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Subject[PATCH v4 23/27] Documentation: x86: convert x86_64/mm.txt to reST
Date
This converts the plain text documentation to reStructuredText format and
add it to Sphinx TOC tree. No essential content change.

Signed-off-by: Changbin Du <changbin.du@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab+samsung@kernel.org>
---
Documentation/x86/x86_64/index.rst | 1 +
Documentation/x86/x86_64/mm.rst | 161 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Documentation/x86/x86_64/mm.txt | 153 ---------------------------
3 files changed, 162 insertions(+), 153 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 Documentation/x86/x86_64/mm.rst
delete mode 100644 Documentation/x86/x86_64/mm.txt

diff --git a/Documentation/x86/x86_64/index.rst b/Documentation/x86/x86_64/index.rst
index ddfa1f9d4193..4b65d29ef459 100644
--- a/Documentation/x86/x86_64/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/x86/x86_64/index.rst
@@ -9,3 +9,4 @@ x86_64 Support

boot-options
uefi
+ mm
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/x86_64/mm.rst b/Documentation/x86/x86_64/mm.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..52020577b8de
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/x86/x86_64/mm.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,161 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+================
+Memory Managment
+================
+
+Complete virtual memory map with 4-level page tables
+====================================================
+
+.. note::
+
+ - Negative addresses such as "-23 TB" are absolute addresses in bytes, counted down
+ from the top of the 64-bit address space. It's easier to understand the layout
+ when seen both in absolute addresses and in distance-from-top notation.
+
+ For example 0xffffe90000000000 == -23 TB, it's 23 TB lower than the top of the
+ 64-bit address space (ffffffffffffffff).
+
+ Note that as we get closer to the top of the address space, the notation changes
+ from TB to GB and then MB/KB.
+
+ - "16M TB" might look weird at first sight, but it's an easier to visualize size
+ notation than "16 EB", which few will recognize at first sight as 16 exabytes.
+ It also shows it nicely how incredibly large 64-bit address space is.
+
+::
+
+ ========================================================================================================================
+ Start addr | Offset | End addr | Size | VM area description
+ ========================================================================================================================
+ | | | |
+ 0000000000000000 | 0 | 00007fffffffffff | 128 TB | user-space virtual memory, different per mm
+ __________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
+ | | | |
+ 0000800000000000 | +128 TB | ffff7fffffffffff | ~16M TB | ... huge, almost 64 bits wide hole of non-canonical
+ | | | | virtual memory addresses up to the -128 TB
+ | | | | starting offset of kernel mappings.
+ __________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
+ |
+ | Kernel-space virtual memory, shared between all processes:
+ ____________________________________________________________|___________________________________________________________
+ | | | |
+ ffff800000000000 | -128 TB | ffff87ffffffffff | 8 TB | ... guard hole, also reserved for hypervisor
+ ffff880000000000 | -120 TB | ffff887fffffffff | 0.5 TB | LDT remap for PTI
+ ffff888000000000 | -119.5 TB | ffffc87fffffffff | 64 TB | direct mapping of all physical memory (page_offset_base)
+ ffffc88000000000 | -55.5 TB | ffffc8ffffffffff | 0.5 TB | ... unused hole
+ ffffc90000000000 | -55 TB | ffffe8ffffffffff | 32 TB | vmalloc/ioremap space (vmalloc_base)
+ ffffe90000000000 | -23 TB | ffffe9ffffffffff | 1 TB | ... unused hole
+ ffffea0000000000 | -22 TB | ffffeaffffffffff | 1 TB | virtual memory map (vmemmap_base)
+ ffffeb0000000000 | -21 TB | ffffebffffffffff | 1 TB | ... unused hole
+ ffffec0000000000 | -20 TB | fffffbffffffffff | 16 TB | KASAN shadow memory
+ __________________|____________|__________________|_________|____________________________________________________________
