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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 4/5] mm: Introduce Hinted pages
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On 7/24/19 1:03 PM, Alexander Duyck wrote:
> From: Alexander Duyck <alexander.h.duyck@linux.intel.com>
>
> In order to pave the way for free page hinting in virtualized environments
> we will need a way to get pages out of the free lists and identify those
> pages after they have been returned. To accomplish this, this patch adds
> the concept of a Hinted Buddy, which is essentially meant to just be the
> Offline page type used in conjunction with the Buddy page type.
>
> It adds a set of pointers we shall call "boundary" which represents the
> upper boundary between the unhinted and hinted pages. The general idea is
> that in order for a page to cross from one side of the boundary to the
> other it will need to go through the hinting process. Ultimately a
> free_list has been fully processed when the boundary has been moved from
> the tail all they way up to occupying the first entry in the list.
>
> Doing this we should be able to make certain that we keep the hinted
> pages as one contiguous block in each free list. This will allow us to
> efficiently manipulate the free lists whenever we need to go in and start
> sending hints to the hypervisor that there are new pages that have been
> freed and are no longer in use.
>
> An added advantage to this approach is that we should be reducing the
> overall memory footprint of the guest as it will be more likely to recycle
> warm pages versus trying to allocate the hinted pages that were likely
> evicted from the guest memory.
>
> Since we will only be hinting one zone at a time we keep the boundary
> limited to being defined for just the zone we are currently placing hinted
> pages into. Doing this we can keep the number of additional pointers needed
> quite small. To flag that the boundaries are in place we use a single bit
> in the zone to indicate that hinting and the boundaries are active.
>
> The determination of when to start hinting is based on the tracking of the
> number of free pages in a given area versus the number of hinted pages in
> that area. We keep track of the number of hinted pages per free_area in a
> separate zone specific area. We do this to avoid modifying the free_area
> structure as this can lead to false sharing for the highest order with the
> zone lock which leads to a noticeable performance degradation.
>
> Signed-off-by: Alexander Duyck <alexander.h.duyck@linux.intel.com>
> ---
> include/linux/mmzone.h | 40 +++++-
> include/linux/page-flags.h | 8 +
> include/linux/page_hinting.h | 139 ++++++++++++++++++++
> mm/Kconfig | 5 +
> mm/Makefile | 1
> mm/memory_hotplug.c | 1
> mm/page_alloc.c | 136 ++++++++++++++++++-
> mm/page_hinting.c | 298 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 8 files changed, 620 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 include/linux/page_hinting.h
> create mode 100644 mm/page_hinting.c
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
> index f0c68b6b6154..42bdebb20484 100644
> --- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
> +++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
> @@ -460,6 +460,14 @@ struct zone {
> seqlock_t span_seqlock;
> #endif
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_HINTING
> + /*
> + * Pointer to hinted page tracking statistics array. The size of
> + * the array is MAX_ORDER - PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER. NULL when
> + * page hinting is not present.
> + */
> + unsigned long *hinted_pages;
> +#endif
> int initialized;
>
> /* Write-intensive fields used from the page allocator */
> @@ -535,6 +543,14 @@ enum zone_flags {
> ZONE_BOOSTED_WATERMARK, /* zone recently boosted watermarks.
> * Cleared when kswapd is woken.
> */
> + ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_REQUESTED, /* zone enabled page hinting and has
> + * requested flushing the data out of
> + * higher order pages.
> + */
> + ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_ACTIVE, /* zone enabled page hinting and is
> + * activly flushing the data out of
> + * higher order pages.
> + */
> };
>
> static inline unsigned long zone_managed_pages(struct zone *zone)
> @@ -755,6 +771,8 @@ static inline bool pgdat_is_empty(pg_data_t *pgdat)
> return !pgdat->node_start_pfn && !pgdat->node_spanned_pages;
> }
>
> +#include <linux/page_hinting.h>
> +
> /* Used for pages not on another list */
> static inline void add_to_free_list(struct page *page, struct zone *zone,
> unsigned int order, int migratetype)
> @@ -769,10 +787,16 @@ static inline void add_to_free_list(struct page *page, struct zone *zone,
> static inline void add_to_free_list_tail(struct page *page, struct zone *zone,
> unsigned int order, int migratetype)
> {
> - struct free_area *area = &zone->free_area[order];
> + struct list_head *tail = get_unhinted_tail(zone, order, migratetype);
>
> - list_add_tail(&page->lru, &area->free_list[migratetype]);
> - area->nr_free++;
> + /*
> + * To prevent the unhinted pages from being interleaved with the
> + * hinted ones while we are actively processing pages we will use
> + * the head of the hinted pages to determine the tail of the free
> + * list.
