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SubjectRe: [PATCH] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang
On Tue, Aug 20, 2019 at 2:39 PM Nick Desaulniers
<ndesaulniers@google.com> wrote:
>
> On Tue, Aug 20, 2019 at 12:44 PM Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com> wrote:
> >
> > The stackframe setup when compiled with clang is different.
> > Since the stack unwinder expects the gcc stackframe setup it
> > fails to print backtraces. This patch adds support for the
> > clang stackframe setup.
> >
> > Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/35
> > Cc: clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com
> > Suggested-by: Tri Vo <trong@google.com>
> > Signed-off-by: Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com>
> > ---
> > Changes from RFC
> > * Push extra register to satisfy 8 byte alignment requirement
> > * Add clarifying comments
> > * Separate code into its own file
>
> Thanks for the patch! The added comments and moving the implementation
> to its own file make it easier to review.
>
> >
> > arch/arm/Kconfig.debug | 4 +-
> > arch/arm/Makefile | 5 +-
> > arch/arm/lib/Makefile | 8 +-
> > arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S | 224 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> > 4 files changed, 237 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
> > create mode 100644 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> > index 85710e078afb..92fca7463e21 100644
> > --- a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> > +++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> > @@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ choice
> >
> > config UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER
> > bool "Frame pointer unwinder"
> > - depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL && !CC_IS_CLANG
> > + depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL
> > select ARCH_WANT_FRAME_POINTERS
> > select FRAME_POINTER
> > help
> > @@ -1872,7 +1872,7 @@ config DEBUG_UNCOMPRESS
> > When this option is set, the selected DEBUG_LL output method
> > will be re-used for normal decompressor output on multiplatform
> > kernels.
> > -
> > +
>
> Probably can drop the added newline?
>
> >
> > config UNCOMPRESS_INCLUDE
> > string
> > diff --git a/arch/arm/Makefile b/arch/arm/Makefile
> > index c3624ca6c0bc..729e223b83fe 100644
> > --- a/arch/arm/Makefile
> > +++ b/arch/arm/Makefile
> > @@ -36,7 +36,10 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-option,-mno-unaligned-access)
> > endif
> >
> > ifeq ($(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER),y)
> > -KBUILD_CFLAGS +=-fno-omit-frame-pointer -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
> > +KBUILD_CFLAGS +=-fno-omit-frame-pointer
> > + ifeq ($(CONFIG_CC_IS_GCC),y)
> > + KBUILD_CFLAGS += -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
> > + endif
>
> While I can appreciate the indentation, it's unusual to indent
> additional depths of kernel Makefiles. At least the rest of this file
> does not do so. Of course, the other Makefile you touch below does
> two spaces. At least try to keep the file internally consistent, even
> if the kernel itself is inconsistent.
>
> > endif
> >
> > ifeq ($(CONFIG_CPU_BIG_ENDIAN),y)
> > diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> > index b25c54585048..e10a769c72ec 100644
> > --- a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> > +++ b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> > @@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
> > # Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Russell King
> > #
> >
> > -lib-y := backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o \
> > +lib-y := changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o \
> > csumpartialcopy.o csumpartialcopyuser.o clearbit.o \
> > delay.o delay-loop.o findbit.o memchr.o memcpy.o \
> > memmove.o memset.o setbit.o \
> > @@ -19,6 +19,12 @@ lib-y := backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o \
> > mmu-y := clear_user.o copy_page.o getuser.o putuser.o \
> > copy_from_user.o copy_to_user.o
> >
> > +ifdef CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG
> > + lib-y += backtrace-clang.o
> > +else
> > + lib-y += backtrace.o
> > +endif
>
> The indentation should match the above (from this file). Looks like 1
> tab after lib-y. See L34(CONFIG_CPU_32v3) for what I would have
> expected.
>
> > +
> > # using lib_ here won't override already available weak symbols
> > obj-$(CONFIG_UACCESS_WITH_MEMCPY) += uaccess_with_memcpy.o
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..2b02014dbdd1
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> > @@ -0,0 +1,224 @@
> > +/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only */
> > +/*
> > + * linux/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> > + *
> > + * Copyright (C) 2019 Nathan Huckleberry
> > + *
> > + */
> > +#include <linux/kern_levels.h>
> > +#include <linux/linkage.h>
> > +#include <asm/assembler.h>
> > + .text
> > +
> > +/* fp is 0 or stack frame */
>
> ah, I see that the reference implementation uses an assembly comment
> here. Ok (sorry for the noise).