+ |
+ | Identical layout to the 56-bit one from here on:
+ ____________________________________________________________|____________________________________________________________
+ | | | |
+ fffffc0000000000 | -4 TB | fffffdffffffffff | 2 TB | ... unused hole
+ | | | | vaddr_end for KASLR
+ fffffe0000000000 | -2 TB | fffffe7fffffffff | 0.5 TB | cpu_entry_area mapping
+ fffffe8000000000 | -1.5 TB | fffffeffffffffff | 0.5 TB | ... unused hole
+ ffffff0000000000 | -1 TB | ffffff7fffffffff | 0.5 TB | %esp fixup stacks
+ ffffff8000000000 | -512 GB | ffffffeeffffffff | 444 GB | ... unused hole
+ ffffffef00000000 | -68 GB | fffffffeffffffff | 64 GB | EFI region mapping space
+ ffffffff00000000 | -4 GB | ffffffff7fffffff | 2 GB | ... unused hole
+ ffffffff80000000 | -2 GB | ffffffff9fffffff | 512 MB | kernel text mapping, mapped to physical address 0
+ ffffffff80000000 |-2048 MB | | |
+ ffffffffa0000000 |-1536 MB | fffffffffeffffff | 1520 MB | module mapping space
+ ffffffffff000000 | -16 MB | | |
+ FIXADDR_START | ~-11 MB | ffffffffff5fffff | ~0.5 MB | kernel-internal fixmap range, variable size and offset
+ ffffffffff600000 | -10 MB | ffffffffff600fff | 4 kB | legacy vsyscall ABI
+ ffffffffffe00000 | -2 MB | ffffffffffffffff | 2 MB | ... unused hole
+ __________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
+
+
+Complete virtual memory map with 5-level page tables
+====================================================
+
+.. note::
+
+ - With 56-bit addresses, user-space memory gets expanded by a factor of 512x,
+ from 0.125 PB to 64 PB. All kernel mappings shift down to the -64 PT starting
+ offset and many of the regions expand to support the much larger physical
+ memory supported.
+
+::
+
+ ========================================================================================================================
+ Start addr | Offset | End addr | Size | VM area description
+ ========================================================================================================================
+ | | | |
+ 0000000000000000 | 0 | 00ffffffffffffff | 64 PB | user-space virtual memory, different per mm
+ __________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
+ | | | |
+ 0000800000000000 | +64 PB | ffff7fffffffffff | ~16K PB | ... huge, still almost 64 bits wide hole of non-canonical
+ | | | | virtual memory addresses up to the -64 PB
+ | | | | starting offset of kernel mappings.
+ __________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
+ |
+ | Kernel-space virtual memory, shared between all processes:
+ ____________________________________________________________|___________________________________________________________
+ | | | |
+ ff00000000000000 | -64 PB | ff0fffffffffffff | 4 PB | ... guard hole, also reserved for hypervisor
+ ff10000000000000 | -60 PB | ff10ffffffffffff | 0.25 PB | LDT remap for PTI
+ ff11000000000000 | -59.75 PB | ff90ffffffffffff | 32 PB | direct mapping of all physical memory (page_offset_base)
+ ff91000000000000 | -27.75 PB | ff9fffffffffffff | 3.75 PB | ... unused hole
+ ffa0000000000000 | -24 PB | ffd1ffffffffffff | 12.5 PB | vmalloc/ioremap space (vmalloc_base)
+ ffd2000000000000 | -11.5 PB | ffd3ffffffffffff | 0.5 PB | ... unused hole
+ ffd4000000000000 | -11 PB | ffd5ffffffffffff | 0.5 PB | virtual memory map (vmemmap_base)
+ ffd6000000000000 | -10.5 PB | ffdeffffffffffff | 2.25 PB | ... unused hole
+ ffdf000000000000 | -8.25 PB | fffffdffffffffff | ~8 PB | KASAN shadow memory
+ __________________|____________|__________________|_________|____________________________________________________________
+ |
+ | Identical layout to the 47-bit one from here on:
+ ____________________________________________________________|____________________________________________________________
+ | | | |
+ fffffc0000000000 | -4 TB | fffffdffffffffff | 2 TB | ... unused hole
+ | | | | vaddr_end for KASLR
+ fffffe0000000000 | -2 TB | fffffe7fffffffff | 0.5 TB | cpu_entry_area mapping
+ fffffe8000000000 | -1.5 TB | fffffeffffffffff | 0.5 TB | ... unused hole
+ ffffff0000000000 | -1 TB | ffffff7fffffffff | 0.5 TB | %esp fixup stacks
