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SubjectRe: [PATCH v4 5/7] mm: rework non-root kmem_cache lifecycle management
From: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>
Date: Tue, May 14, 2019 at 2:55 PM
To: Andrew Morton, Shakeel Butt
Cc: <linux-mm@kvack.org>, <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
<kernel-team@fb.com>, Johannes Weiner, Michal Hocko, Rik van Riel,
Christoph Lameter, Vladimir Davydov, <cgroups@vger.kernel.org>, Roman
Gushchin

> This commit makes several important changes in the lifecycle
> of a non-root kmem_cache, which also affect the lifecycle
> of a memory cgroup.
>
> Currently each charged slab page has a page->mem_cgroup pointer
> to the memory cgroup and holds a reference to it.
> Kmem_caches are held by the memcg and are released with it.
> It means that none of kmem_caches are released unless at least one
> reference to the memcg exists, which is not optimal.
>
> So the current scheme can be illustrated as:
> page->mem_cgroup->kmem_cache.
>
> To implement the slab memory reparenting we need to invert the scheme
> into: page->kmem_cache->mem_cgroup.
>
> Let's make every page to hold a reference to the kmem_cache (we
> already have a stable pointer), and make kmem_caches to hold a single
> reference to the memory cgroup.
>
> To make this possible we need to introduce a new percpu refcounter
> for non-root kmem_caches. The counter is initialized to the percpu
> mode, and is switched to atomic mode after deactivation, so we never
> shutdown an active cache. The counter is bumped for every charged page
> and also for every running allocation. So the kmem_cache can't
> be released unless all allocations complete.
>
> To shutdown non-active empty kmem_caches, let's reuse the
> infrastructure of the RCU-delayed work queue, used previously for
> the deactivation. After the generalization, it's perfectly suited
> for our needs.
>
> Since now we can release a kmem_cache at any moment after the
> deactivation, let's call sysfs_slab_remove() only from the shutdown
> path. It makes deactivation path simpler.
>
> Because we don't set the page->mem_cgroup pointer, we need to change
> the way how memcg-level stats is working for slab pages. We can't use
> mod_lruvec_page_state() helpers anymore, so switch over to
> mod_lruvec_state().
>
> * I used the following simple approach to test the performance
> (stolen from another patchset by T. Harding):
>
> time find / -name fname-no-exist
> echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
> repeat 10 times
>
> Results (I've chosen best results in several runs):
>
> orig patched
>
> real 0m0.648s real 0m0.593s
> user 0m0.148s user 0m0.162s
> sys 0m0.295s sys 0m0.253s
>
> real 0m0.581s real 0m0.649s
> user 0m0.119s user 0m0.136s
> sys 0m0.254s sys 0m0.250s
>
> real 0m0.645s real 0m0.705s
> user 0m0.138s user 0m0.138s
> sys 0m0.263s sys 0m0.250s
>
> real 0m0.691s real 0m0.718s
> user 0m0.139s user 0m0.134s
> sys 0m0.262s sys 0m0.253s
>
> real 0m0.654s real 0m0.715s
> user 0m0.146s user 0m0.128s
> sys 0m0.247s sys 0m0.261s
>
> real 0m0.675s real 0m0.717s
> user 0m0.129s user 0m0.137s
> sys 0m0.277s sys 0m0.248s
>
> real 0m0.631s real 0m0.719s
> user 0m0.137s user 0m0.134s
> sys 0m0.255s sys 0m0.251s
>
> real 0m0.622s real 0m0.715s
> user 0m0.108s user 0m0.124s
> sys 0m0.279s sys 0m0.264s
>
> real 0m0.651s real 0m0.669s
> user 0m0.139s user 0m0.139s
> sys 0m0.252s sys 0m0.247s
>
> real 0m0.671s real 0m0.632s
> user 0m0.130s user 0m0.139s
> sys 0m0.263s sys 0m0.245s
>
> So it looks like the difference is not noticeable in this test.
