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SubjectRe: Lower than expected CPU pressure in PSI
I applied the patch on top of 5.5.0-rc3 and it's definitely better
now, both competing cgroups report 500ms/s delay. Feel free to add
Tested-by from me.

I'm still seeing /unified/system.slice at 385ms/s and /unified.slice
at 372ms/s, do you have an explanation for that part? Maybe it's
totally reasonable, but warrants a patch for documentation.

On Thu, Jan 9, 2020 at 8:16 AM Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> wrote:
>
> On Wed, Jan 08, 2020 at 11:47:10AM -0800, Ivan Babrou wrote:
> > We added reporting for PSI in cgroups and results are somewhat surprising.
> >
> > My test setup consists of 3 services:
> >
> > * stress-cpu1-no-contention.service : taskset -c 1 stress --cpu 1
> > * stress-cpu2-first-half.service : taskset -c 2 stress --cpu 1
> > * stress-cpu2-second-half.service : taskset -c 2 stress --cpu 1
> >
> > First service runs unconstrained, the other two compete for CPU.
> >
> > As expected, I can see 500ms/s sched delay for the latter two and
> > aggregated 1000ms/s delay for /system.slice, no surprises here.
> >
> > However, CPU pressure reported by PSI says that none of my services
> > have any pressure on them. I can see around 434ms/s pressure on
> > /unified/system.slice and 425ms/s pressure on /unified cgroup, which
> > is surprising for three reasons:
> >
> > * Pressure is absent for my services (I expect it to match scheed delay)
> > * Pressure on /unified/system.slice is lower than both 500ms/s and 1000ms/s
> > * Pressure on root cgroup is lower than on system.slice
>
> CPU pressure is currently implemented based only on the number of
> *runnable* tasks, not on who gets to actively use the CPU. This works
> for contention within cgroups or at the global scope, but it doesn't
> correctly reflect competition between cgroups. It also doesn't show
> the effects of e.g. cpu cycle limiting through cpu.max where there
> might *be* only one runnable task, but it's not getting the CPU.
>
> I've been working on fixing this, but hadn't gotten around to sending
> the patch upstream. Attaching it below. Would you mind testing it?
>
> Peter, what would you think of the below?
>
> ---
> From 98c233aae05b7d43e465d4c382a3a20905235296 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
> From: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
> Date: Thu, 14 Nov 2019 15:53:45 -0500
> Subject: [PATCH] psi: fix cpu.pressure for cpu.max and competing cgroups
>
> For simplicity, cpu pressure is defined as having more than one
> runnable task on a given CPU. This works on the system-level, but it
> has limitations in a cgrouped reality: When cpu.max is in use, it
> doesn't capture the time in which a task is not executing on the CPU
> due to throttling. Likewise, it doesn't capture the time in which a
> competing cgroup is occupying the CPU - meaning it only reflects
> cgroup-internal competitive pressure, not outside pressure.
>
> Enable tracking of currently executing tasks, and then change the
> definition of cpu pressure in a cgroup from
>
> NR_RUNNING > 1
>
> to
>
> NR_RUNNING > ON_CPU
>
> which will capture the effects of cpu.max as well as competition from
> outside the cgroup.
>
> After this patch, a cgroup running `stress -c 1` with a cpu.max
> setting of 5000 10000 shows ~50% continuous CPU pressure.
>
> Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
> ---
> include/linux/psi_types.h | 10 +++++++++-
> kernel/sched/core.c | 2 ++
> kernel/sched/psi.c | 12 +++++++-----
> kernel/sched/stats.h | 28 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 4 files changed, 46 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/psi_types.h b/include/linux/psi_types.h
> index 07aaf9b82241..4b7258495a04 100644
> --- a/include/linux/psi_types.h
> +++ b/include/linux/psi_types.h
> @@ -14,13 +14,21 @@ enum psi_task_count {
> NR_IOWAIT,
> NR_MEMSTALL,
> NR_RUNNING,
> - NR_PSI_TASK_COUNTS = 3,
> + /*
> + * This can't have values other than 0 or 1 and could be
> + * implemented as a bit flag. But for now we still have room
