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Subject[PATCH 4/7] powerpc/ftrace: Additionally nop out the preceding mflr with -mprofile-kernel
Date
With -mprofile-kernel, gcc emits 'mflr r0', followed by 'bl _mcount' to
enable function tracing and profiling. So far, with dynamic ftrace, we
used to only patch out the branch to _mcount(). However, mflr is
executed by the branch unit that can only execute one per cycle on
POWER9 and shared with branches, so it would be nice to avoid it where
possible.

We cannot simply nop out the mflr either. When enabling function
tracing, there can be a race if tracing is enabled when some thread was
interrupted after executing a nop'ed out mflr. In this case, the thread
would execute the now-patched-in branch to _mcount() without having
executed the preceding mflr.

To solve this, we now enable function tracing in 2 steps: patch in the
mflr instruction, use synchronize_rcu_tasks() to ensure all existing
threads make progress, and then patch in the branch to _mcount(). We
override ftrace_replace_code() with a powerpc64 variant for this
purpose.

Suggested-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Naveen N. Rao <naveen.n.rao@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
---
arch/powerpc/kernel/trace/ftrace.c | 241 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
1 file changed, 219 insertions(+), 22 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/powerpc/kernel/trace/ftrace.c b/arch/powerpc/kernel/trace/ftrace.c
index 517662a56bdc..5e2b29808af1 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/kernel/trace/ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/kernel/trace/ftrace.c
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ __ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod,
{
unsigned long entry, ptr, tramp;
unsigned long ip = rec->ip;
- unsigned int op, pop;
+ unsigned int op;

/* read where this goes */
if (probe_kernel_read(&op, (void *)ip, sizeof(int))) {
@@ -160,8 +160,6 @@ __ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod,

#ifdef CONFIG_MPROFILE_KERNEL
/* When using -mkernel_profile there is no load to jump over */
- pop = PPC_INST_NOP;
-
if (probe_kernel_read(&op, (void *)(ip - 4), 4)) {
pr_err("Fetching instruction at %lx failed.\n", ip - 4);
return -EFAULT;
@@ -169,26 +167,23 @@ __ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod,

/* We expect either a mflr r0, or a std r0, LRSAVE(r1) */
if (op != PPC_INST_MFLR && op != PPC_INST_STD_LR) {
- pr_err("Unexpected instruction %08x around bl _mcount\n", op);
+ pr_err("Unexpected instruction %08x before bl _mcount\n", op);
return -EINVAL;
}
-#else
- /*
- * Our original call site looks like:
- *
- * bl <tramp>
- * ld r2,XX(r1)
- *
- * Milton Miller pointed out that we can not simply nop the branch.
- * If a task was preempted when calling a trace function, the nops
- * will remove the way to restore the TOC in r2 and the r2 TOC will
- * get corrupted.
- *
- * Use a b +8 to jump over the load.
- */

- pop = PPC_INST_BRANCH | 8; /* b +8 */
+ /* We should patch out the bl to _mcount first */
+ if (patch_instruction((unsigned int *)ip, PPC_INST_NOP)) {
+ pr_err("Patching NOP failed.\n");
+ return -EPERM;
+ }

+ /* then, nop out the preceding 'mflr r0' as an optimization */
+ if (op == PPC_INST_MFLR &&
+ patch_instruction((unsigned int *)(ip - 4), PPC_INST_NOP)) {
+ pr_err("Patching NOP failed.\n");
+ return -EPERM;
+ }
+#else
/*
* Check what is in the next instruction. We can see ld r2,40(r1), but
* on first pass after boot we will see mflr r0.
@@ -202,12 +197,25 @@ __ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod,
pr_err("Expected %08x found %08x\n", PPC_INST_LD_TOC, op);
return -EINVAL;
}
-#endif /* CONFIG_MPROFILE_KERNEL */