+ ffffff8000000000 | -512 GB | ffffffeeffffffff | 444 GB | ... unused hole
+ ffffffef00000000 | -68 GB | fffffffeffffffff | 64 GB | EFI region mapping space
+ ffffffff00000000 | -4 GB | ffffffff7fffffff | 2 GB | ... unused hole
+ ffffffff80000000 | -2 GB | ffffffff9fffffff | 512 MB | kernel text mapping, mapped to physical address 0
+ ffffffff80000000 |-2048 MB | | |
+ ffffffffa0000000 |-1536 MB | fffffffffeffffff | 1520 MB | module mapping space
+ ffffffffff000000 | -16 MB | | |
+ FIXADDR_START | ~-11 MB | ffffffffff5fffff | ~0.5 MB | kernel-internal fixmap range, variable size and offset
+ ffffffffff600000 | -10 MB | ffffffffff600fff | 4 kB | legacy vsyscall ABI
+ ffffffffffe00000 | -2 MB | ffffffffffffffff | 2 MB | ... unused hole
+ __________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
+
+Architecture defines a 64-bit virtual address. Implementations can support
+less. Currently supported are 48- and 57-bit virtual addresses. Bits 63
+through to the most-significant implemented bit are sign extended.
+This causes hole between user space and kernel addresses if you interpret them
+as unsigned.
+
+The direct mapping covers all memory in the system up to the highest
+memory address (this means in some cases it can also include PCI memory
+holes).
+
+vmalloc space is lazily synchronized into the different PML4/PML5 pages of
+the processes using the page fault handler, with init_top_pgt as
+reference.
+
+We map EFI runtime services in the 'efi_pgd' PGD in a 64Gb large virtual
+memory window (this size is arbitrary, it can be raised later if needed).
+The mappings are not part of any other kernel PGD and are only available
+during EFI runtime calls.
+
+Note that if CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_MEMORY is enabled, the direct mapping of all
+physical memory, vmalloc/ioremap space and virtual memory map are randomized.
+Their order is preserved but their base will be offset early at boot time.
+
+Be very careful vs. KASLR when changing anything here. The KASLR address
+range must not overlap with anything except the KASAN shadow area, which is
+correct as KASAN disables KASLR.
+
+For both 4- and 5-level layouts, the STACKLEAK_POISON value in the last 2MB
+hole: ffffffffffff4111
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/x86_64/mm.txt b/Documentation/x86/x86_64/mm.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 804f9426ed17..000000000000
--- a/Documentation/x86/x86_64/mm.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,153 +0,0 @@
-====================================================
-Complete virtual memory map with 4-level page tables
-====================================================
-
-Notes:
-
- - Negative addresses such as "-23 TB" are absolute addresses in bytes, counted down
- from the top of the 64-bit address space. It's easier to understand the layout
- when seen both in absolute addresses and in distance-from-top notation.
-
- For example 0xffffe90000000000 == -23 TB, it's 23 TB lower than the top of the
- 64-bit address space (ffffffffffffffff).
-
- Note that as we get closer to the top of the address space, the notation changes
- from TB to GB and then MB/KB.
-
- - "16M TB" might look weird at first sight, but it's an easier to visualize size
- notation than "16 EB", which few will recognize at first sight as 16 exabytes.
- It also shows it nicely how incredibly large 64-bit address space is.
-
-========================================================================================================================
- Start addr | Offset | End addr | Size | VM area description
-========================================================================================================================
- | | | |
- 0000000000000000 | 0 | 00007fffffffffff | 128 TB | user-space virtual memory, different per mm
-__________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
- | | | |
- 0000800000000000 | +128 TB | ffff7fffffffffff | ~16M TB | ... huge, almost 64 bits wide hole of non-canonical
- | | | | virtual memory addresses up to the -128 TB
- | | | | starting offset of kernel mappings.