>
> > +
> > +#define frame r4
> > +#define sv_fp r5
> > +#define sv_pc r6
> > +#define mask r7
> > +#define sv_lr r8
> > +
> > +ENTRY(c_backtrace)
> > +
> > +#if !defined(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER) || !defined(CONFIG_PRINTK)
> > + ret lr
> > +ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
> > +#else
> > +
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Clang does not store pc or sp in function prologues
> > + * so we don't know exactly where the function
> > + * starts.
> > + * We can treat the current frame's lr as the saved pc and the
> > + * preceding frame's lr as the lr, but we can't
>
> preceding frame's lr as the current frame's lr, ...
>
> > + * trace the most recent call.
> > + * Inserting a false stack frame allows us to reference the
> > + * function called last in the stacktrace.
> > + * If the call instruction was a bl we can look at the callers
> > + * branch instruction to calculate the saved pc.
> > + * We can recover the pc in most cases, but in cases such as
> > + * calling function pointers we cannot. In this
> > + * case, default to using the lr. This will be
> > + * some address in the function, but will not
> > + * be the function start.
> > + * Unfortunately due to the stack frame layout we can't dump
> > + * r0 - r3, but these are less frequently saved.
>
> The use of tabs vs spaces in these comments is inconsistent. Not that
> I can see whitespace, but:
> https://github.com/nickdesaulniers/dotfiles/blob/37359525f5a403b4ed2d3f9d1bbbee2da8ec8115/.vimrc#L35-L41
> Also, I don't think you need to tab indent every line after the first.
> Where did that format come from?
>
> > + *
> > + * Stack frame layout:
> > + * <larger addresses>
> > + * saved lr
> > + * frame => saved fp
> > + * optionally saved caller registers (r4 - r10)
> > + * optionally saved arguments (r0 - r3)
> > + * <top of stack frame>
> > + * <smaller addresses>
> > + *
> > + * Functions start with the following code sequence:
> > + * corrected pc => stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
> > + * add fp, sp, #x
> > + * stmfd sp!, {r0 - r3} (optional)
> > + *
> > + *
> > + *
> > + *
> > + *
> > + *
> > + * The diagram below shows an example stack setup
> > + * for dump_stack.
> > + *
> > + * The frame for c_backtrace has pointers to the
> > + * code of dump_stack. This is why the frame of
> > + * c_backtrace is used to for the pc calculation
> > + * of dump_stack. This is why we must move back
> > + * a frame to print dump_stack.
> > + *
> > + * The stored locals for dump_stack are in dump_stack's
> > + * frame. This means that to fully print dump_stack's frame
> > + * we need the both the frame for dump_stack (for locals) and the
>
> we need both the ...
> (There's an extra `the` in the sentence).
>
> > + * frame that was called by dump_stack (for pc).
> > + *
> > + * To print locals we must know where the function start is. If
> > + * we read the function prologue opcodes we can determine
> > + * which variables are stored in the stack frame.
> > + *
> > + * To find the function start of dump_stack we can look at the
> > + * stored LR of show_stack. It points at the instruction
> > + * directly after the bl dump_stack. We can then read the
> > + * offset from the bl opcode to determine where the branch takes us.
> > + * The address calculated must be the start of dump_stack.
> > + *
> > + * c_backtrace frame dump_stack:
> > + * {[LR] } ============| ...
> > + * {[FP] } =======| | bl c_backtrace
> > + * | |=> ...
> > + * {[R4-R10]} |
> > + * {[R0-R3] } | show_stack:
> > + * dump_stack frame | ...
> > + * {[LR] } =============| bl dump_stack
> > + * {[FP] } <=======| |=> ...
> > + * {[R4-R10]}
> > + * {[R0-R3] }
> > + */
> > +
> > +stmfd sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, lr} @ Save an extra register
> > + @ to ensure 8 byte alignment
> > +movs frame, r0 @ if frame pointer is zero
> > +beq no_frame @ we have no stack frames
> > +
> > +tst r1, #0x10 @ 26 or 32-bit mode?
> > +moveq mask, #0xfc000003
>
> Should we be using different masks for ARM vs THUMB as per the
> reference implementation?
The change that introduces the arm/thumb code looked like a script
that was run over all arm in the kernel. Neither this code nor the
reference solution is compatible with arm, so there's no need for the
change.
>
> > +movne mask, #0 @ mask for 32-bit
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Switches the current frame to be the frame for dump_stack.
> > + */
> > + add frame, sp, #24 @ switch to false frame
> > +for_each_frame: tst frame, mask @ Check for address exceptions
> > + bne no_frame
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * sv_fp is the stack frame with the locals for the current considered
> > + * function.
> > + * sv_pc is the saved lr frame the frame above. This is a pointer to a
> > + * code address within the current considered function, but
> > + * it is not the function start. This value gets updated to be
> > + * the function start later if it is possible.