>
> Signed-off-by: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>

Reviewed-by: Shakeel Butt <shakeelb@google.com>

> ---
> include/linux/slab.h | 3 +-
> mm/memcontrol.c | 57 +++++++++++++++++++++---------
> mm/slab.h | 82 +++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------------
> mm/slab_common.c | 74 +++++++++++++++++++++++----------------
> mm/slub.c | 12 +------
> 5 files changed, 135 insertions(+), 93 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/slab.h b/include/linux/slab.h
> index 47923c173f30..1b54e5f83342 100644
> --- a/include/linux/slab.h
> +++ b/include/linux/slab.h
> @@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
> #include <linux/overflow.h>
> #include <linux/types.h>
> #include <linux/workqueue.h>
> +#include <linux/percpu-refcount.h>
>
>
> /*
> @@ -152,7 +153,6 @@ int kmem_cache_shrink(struct kmem_cache *);
>
> void memcg_create_kmem_cache(struct mem_cgroup *, struct kmem_cache *);
> void memcg_deactivate_kmem_caches(struct mem_cgroup *);
> -void memcg_destroy_kmem_caches(struct mem_cgroup *);
>
> /*
> * Please use this macro to create slab caches. Simply specify the
> @@ -641,6 +641,7 @@ struct memcg_cache_params {
> struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
> struct list_head children_node;
> struct list_head kmem_caches_node;
> + struct percpu_ref refcnt;
>
> void (*work_fn)(struct kmem_cache *);
> union {
> diff --git a/mm/memcontrol.c b/mm/memcontrol.c
> index b2c39f187cbb..413cef3d8369 100644
> --- a/mm/memcontrol.c
> +++ b/mm/memcontrol.c
> @@ -2610,12 +2610,13 @@ static void memcg_schedule_kmem_cache_create(struct mem_cgroup *memcg,
> {
> struct memcg_kmem_cache_create_work *cw;
>
> + if (!css_tryget_online(&memcg->css))
> + return;
> +
> cw = kmalloc(sizeof(*cw), GFP_NOWAIT | __GFP_NOWARN);
> if (!cw)
> return;
>
> - css_get(&memcg->css);
> -
> cw->memcg = memcg;
> cw->cachep = cachep;
> INIT_WORK(&cw->work, memcg_kmem_cache_create_func);
> @@ -2651,20 +2652,35 @@ struct kmem_cache *memcg_kmem_get_cache(struct kmem_cache *cachep)
> struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
> struct kmem_cache *memcg_cachep;
> int kmemcg_id;
> + struct memcg_cache_array *arr;
>
> VM_BUG_ON(!is_root_cache(cachep));
>
> if (memcg_kmem_bypass())
> return cachep;
>
> - memcg = get_mem_cgroup_from_current();
> + rcu_read_lock();
> +
> + if (unlikely(current->active_memcg))
> + memcg = current->active_memcg;
> + else
> + memcg = mem_cgroup_from_task(current);
> +
> + if (!memcg || memcg == root_mem_cgroup)
> + goto out_unlock;
> +
> kmemcg_id = READ_ONCE(memcg->kmemcg_id);
> if (kmemcg_id < 0)
> - goto out;
> + goto out_unlock;
>
> - memcg_cachep = cache_from_memcg_idx(cachep, kmemcg_id);
> - if (likely(memcg_cachep))
> - return memcg_cachep;
> + arr = rcu_dereference(cachep->memcg_params.memcg_caches);
> +
> + /*
> + * Make sure we will access the up-to-date value. The code updating
> + * memcg_caches issues a write barrier to match this (see
> + * memcg_create_kmem_cache()).