-__________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
- |
- | Kernel-space virtual memory, shared between all processes:
-____________________________________________________________|___________________________________________________________
- | | | |
- ffff800000000000 | -128 TB | ffff87ffffffffff | 8 TB | ... guard hole, also reserved for hypervisor
- ffff880000000000 | -120 TB | ffff887fffffffff | 0.5 TB | LDT remap for PTI
- ffff888000000000 | -119.5 TB | ffffc87fffffffff | 64 TB | direct mapping of all physical memory (page_offset_base)
- ffffc88000000000 | -55.5 TB | ffffc8ffffffffff | 0.5 TB | ... unused hole
- ffffc90000000000 | -55 TB | ffffe8ffffffffff | 32 TB | vmalloc/ioremap space (vmalloc_base)
- ffffe90000000000 | -23 TB | ffffe9ffffffffff | 1 TB | ... unused hole
- ffffea0000000000 | -22 TB | ffffeaffffffffff | 1 TB | virtual memory map (vmemmap_base)
- ffffeb0000000000 | -21 TB | ffffebffffffffff | 1 TB | ... unused hole
- ffffec0000000000 | -20 TB | fffffbffffffffff | 16 TB | KASAN shadow memory
-__________________|____________|__________________|_________|____________________________________________________________
- |
- | Identical layout to the 56-bit one from here on:
-____________________________________________________________|____________________________________________________________
- | | | |
- fffffc0000000000 | -4 TB | fffffdffffffffff | 2 TB | ... unused hole
- | | | | vaddr_end for KASLR
- fffffe0000000000 | -2 TB | fffffe7fffffffff | 0.5 TB | cpu_entry_area mapping
- fffffe8000000000 | -1.5 TB | fffffeffffffffff | 0.5 TB | ... unused hole
- ffffff0000000000 | -1 TB | ffffff7fffffffff | 0.5 TB | %esp fixup stacks
- ffffff8000000000 | -512 GB | ffffffeeffffffff | 444 GB | ... unused hole
- ffffffef00000000 | -68 GB | fffffffeffffffff | 64 GB | EFI region mapping space
- ffffffff00000000 | -4 GB | ffffffff7fffffff | 2 GB | ... unused hole
- ffffffff80000000 | -2 GB | ffffffff9fffffff | 512 MB | kernel text mapping, mapped to physical address 0
- ffffffff80000000 |-2048 MB | | |
- ffffffffa0000000 |-1536 MB | fffffffffeffffff | 1520 MB | module mapping space
- ffffffffff000000 | -16 MB | | |
- FIXADDR_START | ~-11 MB | ffffffffff5fffff | ~0.5 MB | kernel-internal fixmap range, variable size and offset
- ffffffffff600000 | -10 MB | ffffffffff600fff | 4 kB | legacy vsyscall ABI
- ffffffffffe00000 | -2 MB | ffffffffffffffff | 2 MB | ... unused hole
-__________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
-
-
-====================================================
-Complete virtual memory map with 5-level page tables
-====================================================
-
-Notes:
-
- - With 56-bit addresses, user-space memory gets expanded by a factor of 512x,
- from 0.125 PB to 64 PB. All kernel mappings shift down to the -64 PT starting
- offset and many of the regions expand to support the much larger physical
- memory supported.
-
-========================================================================================================================
- Start addr | Offset | End addr | Size | VM area description
-========================================================================================================================
- | | | |
- 0000000000000000 | 0 | 00ffffffffffffff | 64 PB | user-space virtual memory, different per mm
-__________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
- | | | |
- 0000800000000000 | +64 PB | ffff7fffffffffff | ~16K PB | ... huge, still almost 64 bits wide hole of non-canonical
- | | | | virtual memory addresses up to the -64 PB
- | | | | starting offset of kernel mappings.