- if (patch_instruction((unsigned int *)ip, pop)) {
+ /*
+ * Our original call site looks like:
+ *
+ * bl <tramp>
+ * ld r2,XX(r1)
+ *
+ * Milton Miller pointed out that we can not simply nop the branch.
+ * If a task was preempted when calling a trace function, the nops
+ * will remove the way to restore the TOC in r2 and the r2 TOC will
+ * get corrupted.
+ *
+ * Use a b +8 to jump over the load.
+ */
+ if (patch_instruction((unsigned int *)ip, PPC_INST_BRANCH | 8)) {
pr_err("Patching NOP failed.\n");
return -EPERM;
}
+#endif /* CONFIG_MPROFILE_KERNEL */

return 0;
}
@@ -421,6 +429,26 @@ static int __ftrace_make_nop_kernel(struct dyn_ftrace *rec, unsigned long addr)
return -EPERM;
}

+#ifdef CONFIG_MPROFILE_KERNEL
+ /* Nop out the preceding 'mflr r0' as an optimization */
+ if (probe_kernel_read(&op, (void *)(ip - 4), 4)) {
+ pr_err("Fetching instruction at %lx failed.\n", ip - 4);
+ return -EFAULT;
+ }
+
+ /* We expect either a mflr r0, or a std r0, LRSAVE(r1) */
+ if (op != PPC_INST_MFLR && op != PPC_INST_STD_LR) {
+ pr_err("Unexpected instruction %08x before bl _mcount\n", op);
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ if (op == PPC_INST_MFLR &&
+ patch_instruction((unsigned int *)(ip - 4), PPC_INST_NOP)) {
+ pr_err("Patching NOP failed.\n");
+ return -EPERM;
+ }
+#endif
+
return 0;
}

@@ -429,6 +457,7 @@ int ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod,
{
unsigned long ip = rec->ip;
unsigned int old, new;
+ int rc;

/*
* If the calling address is more that 24 bits away,
@@ -439,7 +468,34 @@ int ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod,
/* within range */
old = ftrace_call_replace(ip, addr, 1);
new = PPC_INST_NOP;
- return ftrace_modify_code(ip, old, new);
+ rc = ftrace_modify_code(ip, old, new);
+#ifdef CONFIG_MPROFILE_KERNEL
+ if (rc)
+ return rc;
+
+ /*
+ * For -mprofile-kernel, we patch out the preceding 'mflr r0'
+ * instruction, as an optimization. It is important to nop out
+ * the branch to _mcount() first, as a lone 'mflr r0' is
+ * harmless.
+ */
+ if (probe_kernel_read(&old, (void *)(ip - 4), 4)) {
+ pr_err("Fetching instruction at %lx failed.\n", ip - 4);
+ return -EFAULT;
+ }
+
+ /* We expect either a mflr r0, or a std r0, LRSAVE(r1) */
+ if (old != PPC_INST_MFLR && old != PPC_INST_STD_LR) {
+ pr_err("Unexpected instruction %08x before bl _mcount\n",
+ old);
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ if (old == PPC_INST_MFLR)
+ rc = patch_instruction((unsigned int *)(ip - 4),
+ PPC_INST_NOP);
+#endif
+ return rc;
} else if (core_kernel_text(ip))
return __ftrace_make_nop_kernel(rec, addr);

@@ -567,6 +623,37 @@ __ftrace_make_call(struct dyn_ftrace *rec, unsigned long addr)
return -EINVAL;
}

+#ifdef CONFIG_MPROFILE_KERNEL
+ /*
+ * We could end up here without having called __ftrace_make_call_prep()
+ * if function tracing is enabled before a module is loaded.
+ *
+ * ftrace_module_enable() --> ftrace_replace_code_rec() -->
+ * ftrace_make_call() --> __ftrace_make_call()
+ *
+ * In this scenario, the previous instruction will be a NOP. It is
+ * safe to patch it with a 'mflr r0' since we know for a fact that
+ * this code is not yet being run.
+ */
+ ip -= MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE;
+
+ /* read where this goes */
+ if (probe_kernel_read(op, ip, MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE))
+ return -EFAULT;
+
+ /*
+ * nothing to do if this is using the older -mprofile-kernel
+ * instruction sequence
+ */
+ if (op[0] != PPC_INST_NOP)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (patch_instruction((unsigned int *)ip, PPC_INST_MFLR)) {
+ pr_err("Patching MFLR failed.\n");
+ return -EPERM;
+ }
+#endif
+
return 0;
}