> + */
> + memcg_cachep = READ_ONCE(arr->entries[kmemcg_id]);
>
> /*
> * If we are in a safe context (can wait, and not in interrupt
> @@ -2677,10 +2693,20 @@ struct kmem_cache *memcg_kmem_get_cache(struct kmem_cache *cachep)
> * memcg_create_kmem_cache, this means no further allocation
> * could happen with the slab_mutex held. So it's better to
> * defer everything.
> + *
> + * If the memcg is dying or memcg_cache is about to be released,
> + * don't bother creating new kmem_caches. Because memcg_cachep
> + * is ZEROed as the fist step of kmem offlining, we don't need
> + * percpu_ref_tryget() here. css_tryget_online() check in

*percpu_ref_tryget_live()

> + * memcg_schedule_kmem_cache_create() will prevent us from
> + * creation of a new kmem_cache.
> */
> - memcg_schedule_kmem_cache_create(memcg, cachep);
> -out:
> - css_put(&memcg->css);
> + if (unlikely(!memcg_cachep))
> + memcg_schedule_kmem_cache_create(memcg, cachep);
> + else if (percpu_ref_tryget(&memcg_cachep->memcg_params.refcnt))
> + cachep = memcg_cachep;
> +out_unlock:
> + rcu_read_lock();
> return cachep;
> }
>
> @@ -2691,7 +2717,7 @@ struct kmem_cache *memcg_kmem_get_cache(struct kmem_cache *cachep)
> void memcg_kmem_put_cache(struct kmem_cache *cachep)
> {
> if (!is_root_cache(cachep))
> - css_put(&cachep->memcg_params.memcg->css);
> + percpu_ref_put(&cachep->memcg_params.refcnt);
> }
>
> /**
> @@ -2719,9 +2745,6 @@ int __memcg_kmem_charge_memcg(struct page *page, gfp_t gfp, int order,
> cancel_charge(memcg, nr_pages);
> return -ENOMEM;
> }
> -
> - page->mem_cgroup = memcg;
> -
> return 0;
> }
>
> @@ -2744,8 +2767,10 @@ int __memcg_kmem_charge(struct page *page, gfp_t gfp, int order)
> memcg = get_mem_cgroup_from_current();
> if (!mem_cgroup_is_root(memcg)) {
> ret = __memcg_kmem_charge_memcg(page, gfp, order, memcg);
> - if (!ret)
> + if (!ret) {
> + page->mem_cgroup = memcg;
> __SetPageKmemcg(page);
> + }
> }
> css_put(&memcg->css);
> return ret;
> @@ -3238,7 +3263,7 @@ static void memcg_free_kmem(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
> memcg_offline_kmem(memcg);
>
> if (memcg->kmem_state == KMEM_ALLOCATED) {
> - memcg_destroy_kmem_caches(memcg);
> + WARN_ON(!list_empty(&memcg->kmem_caches));
> static_branch_dec(&memcg_kmem_enabled_key);
> WARN_ON(page_counter_read(&memcg->kmem));
> }
> diff --git a/mm/slab.h b/mm/slab.h
> index c9a31120fa1d..b86744c58702 100644
> --- a/mm/slab.h
> +++ b/mm/slab.h
> @@ -173,6 +173,7 @@ void __kmem_cache_release(struct kmem_cache *);
> int __kmem_cache_shrink(struct kmem_cache *);
> void __kmemcg_cache_deactivate(struct kmem_cache *s);
> void __kmemcg_cache_deactivate_after_rcu(struct kmem_cache *s);
> +void kmemcg_cache_shutdown(struct kmem_cache *s);
> void slab_kmem_cache_release(struct kmem_cache *);
>
> struct seq_file;
> @@ -248,31 +249,6 @@ static inline const char *cache_name(struct kmem_cache *s)
> return s->name;
> }
>
> -/*
> - * Note, we protect with RCU only the memcg_caches array, not per-memcg caches.
> - * That said the caller must assure the memcg's cache won't go away by either
> - * taking a css reference to the owner cgroup, or holding the slab_mutex.