> + */
> + list_add_tail(&page->lru, tail);
> + zone->free_area[order].nr_free++;
> }
>
> /* Used for pages which are on another list */
> @@ -781,12 +805,22 @@ static inline void move_to_free_list(struct page *page, struct zone *zone,
> {
> struct free_area *area = &zone->free_area[order];
>
> + /*
> + * Clear Hinted flag, if present, to avoid placing hinted pages
> + * at the top of the free_list. It is cheaper to just process this
> + * page again, then have to walk around a page that is already hinted.
> + */
> + clear_page_hinted(page, zone);
> +
> list_move(&page->lru, &area->free_list[migratetype]);
> }
>
> static inline void del_page_from_free_list(struct page *page, struct zone *zone,
> unsigned int order)
> {
> + /* Clear Hinted flag, if present, before clearing the Buddy flag */
> + clear_page_hinted(page, zone);
> +
> list_del(&page->lru);
> __ClearPageBuddy(page);
> set_page_private(page, 0);
> diff --git a/include/linux/page-flags.h b/include/linux/page-flags.h
> index b848517da64c..b753dbf673cb 100644
> --- a/include/linux/page-flags.h
> +++ b/include/linux/page-flags.h
> @@ -745,6 +745,14 @@ static inline int page_has_type(struct page *page)
> PAGE_TYPE_OPS(Offline, offline)
>
> /*
> + * PageHinted() is an alias for Offline, however it is not meant to be an
> + * exclusive value. It should be combined with PageBuddy() when seen as it
> + * is meant to indicate that the page has been scrubbed while waiting in
> + * the buddy system.
> + */
> +PAGE_TYPE_OPS(Hinted, offline)
> +
> +/*
> * If kmemcg is enabled, the buddy allocator will set PageKmemcg() on
> * pages allocated with __GFP_ACCOUNT. It gets cleared on page free.
> */
> diff --git a/include/linux/page_hinting.h b/include/linux/page_hinting.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..526fb26663d9
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/include/linux/page_hinting.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,139 @@
> +/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
> +#ifndef _LINUX_PAGE_HINTING_H
> +#define _LINUX_PAGE_HINTING_H
> +
> +#include <linux/mmzone.h>
> +#include <linux/jump_label.h>
> +#include <linux/pageblock-flags.h>
> +#include <asm/pgtable_types.h>
> +
> +#define PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER pageblock_order
> +#define PAGE_HINTING_HWM 32
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_HINTING
> +struct page_hinting_dev_info {
> + /* function that alters pages to make them "hinted" */
> + void (*react)(struct page_hinting_dev_info *phdev,
> + unsigned int num_hints);
> +
> + /* scatterlist containing pages to be processed */
> + struct scatterlist *sg;
> +
> + /*
> + * Upper limit on the number of pages that the react function
> + * expects to be placed into the batch list to be processed.
> + */
> + unsigned long capacity;
> +
> + /* work struct for processing hints */
> + struct delayed_work work;
> +
> + /*
> + * The number of zones requesting hinting, plus one additional if
> + * processing thread is active.