> + * in the first cacheline of psi_group_cpu, and this way we
> + * don't have to special case any state tracking for it.
> + */
> + NR_ONCPU,
> + NR_PSI_TASK_COUNTS = 4,
> };
>
> /* Task state bitmasks */
> #define TSK_IOWAIT (1 << NR_IOWAIT)
> #define TSK_MEMSTALL (1 << NR_MEMSTALL)
> #define TSK_RUNNING (1 << NR_RUNNING)
> +#define TSK_ONCPU (1 << NR_ONCPU)
>
> /* Resources that workloads could be stalled on */
> enum psi_res {
> diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
> index 44123b4d14e8..9296e0de7b72 100644
> --- a/kernel/sched/core.c
> +++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
> @@ -4072,6 +4072,8 @@ static void __sched notrace __schedule(bool preempt)
> */
> ++*switch_count;
>
> + psi_sched_switch(prev, next, !task_on_rq_queued(prev));
> +
> trace_sched_switch(preempt, prev, next);
>
> /* Also unlocks the rq: */
> diff --git a/kernel/sched/psi.c b/kernel/sched/psi.c
> index 517e3719027e..fad91da54aab 100644
> --- a/kernel/sched/psi.c
> +++ b/kernel/sched/psi.c
> @@ -224,7 +224,7 @@ static bool test_state(unsigned int *tasks, enum psi_states state)
> case PSI_MEM_FULL:
> return tasks[NR_MEMSTALL] && !tasks[NR_RUNNING];
> case PSI_CPU_SOME:
> - return tasks[NR_RUNNING] > 1;
> + return tasks[NR_RUNNING] > tasks[NR_ONCPU];
> case PSI_NONIDLE:
> return tasks[NR_IOWAIT] || tasks[NR_MEMSTALL] ||
> tasks[NR_RUNNING];
> @@ -694,10 +694,10 @@ static u32 psi_group_change(struct psi_group *group, int cpu,
> if (!(m & (1 << t)))
> continue;
> if (groupc->tasks[t] == 0 && !psi_bug) {
> - printk_deferred(KERN_ERR "psi: task underflow! cpu=%d t=%d tasks=[%u %u %u] clear=%x set=%x\n",
> + printk_deferred(KERN_ERR "psi: task underflow! cpu=%d t=%d tasks=[%u %u %u %u] clear=%x set=%x\n",
> cpu, t, groupc->tasks[0],
> groupc->tasks[1], groupc->tasks[2],
> - clear, set);
> + groupc->tasks[3], clear, set);
> psi_bug = 1;
> }
> groupc->tasks[t]--;
> @@ -915,9 +915,11 @@ void cgroup_move_task(struct task_struct *task, struct css_set *to)
>
> rq = task_rq_lock(task, &rf);
>
> - if (task_on_rq_queued(task))
> + if (task_on_rq_queued(task)) {
> task_flags = TSK_RUNNING;
> - else if (task->in_iowait)
> + if (task_current(rq, task))
> + task_flags |= TSK_ONCPU;
> + } else if (task->in_iowait)
> task_flags = TSK_IOWAIT;
>
> if (task->flags & PF_MEMSTALL)
> diff --git a/kernel/sched/stats.h b/kernel/sched/stats.h
> index ba683fe81a6e..6ff0ac1a803f 100644
> --- a/kernel/sched/stats.h
> +++ b/kernel/sched/stats.h
> @@ -93,6 +93,14 @@ static inline void psi_dequeue(struct task_struct *p, bool sleep)
> if (p->flags & PF_MEMSTALL)
> clear |= TSK_MEMSTALL;
> } else {
> + /*
> + * When a task sleeps, schedule() dequeues it before
> + * switching to the next one. Merge the clearing of
> + * TSK_RUNNING and TSK_ONCPU to save an unnecessary
> + * psi_task_change() call in psi_sched_switch().
> + */
> + clear |= TSK_ONCPU;
> +
> if (p->in_iowait)
> set |= TSK_IOWAIT;
> }
> @@ -126,6 +134,23 @@ static inline void psi_ttwu_dequeue(struct task_struct *p)
> }
> }
>
> +static inline void psi_sched_switch(struct task_struct *prev,
> + struct task_struct *next,
> + bool sleep)
> +{
> + if (static_branch_likely(&psi_disabled))
> + return;
> +
> + /*
> + * Clear the TSK_ONCPU state if the task was preempted. If
> + * it's a voluntary sleep, dequeue will have taken care of it.
> + */
> + if (!sleep)
> + psi_task_change(prev, TSK_ONCPU, 0);
> +
> + psi_task_change(next, 0, TSK_ONCPU);
> +}
> +
> static inline void psi_task_tick(struct rq *rq)
> {
> if (static_branch_likely(&psi_disabled))
> @@ -138,6 +163,9 @@ static inline void psi_task_tick(struct rq *rq)
> static inline void psi_enqueue(struct task_struct *p, bool wakeup) {}
> static inline void psi_dequeue(struct task_struct *p, bool sleep) {}
> static inline void psi_ttwu_dequeue(struct task_struct *p) {}
> +static inline void psi_sched_switch(struct task_struct *prev,
> + struct task_struct *next,
> + bool sleep) {}
> static inline void psi_task_tick(struct rq *rq) {}
> #endif /* CONFIG_PSI */
>
> --
> 2.24.1

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