> - */
> -static inline struct kmem_cache *
> -cache_from_memcg_idx(struct kmem_cache *s, int idx)
> -{
> - struct kmem_cache *cachep;
> - struct memcg_cache_array *arr;
> -
> - rcu_read_lock();
> - arr = rcu_dereference(s->memcg_params.memcg_caches);
> -
> - /*
> - * Make sure we will access the up-to-date value. The code updating
> - * memcg_caches issues a write barrier to match this (see
> - * memcg_create_kmem_cache()).
> - */
> - cachep = READ_ONCE(arr->entries[idx]);
> - rcu_read_unlock();
> -
> - return cachep;
> -}
> -
> static inline struct kmem_cache *memcg_root_cache(struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> if (is_root_cache(s))
> @@ -280,19 +256,49 @@ static inline struct kmem_cache *memcg_root_cache(struct kmem_cache *s)
> return s->memcg_params.root_cache;
> }
>
> +/*
> + * Charge the slab page belonging to the non-root kmem_cache.
> + * Can be called for non-root kmem_caches only.
> + */
> static __always_inline int memcg_charge_slab(struct page *page,
> gfp_t gfp, int order,
> struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> - if (is_root_cache(s))
> - return 0;
> - return memcg_kmem_charge_memcg(page, gfp, order, s->memcg_params.memcg);
> + struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
> + struct lruvec *lruvec;
> + int ret;
> +
> + memcg = s->memcg_params.memcg;
> + ret = memcg_kmem_charge_memcg(page, gfp, order, memcg);
> + if (ret)
> + return ret;
> +
> + lruvec = mem_cgroup_lruvec(page_pgdat(page), memcg);
> + mod_lruvec_state(lruvec, cache_vmstat_idx(s), 1 << order);
> +
> + /* transer try_charge() page references to kmem_cache */
> + percpu_ref_get_many(&s->memcg_params.refcnt, 1 << order);
> + css_put_many(&memcg->css, 1 << order);
> +
> + return 0;
> }
>
> +/*
> + * Uncharge a slab page belonging to a non-root kmem_cache.
> + * Can be called for non-root kmem_caches only.
> + */
> static __always_inline void memcg_uncharge_slab(struct page *page, int order,
> struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> - memcg_kmem_uncharge(page, order);
> + struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
> + struct lruvec *lruvec;
> +
> + memcg = s->memcg_params.memcg;
> + lruvec = mem_cgroup_lruvec(page_pgdat(page), memcg);
> + mod_lruvec_state(lruvec, cache_vmstat_idx(s), -(1 << order));
> + memcg_kmem_uncharge_memcg(page, order, memcg);
> +
> + percpu_ref_put_many(&s->memcg_params.refcnt, 1 << order);
> }
>
> extern void slab_init_memcg_params(struct kmem_cache *);
> @@ -362,18 +368,24 @@ static __always_inline int charge_slab_page(struct page *page,
> gfp_t gfp, int order,
> struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> - int ret = memcg_charge_slab(page, gfp, order, s);
> -
> - if (!ret)
> - mod_lruvec_page_state(page, cache_vmstat_idx(s), 1 << order);
> + if (is_root_cache(s)) {
> + mod_node_page_state(page_pgdat(page), cache_vmstat_idx(s),
> + 1 << order);
> + return 0;
> + }
>
> - return ret;
> + return memcg_charge_slab(page, gfp, order, s);
> }
>
> static __always_inline void uncharge_slab_page(struct page *page, int order,
> struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> - mod_lruvec_page_state(page, cache_vmstat_idx(s), -(1 << order));
> + if (is_root_cache(s)) {
> + mod_node_page_state(page_pgdat(page), cache_vmstat_idx(s),
> + -(1 << order));
> + return;
> + }
> +
> memcg_uncharge_slab(page, order, s);
> }
>
> diff --git a/mm/slab_common.c b/mm/slab_common.c
> index 4e5b4292a763..1ee967b4805e 100644
> --- a/mm/slab_common.c
> +++ b/mm/slab_common.c
> @@ -45,6 +45,8 @@ static void slab_caches_to_rcu_destroy_workfn(struct work_struct *work);
> static DECLARE_WORK(slab_caches_to_rcu_destroy_work,
> slab_caches_to_rcu_destroy_workfn);
>
> +static void kmemcg_queue_cache_shutdown(struct percpu_ref *percpu_ref);
> +
> /*
> * Set of flags that will prevent slab merging
> */
> @@ -130,6 +132,7 @@ int __kmem_cache_alloc_bulk(struct kmem_cache *s, gfp_t flags, size_t nr,
> #ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG_KMEM
>
> LIST_HEAD(slab_root_caches);
> +static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(memcg_kmem_wq_lock);
>
> void slab_init_memcg_params(struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> @@ -145,6 +148,12 @@ static int init_memcg_params(struct kmem_cache *s,
> struct memcg_cache_array *arr;
>
> if (root_cache) {
> + int ret = percpu_ref_init(&s->memcg_params.refcnt,
> + kmemcg_queue_cache_shutdown,
> + 0, GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (ret)
> + return ret;
> +
> s->memcg_params.root_cache = root_cache;
> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->memcg_params.children_node);
> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->memcg_params.kmem_caches_node);
> @@ -170,6 +179,8 @@ static void destroy_memcg_params(struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> if (is_root_cache(s))
> kvfree(rcu_access_pointer(s->memcg_params.memcg_caches));
> + else
> + percpu_ref_exit(&s->memcg_params.refcnt);
> }
>
> static void free_memcg_params(struct rcu_head *rcu)
> @@ -225,6 +236,7 @@ void memcg_link_cache(struct kmem_cache *s, struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
> if (is_root_cache(s)) {
> list_add(&s->root_caches_node, &slab_root_caches);
> } else {
> + css_get(&memcg->css);
> s->memcg_params.memcg = memcg;
> list_add(&s->memcg_params.children_node,
> &s->memcg_params.root_cache->memcg_params.children);
> @@ -240,6 +252,7 @@ static void memcg_unlink_cache(struct kmem_cache *s)
> } else {
> list_del(&s->memcg_params.children_node);
> list_del(&s->memcg_params.kmem_caches_node);
> + css_put(&s->memcg_params.memcg->css);
> }
> }
> #else
> @@ -708,16 +721,13 @@ static void kmemcg_after_rcu_workfn(struct work_struct *work)
>
> put_online_mems();
> put_online_cpus();
> -
> - /* done, put the ref from slab_deactivate_memcg_cache_rcu_sched() */
> - css_put(&s->memcg_params.memcg->css);
> }
>
> /*
> * We need to grab blocking locks. Bounce to ->work. The
> * work item shares the space with the RCU head and can't be
> - * initialized eariler.
> -*/
> + * initialized earlier.