> + */
> + atomic_t refcnt;
> +};
> +
> +extern struct static_key page_hinting_notify_enabled;
> +
> +/* Boundary functions */
> +struct list_head *__page_hinting_get_boundary(unsigned int order,
> + int migratetype);
> +void page_hinting_del_from_boundary(struct page *page, struct zone *zone);
> +void page_hinting_add_to_boundary(struct page *page, struct zone *zone,
> + int migratetype);
> +
> +/* Hinted page accessors, defined in page_alloc.c */
> +struct page *get_unhinted_page(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,
> + int migratetype);
> +void put_hinted_page(struct zone *zone, struct page *page);
> +
> +void __page_hinting_request(struct zone *zone);
> +void __page_hinting_free_stats(struct zone *zone);
> +
> +/* Tear-down and bring-up for page hinting devices */
> +void page_hinting_shutdown(struct page_hinting_dev_info *phdev);
> +int page_hinting_startup(struct page_hinting_dev_info *phdev);
> +#endif /* CONFIG_PAGE_HINTING */
> +
> +static inline struct list_head *get_unhinted_tail(struct zone *zone,
> + unsigned int order,
> + int migratetype)
> +{
> +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_HINTING
> + if (order >= PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER &&
> + test_bit(ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_ACTIVE, &zone->flags))
> + return __page_hinting_get_boundary(order, migratetype);
> +#endif
> + return &zone->free_area[order].free_list[migratetype];
> +}
> +
> +static inline void clear_page_hinted(struct page *page,
> + struct zone *zone)
> +{
> +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_HINTING
> + if (likely(!PageHinted(page)))
> + return;
> +
> + /* push boundary back if we removed the upper boundary */
> + if (test_bit(ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_ACTIVE, &zone->flags))
> + page_hinting_del_from_boundary(page, zone);
> +
> + __ClearPageHinted(page);
> +
> + /* page_private will contain the page order, so just use it directly */
> + zone->hinted_pages[page_private(page) - PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER]--;
> +#endif
> +}
> +
> +/* Free hinted_pages and reset hinted page tracking count to 0 */
> +static inline void page_hinting_reset(struct zone *zone)
> +{
> +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_HINTING
> + if (zone->hinted_pages)
> + __page_hinting_free_stats(zone);
> +#endif
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * page_hinting_notify_free - Free page notification to start page processing
> + * @zone: Pointer to current zone of last page processed
> + * @order: Order of last page added to zone
> + *
> + * This function is meant to act as a screener for __page_hinting_request which
> + * will determine if a give zone has crossed over the high-water mark that
> + * will justify us beginning page treatment. If we have crossed that
> + * threshold then it will start the process of pulling some pages and
> + * placing them in the batch list for treatment.
> + */
> +static inline void page_hinting_notify_free(struct zone *zone, int order)
> +{
> +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_HINTING
> + unsigned long nr_hinted;
> +
> + /* Called from hot path in __free_one_page() */
> + if (!static_key_false(&page_hinting_notify_enabled))
> + return;
> +
> + /* Limit notifications only to higher order pages */
> + if (order < PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER)
> + return;
> +
> + /* Do not bother with tests if we have already requested hinting */
> + if (test_bit(ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_REQUESTED, &zone->flags))
> + return;
> +
> + /* If hinted_pages is not populated, assume 0 */
> + nr_hinted = zone->hinted_pages ?
> + zone->hinted_pages[order - PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER] : 0;
> +
> + /* Only request it if we have enough to begin the page hinting */
> + if (zone->free_area[order].nr_free < nr_hinted + PAGE_HINTING_HWM)
> + return;
> +
> + /* This is slow, but should be called very rarely */
> + __page_hinting_request(zone);
> +#endif
> +}
> +#endif /*_LINUX_PAGE_HINTING_H */
> diff --git a/mm/Kconfig b/mm/Kconfig
> index 56cec636a1fc..38354668f849 100644
> --- a/mm/Kconfig
> +++ b/mm/Kconfig
> @@ -237,6 +237,11 @@ config COMPACTION
> linux-mm@kvack.org.
