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SubjectRe: [RFC] x86: Speculative execution warnings
Date
> On May 14, 2019, at 1:00 AM, Paul Turner <pjt@google.com> wrote:
>
> From: Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com>
> Date: Fri, May 10, 2019 at 7:45 PM
> To: <x86@kernel.org>
> Cc: Borislav Petkov, <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>, Nadav Amit, Andy
> Lutomirsky, Ingo Molnar, Peter Zijlstra, Thomas Gleixner, Jann Horn
>
>> It may be useful to check in runtime whether certain assertions are
>> violated even during speculative execution. This can allow to avoid
>> adding unnecessary memory fences and at the same time check that no data
>> leak channels exist.
>>
>> For example, adding such checks can show that allocating zeroed pages
>> can return speculatively non-zeroed pages (the first qword is not
>> zero). [This might be a problem when the page-fault handler performs
>> software page-walk, for example.]
>>
>> Introduce SPEC_WARN_ON(), which checks in runtime whether a certain
>> condition is violated during speculative execution. The condition should
>> be computed without branches, e.g., using bitwise operators. The check
>> will wait for the condition to be realized (i.e., not speculated), and
>> if the assertion is violated, a warning will be thrown.
>>
>> Warnings can be provided in one of two modes: precise and imprecise.
>> Both mode are not perfect. The precise mode does not always make it easy
>> to understand which assertion was broken, but instead points to a point
>> in the execution somewhere around the point in which the assertion was
>> violated. In addition, it prints a warning for each violation (unlike
>> WARN_ONCE() like behavior).
>>
>> The imprecise mode, on the other hand, can sometimes throw the wrong
>> indication, specifically if the control flow has changed between the
>> speculative execution and the actual one. Note that it is not a
>> false-positive, it just means that the output would mislead the user to
>> think the wrong assertion was broken.
>>
>> There are some more limitations. Since the mechanism requires an
>> indirect branch, it should not be used in production systems that are
>> susceptible for Spectre v2. The mechanism requires TSX and performance
>> counters that are only available in skylake+. There is a hidden
>> assumption that TSX is not used in the kernel for anything else, other
>> than this mechanism.
>
> Nice trick!

“Illusion." [ ignore if you don’t know the reference ]

>
> Can you eliminate the indirect call by forcing an access fault to
> abort the transaction instead, e.g. "cmove 0, $1”?
>
> (If this works, it may also allow support on older architectures as
> the RTM_RETIRED.ABORT* events go back further I believe?)

I don’t think it would work. The whole problem is that we need a counter
that is updated during execution and not retirement. I tried several
counters and could not find other appropriate ones.

The idea behind the implementation is to affect the control flow through
data dependency. I may be able to do something similar without an indirect
branch. I’ll take a page, put the XABORT on the page and make the page NX.
Then, a direct jump would go to this page. The conditional-mov would change
the PTE to X if the assertion is violated. There should be a page-walk even
if the CPU finds the entry in the TLB, since this entry is NX.

The only problem is that this would be more expensive when the assertion is
not broken. It might also lead to alerts on the wrong code (i.e., one
assertion is violated, the other one fires).

I’ll give some more thoughts and experiments.

