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SubjectRe: [PATCH v8 01/16] sched/core: uclamp: Add CPU's clamp buckets refcounting
On Tue, Apr 2, 2019 at 3:42 AM Patrick Bellasi <patrick.bellasi@arm.com> wrote:
>
> Utilization clamping allows to clamp the CPU's utilization within a
> [util_min, util_max] range, depending on the set of RUNNABLE tasks on
> that CPU. Each task references two "clamp buckets" defining its minimum
> and maximum (util_{min,max}) utilization "clamp values". A CPU's clamp
> bucket is active if there is at least one RUNNABLE tasks enqueued on
> that CPU and refcounting that bucket.
>
> When a task is {en,de}queued {on,from} a rq, the set of active clamp
> buckets on that CPU can change. If the set of active clamp buckets
> changes for a CPU a new "aggregated" clamp value is computed for that
> CPU. This is because each clamp bucket enforces a different utilization
> clamp value.
>
> Clamp values are always MAX aggregated for both util_min and util_max.
> This ensures that no task can affect the performance of other
> co-scheduled tasks which are more boosted (i.e. with higher util_min
> clamp) or less capped (i.e. with higher util_max clamp).
>
> A tasks has:

A task has | Tasks have

> task_struct::uclamp[clamp_id]::bucket_id
> to track the "bucket index" of the CPU's clamp bucket it refcounts while
> enqueued, for each clamp index (clamp_id).
>
> A runqueue has:
> rq::uclamp[clamp_id]::bucket[bucket_id].tasks
> to track how many RUNNABLE tasks on that CPU refcount each
> clamp bucket (bucket_id) of a clamp index (clamp_id).
> It also has a:
> rq::uclamp[clamp_id]::bucket[bucket_id].value
> to track the clamp value of each clamp bucket (bucket_id) of a clamp
> index (clamp_id).
>
> The rq::uclamp::bucket[clamp_id][] array is scanned every time it's
> needed to find a new MAX aggregated clamp value for a clamp_id. This
> operation is required only when it's dequeued the last task of a clamp
> bucket tracking the current MAX aggregated clamp value. In this case,
> the CPU is either entering IDLE or going to schedule a less boosted or
> more clamped task.
> The expected number of different clamp values configured at build time
> is small enough to fit the full unordered array into a single cache
> line, for configurations of up to 7 buckets.
>
> Add to struct rq the basic data structures required to refcount the
> number of RUNNABLE tasks for each clamp bucket. Add also the max
> aggregation required to update the rq's clamp value at each
> enqueue/dequeue event.
>
> Use a simple linear mapping of clamp values into clamp buckets.
> Pre-compute and cache bucket_id to avoid integer divisions at
> enqueue/dequeue time.
>
> Signed-off-by: Patrick Bellasi <patrick.bellasi@arm.com>
> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
>
> ---
> Changes in v8:
> Message-ID: <20190314111849.gx6bl6myfjtaan7r@e110439-lin>
> - remove "bucket local boosting" code and move it into a dedicated
> patch
> Message-ID: <20190313161229.pkib2tmjass5chtb@e110439-lin>
> - refactored uclamp_rq_update() code to make code cleaner
> Message-ID: <20190314122256.7wb3ydswpkfmntvf@e110439-lin>
> - s/uclamp_rq_update/uclamp_rq_max_value/ and move update into caller
> Message-ID: <CAJuCfpEWCcWj=B2SPai2pQt+wcjsAhEfVV1O+H0A+_fqLCnb8Q@mail.gmail.com>
> - update changelog to clarify the configuration fitting in one cache line
> Message-ID: <20190314145456.5qpxchfltfauqaem@e110439-lin>
> - s/uclamp_bucket_value/uclamp_bucket_base_value/
> Message-ID: <20190313113757.aeaksz5akv6y5uep@e110439-lin>
> - update UCLAMP_BUCKET_DELTA to use DIV_ROUND_CLOSEST()
> ---
> include/linux/log2.h | 37 ++++++++
> include/linux/sched.h | 39 ++++++++
> include/linux/sched/topology.h | 6 --
> init/Kconfig | 53 +++++++++++
> kernel/sched/core.c | 160 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> kernel/sched/sched.h | 51 +++++++++++
> 6 files changed, 340 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/log2.h b/include/linux/log2.h
> index 2af7f77866d0..e2db25734532 100644
> --- a/include/linux/log2.h
> +++ b/include/linux/log2.h
> @@ -224,4 +224,41 @@ int __order_base_2(unsigned long n)
> ilog2((n) - 1) + 1) : \
> __order_base_2(n) \
> )
> +
> +static inline __attribute__((const))
> +int __bits_per(unsigned long n)
> +{
> + if (n < 2)
> + return 1;
> + if (is_power_of_2(n))
> + return order_base_2(n) + 1;
> + return order_base_2(n);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * bits_per - calculate the number of bits required for the argument
> + * @n: parameter
> + *
> + * This is constant-capable and can be used for compile time
> + * initiaizations, e.g bitfields.

