device state and pm state.
> +
> +Test Counters Module and selftest
> +---------------------------------
> +
> +Please see :ref:`lib/test_counters.c <Test Counters Module>` for how to
> +use these interfaces and also test them.
> +
> +Selftest for testing:
> +:ref:`testing/selftests/lib/test_counters.sh <selftest for counters>`
> +
> +Atomic counter interfaces
> +=========================
> +
> +counter_atomic32 and counter_atomic64 types use atomic_t and atomic64_t
> +underneath to leverage atomic_t api, providing a small subset of atomic_t
> +interfaces necessary to support simple counters. ::
> +
> + struct counter_atomic32 { atomic_t cnt; };
> + struct counter_atomic64 { atomic64_t cnt; };
> +
> +Please see :ref:`Documentation/core-api/atomic_ops.rst <atomic_ops>` for
> +information on the Semantics and Behavior of Atomic operations.
> +
> +.. warning::
> + It is important to keep the ops to a very small subset to ensure
> + that the Counter API will never be used for guarding resource
> + lifetimes and state management.
> +
> + inc_return() is added to support current atomic_inc_return()
> + usages and avoid forcing the use of _inc() followed by _read().
> +
> +Initializers
> +------------
> +
> +Interfaces for initializing counters are write operations which in turn
> +invoke their ``ATOMIC_INIT() and atomic_set()`` counterparts ::
> +
> + #define COUNTER_ATOMIC_INIT(i) { .cnt = ATOMIC_INIT(i) }
> + counter_atomic32_set() --> atomic_set()
> +
> + static struct counter_atomic32 acnt = COUNTER_ATOMIC_INIT(0);
> + counter_atomic32_set(0);
> +
> + static struct counter_atomic64 acnt = COUNTER_ATOMIC_INIT(0);
> + counter_atomic64_set(0);
> +
> +Increment interface
> +-------------------
> +
> +Increments counter and doesn't return the new counter value. ::
> +
> + counter_atomic32_inc() --> atomic_inc()
> + counter_atomic64_inc() --> atomic64_inc()
> +
> +Increment and return new counter value interface
> +------------------------------------------------
> +
> +Increments counter and returns the new counter value. ::
> +
> + counter_atomic32_inc_return() --> atomic_inc_return()
> + counter_atomic64_inc_return() --> atomic64_inc_return()
> +
> +Decrement interface
> +-------------------
> +
> +Decrements counter and doesn't return the new counter value. ::
> +
> + counter_atomic32_dec() --> atomic_dec()
> + counter_atomic64_dec() --> atomic64_dec()
> diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
> index 33b27e62ce19..4e82d0ffcab0 100644
> --- a/MAINTAINERS
> +++ b/MAINTAINERS
> @@ -15839,6 +15839,13 @@ S: Maintained
> F: Documentation/fb/sm712fb.rst
> F: drivers/video/fbdev/sm712*
>
> +SIMPLE ATOMIC and NON-ATOMIC COUNTERS
> +M: Shuah Khan <skhan@linuxfoundation.org>
> +L: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
> +S: Maintained
> +F: include/linux/counters.h
> +F: lib/test_counters.c
> +
> SIMPLE FIRMWARE INTERFACE (SFI)
> S: Obsolete
> W: http://simplefirmware.org/
> diff --git a/include/linux/counters.h b/include/linux/counters.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..bb96dd544553
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/include/linux/counters.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,176 @@
> +/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
> +/*
> + * counters.h - Interface for simple atomic counters that just count.
> + *
> + * Copyright (c) 2020 Shuah Khan <skhan@linuxfoundation.org>
> + * Copyright (c) 2020 The Linux Foundation
> + *
> + * Counter wraps around to INT_MIN when it overflows and should not be
> + * used to guard resource lifetimes, device usage and open counts that
> + * control state changes, and pm states. Using counter_atomic to guard
> + * lifetimes could lead to use-after free when it overflows and undefined
> + * behavior when used to manage state changes and device usage/open states.
> + *
> + * Use refcount_t interfaces for guarding resources.