> > + */
> > +1001: ldr sv_pc, [frame, #4] @ get saved 'pc'
> > +1002: ldr sv_fp, [frame, #0] @ get saved fp
>
> The reference implementation applies the mask to sv_pc and sv_fp. I
> assume we want to, too?
The mask is already applied to both. See for_each_frame:
>
> > +
> > + teq sv_fp, #0 @ make sure next frame exists
> > + beq no_frame
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * sv_lr is the lr from the function that called the current function. This
> > + * is a pointer to a code address in the current function's caller.
> > + * sv_lr-4 is the instruction used to call the current function.
> > + * This sv_lr can be used to calculate the function start if the function
> > + * was called using a bl instruction. If the function start
> > + * can be recovered sv_pc is overwritten with the function start.
> > + * If the current function was called using a function pointer we cannot
> > + * recover the function start and instead continue with sv_pc as
> > + * an arbitrary value within the current function. If this is the case
> > + * we cannot print registers for the current function, but the stacktrace
> > + * is still printed properly.
> > + */
> > +1003: ldr sv_lr, [sv_fp, #4] @ get saved lr from next frame
> > +
> > + ldr r0, [sv_lr, #-4] @ get call instruction
> > + ldr r3, .Ldsi+8
>
> I wonder what `dsi` stands for, it could use a better name. Maybe put
> that mask in a more descriptively named section and use that instead
> of `.Ldsi+8`?
>
> > + and r2, r3, r0 @ is this a bl call
> > + teq r2, r3
> > + bne finished_setup @ give up if it's not
> > + and r0, #0xffffff @ get call offset 24-bit int
> > + lsl r0, r0, #8 @ sign extend offset
> > + asr r0, r0, #8
>
> It's too bad this should work for older ARM versions, v6 added
> dedicated instructions for this:
> http://infocenter.arm.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.arm.doc.dui0489c/Cihfifdd.html
>
> > + ldr sv_pc, [sv_fp, #4] @ get lr address
> > + add sv_pc, sv_pc, #-4 @ get call instruction address
> > + add sv_pc, sv_pc, #8 @ take care of prefetch
> > + add sv_pc, sv_pc, r0, lsl #2 @ find function start
> > +
> > +finished_setup:
> > +
> > + bic sv_pc, sv_pc, mask @ mask PC/LR for the mode
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Print the function (sv_pc) and where it was called
> > + * from (sv_lr).
> > + */
> > +1004: mov r0, sv_pc
> > +
> > + mov r1, sv_lr
> > + mov r2, frame
> > + bic r1, r1, mask @ mask PC/LR for the mode
> > + bl dump_backtrace_entry
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Test if the function start is a stmfd instruction
> > + * to determine which registers were stored in the function
> > + * prologue.
> > + * If we could not recover the sv_pc because we were called through
> > + * a function pointer the comparison will fail and no registers
> > + * will print.
> > + */
> > +1005: ldr r1, [sv_pc, #0] @ if stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
> > + ldr r3, .Ldsi @ instruction exists,
> > + teq r3, r1, lsr #11
> > + ldr r0, [frame] @ locals are stored in
> > + @ the preceding frame
> > + subeq r0, r0, #4
> > + bleq dump_backtrace_stm @ dump saved registers
>
> Do we need to do anything to test .Ldsi+4? Otherwise looks like we
> define it but don't use it?
>
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * If we are out of frames or if the next frame
> > + * is invalid.
> > + */
> > + teq sv_fp, #0 @ zero saved fp means
> > + beq no_frame @ no further frames
> > +
> > + cmp sv_fp, frame @ next frame must be
> > + mov frame, sv_fp @ above the current frame
> > + bhi for_each_frame
> > +
> > +1006: adr r0, .Lbad
> > + mov r1, frame
> > + bl printk
> > +no_frame: ldmfd sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, pc}
> > +ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
> > + .pushsection __ex_table,"a"
> > + .align 3
> > + .long 1001b, 1006b
> > + .long 1002b, 1006b
> > + .long 1003b, 1006b
> > + .long 1004b, 1006b
> > + .long 1005b, 1006b
> > + .popsection
> > +
> > +.Lbad: .asciz "Backtrace aborted due to bad frame pointer <%p>\n"
> > + .align
> > +.Ldsi: .word 0xe92d4800 >> 11 @ stmfd sp!, {... fp, lr}
> > + .word 0xe92d0000 >> 11 @ stmfd sp!, {}
> > + .word 0x0b000000 @ bl if these bits are set
> > +
> > +#endif
> > --
> > 2.23.0.rc1.153.gdeed80330f-goog
> >
>
>
> --
> Thanks,
> ~Nick Desaulniers
Thanks for the review, will send a v2 with your suggestions.

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