>
> #
> +# support for free page hinting
> +config PAGE_HINTING
> + bool
> +
> +#
> # support for page migration
> #
> config MIGRATION
> diff --git a/mm/Makefile b/mm/Makefile
> index 338e528ad436..7277ced923ab 100644
> --- a/mm/Makefile
> +++ b/mm/Makefile
> @@ -104,3 +104,4 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY) += usercopy.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_PERCPU_STATS) += percpu-stats.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_HMM_MIRROR) += hmm.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_MEMFD_CREATE) += memfd.o
> +obj-$(CONFIG_PAGE_HINTING) += page_hinting.o
> diff --git a/mm/memory_hotplug.c b/mm/memory_hotplug.c
> index 2a9bbddb0e55..7c2d49b1a918 100644
> --- a/mm/memory_hotplug.c
> +++ b/mm/memory_hotplug.c
> @@ -1622,6 +1622,7 @@ static int __ref __offline_pages(unsigned long start_pfn,
> if (!populated_zone(zone)) {
> zone_pcp_reset(zone);
> build_all_zonelists(NULL);
> + page_hinting_reset(zone);
> } else
> zone_pcp_update(zone);
>
> diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
> index 9a73f69b37af..c83cb4a30aff 100644
> --- a/mm/page_alloc.c
> +++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
> @@ -68,6 +68,7 @@
> #include <linux/lockdep.h>
> #include <linux/nmi.h>
> #include <linux/psi.h>
> +#include <linux/page_hinting.h>
>
> #include <asm/sections.h>
> #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
> @@ -915,7 +916,7 @@ static inline struct capture_control *task_capc(struct zone *zone)
> static inline void __free_one_page(struct page *page,
> unsigned long pfn,
> struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,
> - int migratetype)
> + int migratetype, bool hinted)
> {
> struct capture_control *capc = task_capc(zone);
> unsigned long uninitialized_var(buddy_pfn);
> @@ -990,11 +991,20 @@ static inline void __free_one_page(struct page *page,
> done_merging:
> set_page_order(page, order);
>
> - if (is_shuffle_order(order) ? shuffle_add_to_tail() :
> - buddy_merge_likely(pfn, buddy_pfn, page, order))
> + if (hinted ||
> + (is_shuffle_order(order) ? shuffle_add_to_tail() :
> + buddy_merge_likely(pfn, buddy_pfn, page, order)))
> add_to_free_list_tail(page, zone, order, migratetype);
> else
> add_to_free_list(page, zone, order, migratetype);
> +
> + /*
> + * No need to notify on a hinted page as the total count of
> + * unhinted pages will not have increased since we have essentially
> + * merged the hinted page with one or more unhinted pages.
> + */
> + if (!hinted)
> + page_hinting_notify_free(zone, order);
> }
>
> /*
> @@ -1305,7 +1315,7 @@ static void free_pcppages_bulk(struct zone *zone, int count,
> if (unlikely(isolated_pageblocks))
> mt = get_pageblock_migratetype(page);
>
> - __free_one_page(page, page_to_pfn(page), zone, 0, mt);
> + __free_one_page(page, page_to_pfn(page), zone, 0, mt, false);
> trace_mm_page_pcpu_drain(page, 0, mt);
> }
> spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
> @@ -1321,7 +1331,7 @@ static void free_one_page(struct zone *zone,
> is_migrate_isolate(migratetype))) {
> migratetype = get_pfnblock_migratetype(page, pfn);
> }
> - __free_one_page(page, pfn, zone, order, migratetype);
> + __free_one_page(page, pfn, zone, order, migratetype, false);
> spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
> }
>
> @@ -2183,6 +2193,122 @@ struct page *__rmqueue_smallest(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,
> return NULL;
> }
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_HINTING
> +/**
> + * get_unhinted_page - Pull an unhinted page from the free_list
> + * @zone: Zone to draw pages from
> + * @order: Order to draw pages from
> + * @mt: Migratetype to draw pages from
> + *
> + * This function will obtain a page from the free list. It will start by
> + * attempting to pull from the tail of the free list and if that is already
> + * hinted on it will instead pull the head if that is unhinted.
> + *
> + * The page will have the migrate type and order stored in the page
> + * metadata. While being processed the page will not be avaialble for
> + * allocation.
> + *
> + * Return: page pointer if raw page found, otherwise NULL
> + */
> +struct page *get_unhinted_page(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order, int mt)
> +{
> + struct list_head *tail = get_unhinted_tail(zone, order, mt);
> + struct free_area *area = &(zone->free_area[order]);
> + struct list_head *list = &area->free_list[mt];
> + struct page *page;
> +
> + /* zone lock should be held when this function is called */
> + lockdep_assert_held(&zone->lock);
> +
> + /* Find a page of the appropriate size in the preferred list */
> + page = list_last_entry(tail, struct page, lru);
> + list_for_each_entry_from_reverse(page, list, lru) {
> + /* If we entered this loop then the "raw" list isn't empty */
> +
> + /* If the page is hinted try the head of the list */
> + if (PageHinted(page)) {
> + page = list_first_entry(list, struct page, lru);
> +
> + /*
> + * If both the head and tail are hinted then reset
> + * the boundary so that we read as an empty list
> + * next time and bail out.