> + *
> + * The interface provides:
> + * atomic32 & atomic64 functions:
> + * increment and no return
> + * increment and return value
> + * decrement and no return
> + * read
> + * set
> + *
> + * counter_atomic32 functions leverage/use atomic_t interfaces.
> + * counter_atomic64 functions leverage/use atomic64_t interfaces.
> + * The counter wraps around to INT_MIN when it overflows.
> + * These interfaces should not be used to guard resource lifetimes.
> + *
> + * Reference and API guide:
> + * Documentation/core-api/counters.rst for more information.
> + *
> + */
> +
> +#ifndef __LINUX_COUNTERS_H
> +#define __LINUX_COUNTERS_H
> +
> +#include <linux/atomic.h>
> +
> +/**
> + * struct counter_atomic32 - Simple atomic counter
> + * @cnt: int
> + *
> + * The counter wraps around to INT_MIN, when it overflows. Should not
> + * be used to guard object lifetimes.
> + **/
> +struct counter_atomic32 {
> + atomic_t cnt;
> +};
> +
> +#define COUNTER_ATOMIC_INIT(i) { .cnt = ATOMIC_INIT(i) }
> +
> +/*
> + * counter_atomic32_inc() - increment counter value
> + * @cntr: struct counter_atomic32 pointer
> + *
> + */
> +static inline void counter_atomic32_inc(struct counter_atomic32 *cntr)
> +{
> + atomic_inc(&cntr->cnt);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * counter_atomic32_inc_return() - increment counter value and return it
> + * @cntr: struct counter_atomic32 pointer
> + *
> + * Return: returns the new counter value after incrementing it
> + */
> +static inline int counter_atomic32_inc_return(struct counter_atomic32 *cntr)
> +{
> + return atomic_inc_return(&cntr->cnt);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * counter_atomic32_dec() - decrement counter value
> + * @cntr: struct counter_atomic32 pointer
> + *
> + */
> +static inline void counter_atomic32_dec(struct counter_atomic32 *cntr)
> +{
> + atomic_dec(&cntr->cnt);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * counter_atomic32_read() - read counter value
> + * @cntr: struct counter_atomic32 pointer
> + *
> + * Return: return the counter value
> + */
> +static inline int counter_atomic32_read(const struct counter_atomic32 *cntr)
> +{
> + return atomic_read(&cntr->cnt);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * counter_atomic32_set() - set counter value
> + * @cntr: struct counter_atomic32 pointer
> + * @val: new counter value to set
> + *
> + */
> +static inline void
> +counter_atomic32_set(struct counter_atomic32 *cntr, int val)
> +{
> + atomic_set(&cntr->cnt, val);
> +}
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_64BIT
> +/*
> + * struct counter_atomic64 - Simple atomic counter
> + * @cnt: atomic64_t
> + *
> + * The counter wraps around to INT_MIN, when it overflows. Should not
> + * be used to guard object lifetimes.
> + */
> +struct counter_atomic64 {
> + atomic64_t cnt;
> +};
> +
> +/*
> + * counter_atomic64_inc() - increment counter value
> + * @cntr: struct counter_atomic64 pointer
> + *
> + */
> +static inline void counter_atomic64_inc(struct counter_atomic64 *cntr)
> +{
> + atomic64_inc(&cntr->cnt);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * counter_atomic64_inc_return() - increment counter value and return it
> + * @cntr: struct counter_atomic64 pointer
> + *
> + * Return: return the new counter value after incrementing it
> + */
> +static inline s64
> +counter_atomic64_inc_return(struct counter_atomic64 *cntr)
> +{
> + return atomic64_inc_return(&cntr->cnt);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * counter_atomic64_dec() - decrement counter value
> + * @cntr: struct counter_atomic64 pointer
> + *
> + */
> +static inline void counter_atomic64_dec(
> + struct counter_atomic64 *cntr)
> +{
> + atomic64_dec(&cntr->cnt);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * counter_atomic64_read() - read counter value
> + * @cntr: struct counter_atomic64 pointer
> + *
> + * Return: return the counter value
> + */
> +static inline s64
> +counter_atomic64_read(const struct counter_atomic64 *cntr)
> +{
> + return atomic64_read(&cntr->cnt);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * counter_atomic64_set() - set counter value
> + * @cntr: struct counter_atomic64 pointer
> + * &val: new counter value to set
> + *
> + */
> +static inline void
> +counter_atomic64_set(struct counter_atomic64 *cntr, s64 val)
> +{
> + atomic64_set(&cntr->cnt, val);
> +}
> +
> +#endif /* CONFIG_64BIT */
> +#endif /* __LINUX_COUNTERS_H */
> diff --git a/lib/Kconfig b/lib/Kconfig
> index b4b98a03ff98..e05e3d0a6d9c 100644
> --- a/lib/Kconfig
> +++ b/lib/Kconfig
> @@ -658,6 +658,15 @@ config OBJAGG
> config STRING_SELFTEST
> tristate "Test string functions"
>
> +config TEST_COUNTERS
> + tristate "Test Simple Atomic counter functions"
> + help
> + A test module for Simple Atomic counter functions.