s/initiaizations/initializations

> + *
> + * The first few values calculated by this routine:
> + * bf(0) = 1
> + * bf(1) = 1
> + * bf(2) = 2
> + * bf(3) = 2
> + * bf(4) = 3
> + * ... and so on.
> + */
> +#define bits_per(n) \
> +( \
> + __builtin_constant_p(n) ? ( \
> + ((n) == 0 || (n) == 1) ? 1 : ( \
> + ((n) & (n - 1)) == 0 ? \

missing braces around 'n'
- ((n) & (n - 1)) == 0 ? \
+ ((n) & ((n) - 1)) == 0 ? \
> + ilog2((n) - 1) + 2 : \
> + ilog2((n) - 1) + 1 \

Isn't this "((n) & ((n) - 1)) == 0 ? ilog2((n) - 1) + 2 : ilog2((n) -
1) + 1" expression equivalent to a simple "ilog2(n) + 1"?

> + ) \
> + ) : \
> + __bits_per(n) \
> +)
> #endif /* _LINUX_LOG2_H */
> diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
> index 18696a194e06..0c0dd7aac8e9 100644
> --- a/include/linux/sched.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sched.h
> @@ -281,6 +281,18 @@ struct vtime {
> u64 gtime;
> };
>
> +/*
> + * Utilization clamp constraints.
> + * @UCLAMP_MIN: Minimum utilization
> + * @UCLAMP_MAX: Maximum utilization
> + * @UCLAMP_CNT: Utilization clamp constraints count
> + */
> +enum uclamp_id {
> + UCLAMP_MIN = 0,
> + UCLAMP_MAX,
> + UCLAMP_CNT
> +};
> +
> struct sched_info {
> #ifdef CONFIG_SCHED_INFO
> /* Cumulative counters: */
> @@ -312,6 +324,10 @@ struct sched_info {
> # define SCHED_FIXEDPOINT_SHIFT 10
> # define SCHED_FIXEDPOINT_SCALE (1L << SCHED_FIXEDPOINT_SHIFT)
>
> +/* Increase resolution of cpu_capacity calculations */
> +# define SCHED_CAPACITY_SHIFT SCHED_FIXEDPOINT_SHIFT
> +# define SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE (1L << SCHED_CAPACITY_SHIFT)
> +
> struct load_weight {
> unsigned long weight;
> u32 inv_weight;
> @@ -560,6 +576,25 @@ struct sched_dl_entity {
> struct hrtimer inactive_timer;
> };
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
> +/* Number of utilization clamp buckets (shorter alias) */
> +#define UCLAMP_BUCKETS CONFIG_UCLAMP_BUCKETS_COUNT
> +
> +/*
> + * Utilization clamp for a scheduling entity
> + * @value: clamp value "assigned" to a se
> + * @bucket_id: bucket index corresponding to the "assigned" value
> + *
> + * The bucket_id is the index of the clamp bucket matching the clamp value
> + * which is pre-computed and stored to avoid expensive integer divisions from
> + * the fast path.
> + */
> +struct uclamp_se {
> + unsigned int value : bits_per(SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE);
> + unsigned int bucket_id : bits_per(UCLAMP_BUCKETS);
> +};
> +#endif /* CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK */
> +
> union rcu_special {
> struct {
> u8 blocked;
> @@ -640,6 +675,10 @@ struct task_struct {
> #endif
> struct sched_dl_entity dl;
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
> + struct uclamp_se uclamp[UCLAMP_CNT];
> +#endif
> +
> #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_NOTIFIERS
> /* List of struct preempt_notifier: */
> struct hlist_head preempt_notifiers;
> diff --git a/include/linux/sched/topology.h b/include/linux/sched/topology.h
> index 57c7ed3fe465..bb5d77d45b09 100644
> --- a/include/linux/sched/topology.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sched/topology.h
> @@ -6,12 +6,6 @@
>
> #include <linux/sched/idle.h>
>
> -/*
> - * Increase resolution of cpu_capacity calculations
> - */
> -#define SCHED_CAPACITY_SHIFT SCHED_FIXEDPOINT_SHIFT
> -#define SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE (1L << SCHED_CAPACITY_SHIFT)
> -
> /*
> * sched-domains (multiprocessor balancing) declarations:
> */
> diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
> index c9386a365eea..7439cbf4d02e 100644
> --- a/init/Kconfig
> +++ b/init/Kconfig
> @@ -651,6 +651,59 @@ config HAVE_UNSTABLE_SCHED_CLOCK
> config GENERIC_SCHED_CLOCK
> bool
>
> +menu "Scheduler features"
> +
> +config UCLAMP_TASK
> + bool "Enable utilization clamping for RT/FAIR tasks"
> + depends on CPU_FREQ_GOV_SCHEDUTIL
> + help
> + This feature enables the scheduler to track the clamped utilization
> + of each CPU based on RUNNABLE tasks scheduled on that CPU.
> +
> + With this option, the user can specify the min and max CPU
> + utilization allowed for RUNNABLE tasks. The max utilization defines
> + the maximum frequency a task should use while the min utilization
> + defines the minimum frequency it should use.
> +
> + Both min and max utilization clamp values are hints to the scheduler,
> + aiming at improving its frequency selection policy, but they do not
> + enforce or grant any specific bandwidth for tasks.
> +
> + If in doubt, say N.
> +
> +config UCLAMP_BUCKETS_COUNT
> + int "Number of supported utilization clamp buckets"
> + range 5 20
> + default 5
> + depends on UCLAMP_TASK
> + help
> + Defines the number of clamp buckets to use. The range of each bucket
> + will be SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE/UCLAMP_BUCKETS_COUNT. The higher the
> + number of clamp buckets the finer their granularity and the higher
> + the precision of clamping aggregation and tracking at run-time.
> +
> + For example, with the minimum configuration value we will have 5
> + clamp buckets tracking 20% utilization each. A 25% boosted tasks will
> + be refcounted in the [20..39]% bucket and will set the bucket clamp
> + effective value to 25%.
> + If a second 30% boosted task should be co-scheduled on the same CPU,
> + that task will be refcounted in the same bucket of the first task and
> + it will boost the bucket clamp effective value to 30%.
> + The clamp effective value of a bucket is reset to its nominal value
> + (20% in the example above) when there are no more tasks refcounted in
> + that bucket.
> +
> + An additional boost/capping margin can be added to some tasks. In the
> + example above the 25% task will be boosted to 30% until it exits the
> + CPU. If that should be considered not acceptable on certain systems,
> + it's always possible to reduce the margin by increasing the number of
> + clamp buckets to trade off used memory for run-time tracking
> + precision.
> +
> + If in doubt, use the default value.
> +
> +endmenu
> +
> #
> # For architectures that want to enable the support for NUMA-affine scheduler
> # balancing logic:
> diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
> index 6b2c055564b5..032211b72110 100644
> --- a/kernel/sched/core.c
> +++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
> @@ -732,6 +732,162 @@ static void set_load_weight(struct task_struct *p, bool update_load)
> }
> }
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
> +
> +/* Integer rounded range for each bucket */
> +#define UCLAMP_BUCKET_DELTA DIV_ROUND_CLOSEST(SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE, UCLAMP_BUCKETS)
> +
> +static inline unsigned int uclamp_bucket_id(unsigned int clamp_value)
> +{
> + return clamp_value / UCLAMP_BUCKET_DELTA;
> +}
> +
> +static inline unsigned int uclamp_bucket_base_value(unsigned int clamp_value)

Where are you using uclamp_bucket_base_value()? I would expect its
usage somewhere inside uclamp_rq_dec_id() when the last task in the
bucket is dequeued but I don't see it...