-__________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
- |
- | Kernel-space virtual memory, shared between all processes:
-____________________________________________________________|___________________________________________________________
- | | | |
- ff00000000000000 | -64 PB | ff0fffffffffffff | 4 PB | ... guard hole, also reserved for hypervisor
- ff10000000000000 | -60 PB | ff10ffffffffffff | 0.25 PB | LDT remap for PTI
- ff11000000000000 | -59.75 PB | ff90ffffffffffff | 32 PB | direct mapping of all physical memory (page_offset_base)
- ff91000000000000 | -27.75 PB | ff9fffffffffffff | 3.75 PB | ... unused hole
- ffa0000000000000 | -24 PB | ffd1ffffffffffff | 12.5 PB | vmalloc/ioremap space (vmalloc_base)
- ffd2000000000000 | -11.5 PB | ffd3ffffffffffff | 0.5 PB | ... unused hole
- ffd4000000000000 | -11 PB | ffd5ffffffffffff | 0.5 PB | virtual memory map (vmemmap_base)
- ffd6000000000000 | -10.5 PB | ffdeffffffffffff | 2.25 PB | ... unused hole
- ffdf000000000000 | -8.25 PB | fffffdffffffffff | ~8 PB | KASAN shadow memory
-__________________|____________|__________________|_________|____________________________________________________________
- |
- | Identical layout to the 47-bit one from here on:
-____________________________________________________________|____________________________________________________________
- | | | |
- fffffc0000000000 | -4 TB | fffffdffffffffff | 2 TB | ... unused hole
- | | | | vaddr_end for KASLR
- fffffe0000000000 | -2 TB | fffffe7fffffffff | 0.5 TB | cpu_entry_area mapping
- fffffe8000000000 | -1.5 TB | fffffeffffffffff | 0.5 TB | ... unused hole
- ffffff0000000000 | -1 TB | ffffff7fffffffff | 0.5 TB | %esp fixup stacks
- ffffff8000000000 | -512 GB | ffffffeeffffffff | 444 GB | ... unused hole
- ffffffef00000000 | -68 GB | fffffffeffffffff | 64 GB | EFI region mapping space
- ffffffff00000000 | -4 GB | ffffffff7fffffff | 2 GB | ... unused hole
- ffffffff80000000 | -2 GB | ffffffff9fffffff | 512 MB | kernel text mapping, mapped to physical address 0
- ffffffff80000000 |-2048 MB | | |
- ffffffffa0000000 |-1536 MB | fffffffffeffffff | 1520 MB | module mapping space
- ffffffffff000000 | -16 MB | | |
- FIXADDR_START | ~-11 MB | ffffffffff5fffff | ~0.5 MB | kernel-internal fixmap range, variable size and offset
- ffffffffff600000 | -10 MB | ffffffffff600fff | 4 kB | legacy vsyscall ABI
- ffffffffffe00000 | -2 MB | ffffffffffffffff | 2 MB | ... unused hole
-__________________|____________|__________________|_________|___________________________________________________________
-
-Architecture defines a 64-bit virtual address. Implementations can support
-less. Currently supported are 48- and 57-bit virtual addresses. Bits 63
-through to the most-significant implemented bit are sign extended.
-This causes hole between user space and kernel addresses if you interpret them
-as unsigned.
-
-The direct mapping covers all memory in the system up to the highest
-memory address (this means in some cases it can also include PCI memory
-holes).
-
-vmalloc space is lazily synchronized into the different PML4/PML5 pages of
-the processes using the page fault handler, with init_top_pgt as
-reference.
-
-We map EFI runtime services in the 'efi_pgd' PGD in a 64Gb large virtual
-memory window (this size is arbitrary, it can be raised later if needed).
-The mappings are not part of any other kernel PGD and are only available
-during EFI runtime calls.
-
-Note that if CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_MEMORY is enabled, the direct mapping of all
-physical memory, vmalloc/ioremap space and virtual memory map are randomized.
-Their order is preserved but their base will be offset early at boot time.
-
-Be very careful vs. KASLR when changing anything here. The KASLR address
-range must not overlap with anything except the KASAN shadow area, which is
-correct as KASAN disables KASLR.
-
-For both 4- and 5-level layouts, the STACKLEAK_POISON value in the last 2MB
-hole: ffffffffffff4111
--
2.20.1
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