> + */
> static void kmemcg_schedule_work_after_rcu(struct rcu_head *head)
> {
> struct kmem_cache *s = container_of(head, struct kmem_cache,
> @@ -727,9 +737,31 @@ static void kmemcg_schedule_work_after_rcu(struct rcu_head *head)
> queue_work(memcg_kmem_cache_wq, &s->memcg_params.work);
> }
>
> +static void kmemcg_cache_shutdown_after_rcu(struct kmem_cache *s)
> +{
> + WARN_ON(shutdown_cache(s));
> +}
> +
> +static void kmemcg_queue_cache_shutdown(struct percpu_ref *percpu_ref)
> +{
> + struct kmem_cache *s = container_of(percpu_ref, struct kmem_cache,
> + memcg_params.refcnt);
> +
> + spin_lock(&memcg_kmem_wq_lock);
> + if (s->memcg_params.root_cache->memcg_params.dying)
> + goto unlock;
> +
> + WARN_ON(s->memcg_params.work_fn);
> + s->memcg_params.work_fn = kmemcg_cache_shutdown_after_rcu;
> + call_rcu(&s->memcg_params.rcu_head, kmemcg_schedule_work_after_rcu);
> +unlock:
> + spin_unlock(&memcg_kmem_wq_lock);
> +}
> +
> static void kmemcg_cache_deactivate_after_rcu(struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> __kmemcg_cache_deactivate_after_rcu(s);
> + percpu_ref_kill(&s->memcg_params.refcnt);
> }
>
> static void kmemcg_cache_deactivate(struct kmem_cache *s)
> @@ -739,9 +771,6 @@ static void kmemcg_cache_deactivate(struct kmem_cache *s)
> if (s->memcg_params.root_cache->memcg_params.dying)
> return;
>
> - /* pin memcg so that @s doesn't get destroyed in the middle */
> - css_get(&s->memcg_params.memcg->css);
> -
> WARN_ON_ONCE(s->memcg_params.work_fn);
> s->memcg_params.work_fn = kmemcg_cache_deactivate_after_rcu;
> call_rcu(&s->memcg_params.rcu_head, kmemcg_schedule_work_after_rcu);
> @@ -775,28 +804,6 @@ void memcg_deactivate_kmem_caches(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
> put_online_cpus();
> }
>
> -void memcg_destroy_kmem_caches(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
> -{
> - struct kmem_cache *s, *s2;
> -
> - get_online_cpus();
> - get_online_mems();
> -
> - mutex_lock(&slab_mutex);
> - list_for_each_entry_safe(s, s2, &memcg->kmem_caches,
> - memcg_params.kmem_caches_node) {
> - /*
> - * The cgroup is about to be freed and therefore has no charges
> - * left. Hence, all its caches must be empty by now.
> - */
> - BUG_ON(shutdown_cache(s));
> - }
> - mutex_unlock(&slab_mutex);
> -
> - put_online_mems();
> - put_online_cpus();
> -}
> -
> static int shutdown_memcg_caches(struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> struct memcg_cache_array *arr;
> @@ -854,8 +861,15 @@ static int shutdown_memcg_caches(struct kmem_cache *s)
>
> static void flush_memcg_workqueue(struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> + /*
> + * memcg_params.dying is synchronized using slab_mutex AND
> + * memcg_kmem_wq_lock spinlock, because it's not always
> + * possible to grab slab_mutex.
> + */
> mutex_lock(&slab_mutex);
> + spin_lock(&memcg_kmem_wq_lock);
> s->memcg_params.dying = true;
> + spin_unlock(&memcg_kmem_wq_lock);
> mutex_unlock(&slab_mutex);
>
> /*
> diff --git a/mm/slub.c b/mm/slub.c
> index 13e415cc71b7..0a4ddbeb5ca6 100644
> --- a/mm/slub.c
> +++ b/mm/slub.c
> @@ -4018,18 +4018,8 @@ void __kmemcg_cache_deactivate_after_rcu(struct kmem_cache *s)
> {
> /*
> * Called with all the locks held after a sched RCU grace period.
> - * Even if @s becomes empty after shrinking, we can't know that @s
> - * doesn't have allocations already in-flight and thus can't
> - * destroy @s until the associated memcg is released.
> - *
> - * However, let's remove the sysfs files for empty caches here.
> - * Each cache has a lot of interface files which aren't
> - * particularly useful for empty draining caches; otherwise, we can
> - * easily end up with millions of unnecessary sysfs files on
> - * systems which have a lot of memory and transient cgroups.
> */
> - if (!__kmem_cache_shrink(s))
> - sysfs_slab_remove(s);
> + __kmem_cache_shrink(s);
> }
>
> void __kmemcg_cache_deactivate(struct kmem_cache *s)
> --
> 2.20.1
>

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