> + A corresponding selftest can be used to test the
> + counter functions.
> +
> + Select this if you would like to test counters.
> +
> endmenu
>
> config GENERIC_IOREMAP
> diff --git a/lib/Makefile b/lib/Makefile
> index a4a4c6864f51..95b357bb5f3c 100644
> --- a/lib/Makefile
> +++ b/lib/Makefile
> @@ -99,6 +99,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_TEST_BLACKHOLE_DEV) += test_blackhole_dev.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_TEST_MEMINIT) += test_meminit.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_TEST_LOCKUP) += test_lockup.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_TEST_HMM) += test_hmm.o
> +obj-$(CONFIG_TEST_COUNTERS) += test_counters.o
>
> #
> # CFLAGS for compiling floating point code inside the kernel. x86/Makefile turns
> diff --git a/lib/test_counters.c b/lib/test_counters.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..7a7251273ba7
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/lib/test_counters.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,162 @@
> +// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only
> +/*
> + * test_counters.c - Kernel module for testing Counters
> + *
> + * Copyright (c) 2020 Shuah Khan <skhan@linuxfoundation.org>
> + * Copyright (c) 2020 The Linux Foundation
> + *
> + */
> +
> +#define pr_fmt(fmt) KBUILD_MODNAME ": " fmt
> +
> +#include <linux/module.h>
> +#include <linux/counters.h>
> +
> +static inline void
> +test_counter_result_print32(char *msg, int start, int end, int expected)
> +{
> + pr_info("%s: %d to %d - %s\n",
> + msg, start, end,
> + ((expected == end) ? "PASS" : "FAIL"));
> +}
> +
> +
> +static void test_counter_atomic32(void)
> +{
> + static struct counter_atomic32 acnt = COUNTER_ATOMIC_INIT(0);
> + int start_val = counter_atomic32_read(&acnt);
> + int end_val;
> +
> + counter_atomic32_inc(&acnt);
> + end_val = counter_atomic32_read(&acnt);
> + test_counter_result_print32("Test read and increment",
> + start_val, end_val, start_val+1);
> +
> + start_val = counter_atomic32_read(&acnt);
> + end_val = counter_atomic32_inc_return(&acnt);
> + test_counter_result_print32("Test read increment and return",
> + start_val, end_val, start_val+1);
> +
> + start_val = counter_atomic32_read(&acnt);
> + counter_atomic32_dec(&acnt);
> + end_val = counter_atomic32_read(&acnt);
> + test_counter_result_print32("Test read and decrement",
> + start_val, end_val, start_val-1);
> +
> + start_val = counter_atomic32_read(&acnt);
> + counter_atomic32_set(&acnt, INT_MAX);
> + end_val = counter_atomic32_read(&acnt);
> + test_counter_result_print32("Test set", start_val, end_val, INT_MAX);
> +}
> +
> +static void test_counter_atomic32_overflow(void)
> +{
> + static struct counter_atomic32 ucnt = COUNTER_ATOMIC_INIT(0);
> + static struct counter_atomic32 ocnt = COUNTER_ATOMIC_INIT(INT_MAX);
> + int start_val;
> + int end_val;
> +
> + start_val = counter_atomic32_read(&ucnt);
> + counter_atomic32_dec(&ucnt);
> + end_val = counter_atomic32_read(&ucnt);
> + test_counter_result_print32("Test underflow (int)",
> + start_val, end_val, start_val-1);
> + test_counter_result_print32("Test underflow (-1)",