> +{
> + return UCLAMP_BUCKET_DELTA * uclamp_bucket_id(clamp_value);
> +}
> +
> +static inline unsigned int uclamp_none(int clamp_id)
> +{
> + if (clamp_id == UCLAMP_MIN)
> + return 0;
> + return SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE;
> +}
> +
> +static inline
> +unsigned int uclamp_rq_max_value(struct rq *rq, unsigned int clamp_id)
> +{
> + struct uclamp_bucket *bucket = rq->uclamp[clamp_id].bucket;
> + int bucket_id = UCLAMP_BUCKETS - 1;
> +
> + /*
> + * Since both min and max clamps are max aggregated, find the
> + * top most bucket with tasks in.
> + */
> + for ( ; bucket_id >= 0; bucket_id--) {
> + if (!bucket[bucket_id].tasks)
> + continue;
> + return bucket[bucket_id].value;
> + }
> +
> + /* No tasks -- default clamp values */
> + return uclamp_none(clamp_id);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * When a task is enqueued on a rq, the clamp bucket currently defined by the
> + * task's uclamp::bucket_id is refcounted on that rq. This also immediately
> + * updates the rq's clamp value if required.
> + */
> +static inline void uclamp_rq_inc_id(struct task_struct *p, struct rq *rq,
> + unsigned int clamp_id)
> +{
> + struct uclamp_rq *uc_rq = &rq->uclamp[clamp_id];
> + struct uclamp_se *uc_se = &p->uclamp[clamp_id];
> + struct uclamp_bucket *bucket;
> +
> + bucket = &uc_rq->bucket[uc_se->bucket_id];
> + bucket->tasks++;
> +
> + if (uc_se->value > READ_ONCE(uc_rq->value))
> + WRITE_ONCE(uc_rq->value, bucket->value);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * When a task is dequeued from a rq, the clamp bucket refcounted by the task
> + * is released. If this is the last task reference counting the rq's max
> + * active clamp value, then the rq's clamp value is updated.
> + *
> + * Both refcounted tasks and rq's cached clamp values are expected to be
> + * always valid. If it's detected they are not, as defensive programming,
> + * enforce the expected state and warn.
> + */
> +static inline void uclamp_rq_dec_id(struct task_struct *p, struct rq *rq,
> + unsigned int clamp_id)
> +{
> + struct uclamp_rq *uc_rq = &rq->uclamp[clamp_id];
> + struct uclamp_se *uc_se = &p->uclamp[clamp_id];
> + struct uclamp_bucket *bucket;
> + unsigned int rq_clamp;
> +
> + bucket = &uc_rq->bucket[uc_se->bucket_id];
> + SCHED_WARN_ON(!bucket->tasks);
> + if (likely(bucket->tasks))
> + bucket->tasks--;
> +
> + if (likely(bucket->tasks))

Shouldn't you adjust bucket->value if the remaining tasks in the
bucket have a lower clamp value than the task that was just removed?