> + */
> + if (PageHinted(page)) {
> + page_hinting_add_to_boundary(page, zone, mt);
> + break;
> + }
> + }
> +
> + del_page_from_free_list(page, zone, order);
> +
> + /* record migratetype and order within page */
> + set_pcppage_migratetype(page, mt);
> + set_page_private(page, order);
> +
> + /*
> + * Page will not be available for allocation while we are
> + * processing it so update the freepage state.
> + */
> + __mod_zone_freepage_state(zone, -(1 << order), mt);
> +
> + return page;
> + }
> +
> + return NULL;
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * put_hinted_page - Return a now-hinted page back where we got it
> + * @zone: Zone to return pages to
> + * @page: Page that was hinted
> + *
> + * This function will pull the migratetype and order information out
> + * of the page and attempt to return it where it found it. If the page
> + * is added to the free list without changes we will mark it as being
> + * hinted.
> + */
> +void put_hinted_page(struct zone *zone, struct page *page)
> +{
> + unsigned int order, mt;
> + unsigned long pfn;
> +
> + /* zone lock should be held when this function is called */
> + lockdep_assert_held(&zone->lock);
> +
> + mt = get_pcppage_migratetype(page);
> + pfn = page_to_pfn(page);
> +
> + if (unlikely(has_isolate_pageblock(zone) || is_migrate_isolate(mt))) {
> + mt = get_pfnblock_migratetype(page, pfn);
> + set_pcppage_migratetype(page, mt);
> + }
> +
> + order = page_private(page);
> + set_page_private(page, 0);
> +
> + __free_one_page(page, pfn, zone, order, mt, true);
> +
> + /*
> + * If page was comingled with another page we cannot consider
> + * the result to be "hinted" since part of the page hasn't been.
> + * In this case we will simply exit and not update the "hinted"
> + * state. Instead just treat the result as a unhinted page.
> + */
> + if (!PageBuddy(page) || page_order(page) != order)
> + return;
> +
> + /* update areated page accounting */
> + zone->hinted_pages[order - PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER]++;
> +
> + /* update boundary of new migratetype and record it */
> + page_hinting_add_to_boundary(page, zone, mt);
> +
> + /* flag page as hinted */
> + __SetPageHinted(page);
> +}
> +#endif /* CONFIG_PAGE_HINTING */
> +
> /*
> * This array describes the order lists are fallen back to when
> * the free lists for the desirable migrate type are depleted
> diff --git a/mm/page_hinting.c b/mm/page_hinting.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..d06d3762b315
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/mm/page_hinting.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,298 @@
> +// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +#include <linux/mm.h>
> +#include <linux/mmzone.h>
> +#include <linux/page-isolation.h>
> +#include <linux/gfp.h>
> +#include <linux/export.h>
> +#include <linux/delay.h>
> +#include <linux/slab.h>
> +#include <linux/scatterlist.h>
> +#include "internal.h"
> +
> +static struct page_hinting_dev_info __rcu *ph_dev_info __read_mostly;
> +struct static_key page_hinting_notify_enabled;
> +
> +struct list_head *boundary[MAX_ORDER - PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER][MIGRATE_TYPES];
> +
> +static void page_hinting_reset_boundary(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,
> + unsigned int migratetype)
> +{
> + boundary[order - PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER][migratetype] =
> + &zone->free_area[order].free_list[migratetype];
> +}
> +
> +#define for_each_hinting_migratetype_order(_order, _type) \
> + for (_order = MAX_ORDER; _order-- != PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER;) \
> + for (_type = MIGRATE_TYPES; _type--;)
> +
> +static int page_hinting_populate_metadata(struct zone *zone)
> +{
> + unsigned int order, mt;
> +
> + /*
> + * We need to make sure we have somewhere to store the tracking
> + * data for how many hinted pages are in the zone. To do that
> + * we need to make certain zone->hinted_pages is populated.