> + start_val, end_val, -1);
> +
> + start_val = counter_atomic32_read(&ocnt);
> + end_val = counter_atomic32_inc_return(&ocnt);
> + test_counter_result_print32("Test overflow (int)",
> + start_val, end_val, start_val+1);
> + test_counter_result_print32("Test overflow (INT_MIN)",
> + start_val, end_val, INT_MIN);
> +}
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_64BIT
> +
> +static inline void
> +test_counter_result_print64(char *msg, s64 start, s64 end, s64 expected)
> +{
> + pr_info("%s: %lld to %lld - %s\n",
> + msg, start, end,
> + ((expected == end) ? "PASS" : "FAIL"));
> +}
> +
> +static void test_counter_atomic64(void)
> +{
> + static struct counter_atomic64 acnt = COUNTER_ATOMIC_INIT(0);
> + s64 start_val = counter_atomic64_read(&acnt);
> + s64 end_val;
> +
> + counter_atomic64_inc(&acnt);
> + end_val = counter_atomic64_read(&acnt);
> + test_counter_result_print64("Test read and increment",
> + start_val, end_val, start_val+1);
> +
> + start_val = counter_atomic64_read(&acnt);
> + end_val = counter_atomic64_inc_return(&acnt);
> + test_counter_result_print64("Test read increment and return",
> + start_val, end_val, start_val+1);
> +
> + start_val = counter_atomic64_read(&acnt);
> + counter_atomic64_dec(&acnt);
> + end_val = counter_atomic64_read(&acnt);
> + test_counter_result_print64("Test read and decrement",
> + start_val, end_val, start_val-1);
> +
> + start_val = counter_atomic64_read(&acnt);
> + counter_atomic64_set(&acnt, INT_MAX);
> + end_val = counter_atomic64_read(&acnt);
> + test_counter_result_print64("Test set", start_val, end_val, INT_MAX);
> +}
> +
> +static void test_counter_atomic64_overflow(void)
> +{
> + static struct counter_atomic64 ucnt = COUNTER_ATOMIC_INIT(0);
> + static struct counter_atomic64 ocnt = COUNTER_ATOMIC_INIT(INT_MAX);
> + s64 start_val;
> + s64 end_val;
> +
> + start_val = counter_atomic64_read(&ucnt);
> + counter_atomic64_dec(&ucnt);
> + end_val = counter_atomic64_read(&ucnt);
> + test_counter_result_print64("Test underflow",
> + start_val, end_val, start_val-1);
> +
> + start_val = counter_atomic64_read(&ocnt);
> + end_val = counter_atomic64_inc_return(&ocnt);
> + test_counter_result_print64("Test overflow",
> + start_val, end_val, start_val+1);
> +}
> +
> +#endif /* CONFIG_64BIT */
> +
> +static int __init test_counters_init(void)
> +{
> + pr_info("Start counter_atomic32_*() interfaces test\n");
> + test_counter_atomic32();
> + test_counter_atomic32_overflow();
> + pr_info("End counter_atomic32_*() interfaces test\n\n");
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_64BIT
> + pr_info("Start counter_atomic64_*() interfaces test\n");
> + test_counter_atomic64();
> + test_counter_atomic64_overflow();
> + pr_info("End counter_atomic64_*() interfaces test\n\n");
> +
> +#endif /* CONFIG_64BIT */
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +module_init(test_counters_init);
> +
> +static void __exit test_counters_exit(void)
> +{
> + pr_info("exiting.\n");
> +}
> +
> +module_exit(test_counters_exit);
> +
> +MODULE_AUTHOR("Shuah Khan <skhan@linuxfoundation.org>");
> +MODULE_LICENSE("GPL v2");



Thanks,
Mauro

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