>> The basic idea behind the implementation is to use a performance counter
>> that updates also during speculative execution as an indication for
>> assertion failure. By using conditional-mov, which is not predicted,
>> to affect the control flow, the condition is realized before the event
>> that affects the PMU is triggered.
>>
>> Enable this feature by setting "spec_warn=on" or "spec_warn=precise"
>> kernel parameter. I did not run performance numbers but I guess the
>> overhead should not be too high.
>>
>> I did not run too many tests, but brief experiments suggest that it does
>> work. Let me know if I missed anything and whether you think this can be
>> useful. To be frank, the exact use cases are not super clear, and there
>> are various possible extensions (e.g., ensuring the speculation window
>> is long enough by adding data dependencies). I would appreciate your
>> inputs.
>>
>> Cc: Andy Lutomirsky <luto@kernel.org>
>> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
>> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
>> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
>> Cc: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>
>> Signed-off-by: Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com>
>> ---
>> arch/x86/Kconfig | 4 +
>> arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h | 30 +++++
>> arch/x86/kernel/Makefile | 1 +
>> arch/x86/kernel/nospec.c | 185 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>> 4 files changed, 220 insertions(+)
>> create mode 100644 arch/x86/kernel/nospec.c
>>
>> diff --git a/arch/x86/Kconfig b/arch/x86/Kconfig
>> index 62fc3fda1a05..2cc57c2172be 100644
>> --- a/arch/x86/Kconfig
>> +++ b/arch/x86/Kconfig
>> @@ -2887,6 +2887,10 @@ config X86_DMA_REMAP
>> config HAVE_GENERIC_GUP
>> def_bool y
>>
>> +config DEBUG_SPECULATIVE_EXECUTION
>> + bool "Debug speculative execution"
>> + depends on X86_64
>> +
>> source "drivers/firmware/Kconfig"
>>
>> source "arch/x86/kvm/Kconfig"
>> diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h
>> index dad12b767ba0..3f1af6378304 100644
>> --- a/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h
>> +++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h
>> @@ -290,6 +290,36 @@ static inline void indirect_branch_prediction_barrier(void)
>> /* The Intel SPEC CTRL MSR base value cache */
>> extern u64 x86_spec_ctrl_base;
>>
>> +#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_SPECULATIVE_EXECUTION
>> +
>> +extern bool spec_check(unsigned long cond);
>> +
>> +DECLARE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(spec_test_key);
>> +DECLARE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(spec_test_precise_key);
>> +
>> +#define SPEC_WARN_ON(cond) \
>> +do { \
>> + bool _error; \
>> + \
>> + if (!static_branch_unlikely(&spec_test_key)) \
>> + break; \
>> + \
>> + _error = spec_check((unsigned long)(cond)); \
>> + \
>> + if (static_branch_unlikely(&spec_test_precise_key)) \
>> + break; \
>> + \
>> + WARN_ONCE(_error, \
>> + "Speculative execution assertion failed: (%s)\n", \
>> + __stringify(cond)); \
>> +} while (0)
>> +
>> +#else
>> +
>> +#define SPEC_BUG_ON(cond) BUILD_BUG_ON_INVALID(cond)
>> +
>> +#endif
>> +
>> /*
>> * With retpoline, we must use IBRS to restrict branch prediction
>> * before calling into firmware.
>> diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile b/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile
>> index 00b7e27bc2b7..63a3a1420f8e 100644
>> --- a/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile
>> +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile
>> @@ -139,6 +139,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_X86_INTEL_UMIP) += umip.o
>> obj-$(CONFIG_UNWINDER_ORC) += unwind_orc.o
>> obj-$(CONFIG_UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER) += unwind_frame.o
>> obj-$(CONFIG_UNWINDER_GUESS) += unwind_guess.o
>> +obj-y += nospec.o
>>
>> ###
>> # 64 bit specific files
>> diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/nospec.c b/arch/x86/kernel/nospec.c
>> new file mode 100644
>> index 000000000000..9e0711d34543
>> --- /dev/null
>> +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/nospec.c
>> @@ -0,0 +1,185 @@
>> +// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
>> +
>> +#include <linux/init.h>
>> +#include <linux/perf_event.h>
>> +
>> +#include <asm/cmdline.h>
>> +
>> +#include "../events/perf_event.h"
>> +
>> +#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_SPECULATIVE_EXECUTION
>> +
>> +static struct perf_event_attr spec_event_attr = {
>> + .type = PERF_TYPE_RAW,
>> + .size = sizeof(struct perf_event_attr),
>> + .config = 0x15d,
>> + .sample_freq = 1,
>> + .pinned = 1,
>> + .freq = 1,
>> + .exclude_user = 1,
>> +};
>> +
>> +static DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned int, spec_warn_irq_count);
>> +
>> +DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(spec_test_key);
>> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(spec_test_key);
>> +
>> +DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(spec_test_precise_key);
>> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(spec_test_precise_key);
>> +
>> +static void spec_event_handler(struct perf_event *evt,
>> + struct perf_sample_data *data, struct pt_regs *regs)
>> +{
>> + unsigned int cnt;
>> +
>> + /*
>> + * We need a barrier to prevent the xabort from being executed
>> + * speculatively.
>> + */
>> +
>> + indirect_branch_prediction_barrier();
>> +
>> + /*
>> + * Avoid false positives or wrong indications in the wrong spot due to
>> + * IRQs.
>> + */
>> + cnt = this_cpu_read(irq_count);
>> + this_cpu_write(spec_warn_irq_count, cnt);
>> + if (!static_branch_unlikely(&spec_test_precise_key))
>> + return;
>> +
>> + WARN(1, "Speculative execution detected at ip=%lx\n", regs->ip);
>> +}
>> +
>> +static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct perf_event *, spec_perf_event);
>> +
>> +void nop_func(void)
>> +{
>> +}
>> +
>> +void xabort_func(void)
>> +{
>> + asm volatile ("xabort $1");
>> +}
>> +
>> +bool spec_check(unsigned long cond)
>> +{
>> + bool error = false;
>> +
>> + /*
>> + * Avoid mistakenly triggering more events inside the NMI handler. We
>> + * will assume that this condition can be resolved with speculation.
>> + */
>> + if (in_nmi())
>> + return 0;
>> +
>> + preempt_disable();
>> +
>> + /*
>> + * Run a transaction which would only trigger xabort if the condition
>> + * is true. This xabort is counted by the PMU and will trigger an
>> + * interrupt. The conditional move prevents speculative evaluation of
>> + * the condition. The branch would not mistakenly be mispredicted later
>> + * to run xabort again, since we run IBPB in the nmi handler.
>> + *
>> + * The implementation is based on the assumption cmov's are not going
>> + * through prediction, which is a common assumption. It is based on
>> + * Intel SDM saying "Use the SETCC and CMOV instructions to eliminate
>> + * unpredictable conditional branches where possible".
>> + *
>> + * This code is susceptible to Spectre v2 attacks.
>> + */
>> + asm volatile ("xbegin 1f\n\t"
>> + "movq nop_func, %%rax\n\t"
>> + "testq %[cond], %[cond]\n\t"
>> + "cmovnzq %[xabort_func], %%rax\n\t"
>> + ANNOTATE_RETPOLINE_SAFE
>> + "call *%%rax\n\t"
>> + "xend\n\t"
>> + "1:" : : [cond]"r"((u64)(cond)), [xabort_func]"r"(xabort_func) :
>> + "memory", "rax");
>> +
>> + /*
>> + * Prevent wrong alerts due to speculative events that happened in the
>> + * IRQ handler.
>> + */
>> + if (likely(__this_cpu_read(spec_warn_irq_count) != __this_cpu_read(irq_count)))
>> + goto out;
>> +
>> + /* Check again with IRQs disabled to be sure we get a stable read. */
>> + this_cpu_write(spec_warn_irq_count, -2);
>> + error = true;
>> +out:
>> + preempt_enable();
>> + return error;
>> +}
>> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(spec_check);
>> +
>> +static int __init nospec_init(void)
>> +{
>> + int cpu, len;
>> + char buf[20];
>> + bool precise, enable;
>> +
>> + /* Check the TSX and PMU are supported */
>> + if (!boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_RTM) || !boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_SPEC_CTRL)) {
>> + pr_err("Speculative checks are not supported on this CPU");
>> + return 0;
>> + }
>> +
>> + /*
>> + * Unlike their name indicates, precise warnings are actually
>> + * imprecise, in the sense that they do not provide the exact code that
>> + * caused the speculation failure. They are precise in the sense that
>> + * they are prevent scenarios that the wrong assertion will be assumed
>> + * to fail. This might happen if speculatively a certain assertion
>> + * fails, but on the actual execution, this assertion does not fail.
>> + */
>> + len = cmdline_find_option(boot_command_line, "spec_warn", buf, sizeof(buf));
>> +
>> + if (len < 0)
>> + return 0;
>> +
>> + precise = (len == 7 && !strncmp(buf, "precise", 7));
>> + enable = (len == 2 && !strncmp(buf, "on", 2)) || precise;
>> +
>> + if (!enable) {
>> + pr_err("Invalid spec_warn argument (spec_warn=%s)", buf);
>> + return 0;
>> + }
>> +
>> + /* Set impossible value in order not to trigger a warning */
>> + for_each_online_cpu(cpu)
>> + per_cpu(spec_warn_irq_count, cpu) = (unsigned int)-2;
>> +
>> + if (precise)
>> + static_key_enable(&spec_test_precise_key.key);
>> +
>> + pr_info("Enabling %s speculative execution checks",
>> + precise ? "precise" : "imprecise");
>> +
>> + /*
>> + * For each CPU, set a performance counter to trigger a PMU interrupt
>> + * whenever an instruction that causes a transaction abort is executed.
>> + * These instruction will only be counted within a transaction.
>> + */
>> + for_each_online_cpu(cpu) {
>> + struct perf_event *evt =
>> + perf_event_create_kernel_counter(&spec_event_attr, cpu,
>> + NULL, &spec_event_handler, NULL);
>> +
>> + if (!evt) {
>> + pr_err("Failed to enable speculative checks");
>> + break;
>> + }
>> +
>> + per_cpu(spec_perf_event, cpu) = evt;
>> + }
>> +
>> + static_key_enable(&spec_test_key.key);
>> +
>> + return 0;
>> +}
>> +arch_initcall(nospec_init);
>> +
>> +#endif
>> —

>> 2.19.1

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