> + */
> + if (!zone->hinted_pages) {
> + zone->hinted_pages = kcalloc(MAX_ORDER - PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER,
> + sizeof(unsigned long),
> + GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (!zone->hinted_pages)
> + return -ENOMEM;
> + }
> +
> + /* Update boundary data to reflect the zone we are currently working */
> + for_each_hinting_migratetype_order(order, mt)
> + page_hinting_reset_boundary(zone, order, mt);
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +struct list_head *__page_hinting_get_boundary(unsigned int order,
> + int migratetype)
> +{
> + return boundary[order - PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER][migratetype];
> +}
> +
> +void page_hinting_del_from_boundary(struct page *page, struct zone *zone)
> +{
> + unsigned int order = page_private(page) - PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER;
> + int mt = get_pcppage_migratetype(page);
> + struct list_head **tail = &boundary[order][mt];
> +
> + if (*tail == &page->lru)
> + *tail = page->lru.next;
> +}
> +
> +void page_hinting_add_to_boundary(struct page *page, struct zone *zone,
> + int migratetype)
> +{
> + unsigned int order = page_private(page) - PAGE_HINTING_MIN_ORDER;
> + struct list_head **tail = &boundary[order][migratetype];
> +
> + *tail = &page->lru;
> +}
> +
> +static unsigned int page_hinting_fill(struct zone *zone,
> + struct page_hinting_dev_info *phdev)
> +{
> + struct scatterlist *sg = phdev->sg;
> + unsigned int order, mt, count = 0;
> +
> + sg_init_table(phdev->sg, phdev->capacity);
> +
> + for_each_hinting_migratetype_order(order, mt) {
> + struct page *page;
> +
> + /*
> + * Pull pages from free list until we have drained
> + * it or we have reached capacity.
> + */
> + while ((page = get_unhinted_page(zone, order, mt))) {
> + sg_set_page(&sg[count], page, PAGE_SIZE << order, 0);
> +
> + if (++count == phdev->capacity)
> + return count;
> + }
> + }
> +
> + /* mark end of scatterlist due to underflow */
> + if (count)
> + sg_mark_end(&sg[count - 1]);
> +
> + /*
> + * If there are no longer enough free pages to fully populate
> + * the scatterlist, then we can just shut it down for this zone.
> + */
> + clear_bit(ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_REQUESTED, &zone->flags);
> + atomic_dec(&phdev->refcnt);
> +
> + return count;
> +}
> +
> +static void page_hinting_drain(struct zone *zone,
> + struct page_hinting_dev_info *phdev)
> +{
> + struct scatterlist *sg = phdev->sg;
> +
> + /*
> + * Drain the now hinted pages back into their respective
> + * free lists/areas. We assume at least one page is populated.
> + */
> + do {
> + put_hinted_page(zone, sg_page(sg));
> + } while (!sg_is_last(sg++));
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * The page hinting cycle consists of 4 stages, fill, react, drain, and idle.
> + * We will cycle through the first 3 stages until we fail to obtain any
> + * pages, in that case we will switch to idle.
> + */
> +static void page_hinting_cycle(struct zone *zone,
> + struct page_hinting_dev_info *phdev)
> +{
> + /*
> + * Guarantee boundaries and stats are populated before we
> + * start placing hinted pages in the zone.
> + */
> + if (page_hinting_populate_metadata(zone))
> + return;
> +
> + spin_lock(&zone->lock);
> +
> + /* set bit indicating boundaries are present */
> + set_bit(ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_ACTIVE, &zone->flags);
> +
> + do {
> + /* Pull pages out of allocator into a scaterlist */
> + unsigned int num_hints = page_hinting_fill(zone, phdev);
> +
> + /* no pages were acquired, give up */
> + if (!num_hints)
> + break;
> +
> + spin_unlock(&zone->lock);

Is there any recommendation in general about how/where we should lock and unlock
zones in the code? For instance, over here you have a zone lock outside the loop
and you are unlocking it inside the loop and then re-acquiring it.
My guess is we should be fine as long as:
1. We are not holding the lock for a very long time.
2. We are making sure that if we have a zone lock we are releasing it before
returning from the function.

> +
> + /* begin processing pages in local list */
> + phdev->react(phdev, num_hints);
> +
> + spin_lock(&zone->lock);
> +
> + /*
> + * We should have a scatterlist of pages that have been
> + * processed. Return them to their original free lists.