> + return;
> +
> + rq_clamp = READ_ONCE(uc_rq->value);
> + /*
> + * Defensive programming: this should never happen. If it happens,
> + * e.g. due to future modification, warn and fixup the expected value.
> + */
> + SCHED_WARN_ON(bucket->value > rq_clamp);
> + if (bucket->value >= rq_clamp)
> + WRITE_ONCE(uc_rq->value, uclamp_rq_max_value(rq, clamp_id));
> +}
> +
> +static inline void uclamp_rq_inc(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p)
> +{
> + unsigned int clamp_id;
> +
> + if (unlikely(!p->sched_class->uclamp_enabled))
> + return;
> +
> + for (clamp_id = 0; clamp_id < UCLAMP_CNT; ++clamp_id)
> + uclamp_rq_inc_id(p, rq, clamp_id);
> +}
> +
> +static inline void uclamp_rq_dec(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p)
> +{
> + unsigned int clamp_id;
> +
> + if (unlikely(!p->sched_class->uclamp_enabled))
> + return;
> +
> + for (clamp_id = 0; clamp_id < UCLAMP_CNT; ++clamp_id)
> + uclamp_rq_dec_id(p, rq, clamp_id);
> +}
> +
> +static void __init init_uclamp(void)
> +{
> + unsigned int clamp_id;
> + int cpu;
> +
> + for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
> + struct uclamp_bucket *bucket;
> + struct uclamp_rq *uc_rq;
> + unsigned int bucket_id;
> +
> + memset(&cpu_rq(cpu)->uclamp, 0, sizeof(struct uclamp_rq));
> +
> + for (clamp_id = 0; clamp_id < UCLAMP_CNT; ++clamp_id) {
> + uc_rq = &cpu_rq(cpu)->uclamp[clamp_id];
> +
> + bucket_id = 1;
> + while (bucket_id < UCLAMP_BUCKETS) {
> + bucket = &uc_rq->bucket[bucket_id];
> + bucket->value = bucket_id * UCLAMP_BUCKET_DELTA;
> + ++bucket_id;
> + }
> + }
> + }
> +
> + for (clamp_id = 0; clamp_id < UCLAMP_CNT; ++clamp_id) {
> + struct uclamp_se *uc_se = &init_task.uclamp[clamp_id];
> +
> + uc_se->value = uclamp_none(clamp_id);
> + uc_se->bucket_id = uclamp_bucket_id(uc_se->value);
> + }
> +}
> +
> +#else /* CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK */
> +static inline void uclamp_rq_inc(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p) { }
> +static inline void uclamp_rq_dec(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p) { }
> +static inline void init_uclamp(void) { }
> +#endif /* CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK */
> +
> static inline void enqueue_task(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, int flags)
> {
> if (!(flags & ENQUEUE_NOCLOCK))
> @@ -742,6 +898,7 @@ static inline void enqueue_task(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, int flags)
> psi_enqueue(p, flags & ENQUEUE_WAKEUP);
> }
>
> + uclamp_rq_inc(rq, p);
> p->sched_class->enqueue_task(rq, p, flags);
> }
>
> @@ -755,6 +912,7 @@ static inline void dequeue_task(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, int flags)
> psi_dequeue(p, flags & DEQUEUE_SLEEP);
> }
>
> + uclamp_rq_dec(rq, p);
> p->sched_class->dequeue_task(rq, p, flags);
> }
>
> @@ -6088,6 +6246,8 @@ void __init sched_init(void)
>
> psi_init();
>
> + init_uclamp();
> +
> scheduler_running = 1;
> }
>
> diff --git a/kernel/sched/sched.h b/kernel/sched/sched.h
> index 71208b67e58a..c3d1ae1e7eec 100644
> --- a/kernel/sched/sched.h
> +++ b/kernel/sched/sched.h
> @@ -797,6 +797,48 @@ extern void rto_push_irq_work_func(struct irq_work *work);
> #endif
> #endif /* CONFIG_SMP */
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
> +/*
> + * struct uclamp_bucket - Utilization clamp bucket
> + * @value: utilization clamp value for tasks on this clamp bucket
> + * @tasks: number of RUNNABLE tasks on this clamp bucket
> + *
> + * Keep track of how many tasks are RUNNABLE for a given utilization
> + * clamp value.
> + */
> +struct uclamp_bucket {
> + unsigned long value : bits_per(SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE);
> + unsigned long tasks : BITS_PER_LONG - bits_per(SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE);
> +};
> +
> +/*
> + * struct uclamp_rq - rq's utilization clamp
> + * @value: currently active clamp values for a rq
> + * @bucket: utilization clamp buckets affecting a rq
> + *
> + * Keep track of RUNNABLE tasks on a rq to aggregate their clamp values.
> + * A clamp value is affecting a rq when there is at least one task RUNNABLE
> + * (or actually running) with that value.
> + *
> + * There are up to UCLAMP_CNT possible different clamp values, currently there
> + * are only two: minmum utilization and maximum utilization.

s/minmum/minimum

> + *
> + * All utilization clamping values are MAX aggregated, since:
> + * - for util_min: we want to run the CPU at least at the max of the minimum
> + * utilization required by its currently RUNNABLE tasks.
> + * - for util_max: we want to allow the CPU to run up to the max of the
> + * maximum utilization allowed by its currently RUNNABLE tasks.
> + *
> + * Since on each system we expect only a limited number of different
> + * utilization clamp values (UCLAMP_BUCKETS), use a simple array to track
> + * the metrics required to compute all the per-rq utilization clamp values.
> + */
> +struct uclamp_rq {
> + unsigned int value;
> + struct uclamp_bucket bucket[UCLAMP_BUCKETS];
> +};
> +#endif /* CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK */
> +
> /*
> * This is the main, per-CPU runqueue data structure.
> *
> @@ -835,6 +877,11 @@ struct rq {
> unsigned long nr_load_updates;
> u64 nr_switches;
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
> + /* Utilization clamp values based on CPU's RUNNABLE tasks */
> + struct uclamp_rq uclamp[UCLAMP_CNT] ____cacheline_aligned;
> +#endif
> +
> struct cfs_rq cfs;
> struct rt_rq rt;
> struct dl_rq dl;
> @@ -1649,6 +1696,10 @@ extern const u32 sched_prio_to_wmult[40];
> struct sched_class {
> const struct sched_class *next;
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
> + int uclamp_enabled;
> +#endif
> +
> void (*enqueue_task) (struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, int flags);
> void (*dequeue_task) (struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, int flags);
> void (*yield_task) (struct rq *rq);
> --
> 2.20.1
>

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