@@ -863,6 +950,116 @@ void arch_ftrace_update_code(int command)
ftrace_modify_all_code(command);
}

+#ifdef CONFIG_MPROFILE_KERNEL
+/* Returns 1 if we patched in the mflr */
+static int __ftrace_make_call_prep(struct dyn_ftrace *rec)
+{
+ void *ip = (void *)rec->ip - MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE;
+ unsigned int op[2];
+
+ /* read where this goes */
+ if (probe_kernel_read(op, ip, sizeof(op)))
+ return -EFAULT;
+
+ if (op[1] != PPC_INST_NOP) {
+ pr_err("Unexpected call sequence at %p: %x %x\n",
+ ip, op[0], op[1]);
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * nothing to do if this is using the older -mprofile-kernel
+ * instruction sequence
+ */
+ if (op[0] != PPC_INST_NOP)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (patch_instruction((unsigned int *)ip, PPC_INST_MFLR)) {
+ pr_err("Patching MFLR failed.\n");
+ return -EPERM;
+ }
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * When enabling function tracing for -mprofile-kernel that uses a
+ * 2-instruction sequence of 'mflr r0, bl _mcount()', we use a 2 step process:
+ * 1. Patch in the 'mflr r0' instruction
+ * 1a. synchronize_rcu_tasks() to ensure that any threads that had executed
+ * the earlier nop there make progress (and hence do not branch into
+ * ftrace without executing the preceding mflr)
+ * 2. Patch in the branch to ftrace
+ */
+void ftrace_replace_code(int mod_flags)
+{
+ int enable = mod_flags & FTRACE_MODIFY_ENABLE_FL;
+ int schedulable = mod_flags & FTRACE_MODIFY_MAY_SLEEP_FL;
+ int ret, failed, make_call = 0;
+ struct ftrace_rec_iter *iter;
+ struct dyn_ftrace *rec;
+
+ if (unlikely(!ftrace_enabled))
+ return;
+
+ for_ftrace_rec_iter(iter) {
+ rec = ftrace_rec_iter_record(iter);
+
+ if (rec->flags & FTRACE_FL_DISABLED)
+ continue;
+
+ failed = 0;
+ ret = ftrace_test_record(rec, enable);
+ if (ret == FTRACE_UPDATE_MAKE_CALL) {
+ failed = __ftrace_make_call_prep(rec);
+ if (failed < 0) {
+ ftrace_bug(failed, rec);
+ return;
+ } else if (failed == 1)
+ make_call++;
+ }
+
+ if (!failed) {
+ /* We can patch the record directly */
+ failed = ftrace_replace_code_rec(rec, enable);
+ if (failed) {
+ ftrace_bug(failed, rec);
+ return;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (schedulable)
+ cond_resched();
+ }
+
+ if (!make_call)
+ /* No records needed patching a preceding mflr */
+ return;
+
+ synchronize_rcu_tasks();
+
+ for_ftrace_rec_iter(iter) {
+ rec = ftrace_rec_iter_record(iter);
+
+ if (rec->flags & FTRACE_FL_DISABLED)
+ continue;
+
+ ret = ftrace_test_record(rec, enable);
+ if (ret == FTRACE_UPDATE_MAKE_CALL)
+ failed = ftrace_replace_code_rec(rec, enable);
+
+ if (failed) {
+ ftrace_bug(failed, rec);
+ return;
+ }
+
+ if (schedulable)
+ cond_resched();
+ }
+
+}
+#endif
+
#ifdef CONFIG_PPC64
#define PACATOC offsetof(struct paca_struct, kernel_toc)

--
2.22.0
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