> + */
> + page_hinting_drain(zone, phdev);
> +
> + /* keep pulling pages till there are none to pull */
> + } while (test_bit(ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_REQUESTED, &zone->flags));
> +
> + /* processing of the zone is complete, we can disable boundaries */
> + clear_bit(ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_ACTIVE, &zone->flags);
> +
> + spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
> +}
> +
> +static void page_hinting_process(struct work_struct *work)
> +{
> + struct delayed_work *d_work = to_delayed_work(work);
> + struct page_hinting_dev_info *phdev =
> + container_of(d_work, struct page_hinting_dev_info, work);
> + struct zone *zone = first_online_pgdat()->node_zones;
> +
> + do {
> + if (test_bit(ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_REQUESTED, &zone->flags))
> + page_hinting_cycle(zone, phdev);
> +
> + /*
> + * Move to next zone, if at the end of the list
> + * test to see if we can just go into idle.
> + */
> + zone = next_zone(zone);
> + if (zone)
> + continue;
> + zone = first_online_pgdat()->node_zones;
> +
> + /*
> + * As long as refcnt has not reached zero there are still
> + * zones to be processed.
> + */
> + } while (atomic_read(&phdev->refcnt));
> +}
> +
> +/* request page hinting on this zone */
> +void __page_hinting_request(struct zone *zone)
> +{
> + struct page_hinting_dev_info *phdev;
> +
> + rcu_read_lock();
> +
> + /*
> + * We use RCU to protect the ph_dev_info pointer. In almost all
> + * cases this should be present, however in the unlikely case of
> + * a shutdown this will be NULL and we should exit.
> + */
> + phdev = rcu_dereference(ph_dev_info);
> + if (unlikely(!phdev))
> + return;
> +
> + /*
> + * We can use separate test and set operations here as there
> + * is nothing else that can set or clear this bit while we are
> + * holding the zone lock. The advantage to doing it this way is
> + * that we don't have to dirty the cacheline unless we are
> + * changing the value.
> + */
> + set_bit(ZONE_PAGE_HINTING_REQUESTED, &zone->flags);
> +
> + /*
> + * Delay the start of work to allow a sizable queue to
> + * build. For now we are limiting this to running no more
> + * than 10 times per second.
> + */
> + if (!atomic_fetch_inc(&phdev->refcnt))
> + schedule_delayed_work(&phdev->work, HZ / 10);
> +
> + rcu_read_unlock();
> +}
> +
> +void __page_hinting_free_stats(struct zone *zone)
> +{
> + /* free hinted_page statisitics */
> + kfree(zone->hinted_pages);
> + zone->hinted_pages = NULL;
> +}
> +
> +void page_hinting_shutdown(struct page_hinting_dev_info *phdev)
> +{
> + if (rcu_access_pointer(ph_dev_info) != phdev)
> + return;
> +
> + /* Disable page hinting notification */
> + static_key_slow_dec(&page_hinting_notify_enabled);
> + RCU_INIT_POINTER(ph_dev_info, NULL);
> + synchronize_rcu();
> +
> + /* Flush any existing work, and lock it out */
> + cancel_delayed_work_sync(&phdev->work);
> +
> + /* Free scatterlist */
> + kfree(phdev->sg);
> + phdev->sg = NULL;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(page_hinting_shutdown);
> +
> +int page_hinting_startup(struct page_hinting_dev_info *phdev)
> +{
> + struct zone *zone;
> +
> + /* nothing to do if already in use */
> + if (rcu_access_pointer(ph_dev_info))
> + return -EBUSY;
> +
> + /* allocate scatterlist to store pages being hinted on */
> + phdev->sg = kcalloc(phdev->capacity, sizeof(*phdev->sg), GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (!phdev->sg)
> + return -ENOMEM;
> +
> + /* initialize refcnt and work structures */
> + atomic_set(&phdev->refcnt, 0);
> + INIT_DELAYED_WORK(&phdev->work, &page_hinting_process);
> +
> + /* assign device, and begin initial flush of populated zones */
> + rcu_assign_pointer(ph_dev_info, phdev);
> + for_each_populated_zone(zone) {
> + spin_lock(&zone->lock);
> + __page_hinting_request(zone);
> + spin_unlock(&zone->lock);
> + }
> +
> + /* enable page hinting notification */
> + static_key_slow_inc(&page_hinting_notify_enabled);
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(page_hinting_startup);
> +
>
--
Thanks
Nitesh

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