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SubjectRe: Adding plain accesses and detecting data races in the LKMM
On Sat, Apr 20, 2019 at 12:06:58AM +0900, Akira Yokosawa wrote:
> Hi Paul,
>
> Please find inline comments below.
>
> On Fri, 19 Apr 2019 05:47:20 -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> > On Fri, Apr 19, 2019 at 02:53:02AM +0200, Andrea Parri wrote:
> >>> Are you saying that on x86, atomic_inc() acts as a full memory barrier
> >>> but not as a compiler barrier, and vice versa for
> >>> smp_mb__after_atomic()? Or that neither atomic_inc() nor
> >>> smp_mb__after_atomic() implements a full memory barrier?
> >>
> >> I'd say the former; AFAICT, these boil down to:
> >>
> >> https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v5.1-rc5/source/arch/x86/include/asm/atomic.h#L95
> >> https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v5.1-rc5/source/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h#L84
> >
> > OK, how about the following?
> >
> > Thanx, Paul
> >
> > ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> >
> > commit 19d166dadc4e1bba4b248fb46d32ca4f2d10896b
> > Author: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
> > Date: Fri Apr 19 05:20:30 2019 -0700
> >
> > tools/memory-model: Make smp_mb__{before,after}_atomic() match x86
> >
> > Read-modify-write atomic operations that do not return values need not
> > provide any ordering guarantees, and this means that both the compiler
> > and the CPU are free to reorder accesses across things like atomic_inc()
> > and atomic_dec(). The stronger systems such as x86 allow the compiler
> > to do the reordering, but prevent the CPU from so doing, and these
> > systems implement smp_mb__{before,after}_atomic() as compiler barriers.
> > The weaker systems such as Power allow both the compiler and the CPU
> > to reorder accesses across things like atomic_inc() and atomic_dec(),
> > and implement smp_mb__{before,after}_atomic() as full memory barriers.
> >
> > This means that smp_mb__before_atomic() only orders the atomic operation
> > itself with accesses preceding the smp_mb__before_atomic(), and does
> > not necessarily provide any ordering whatsoever against accesses
> > folowing the atomic operation. Similarly, smp_mb__after_atomic()
>
> s/folowing/following/

Good eyes, fixed!

> > only orders the atomic operation itself with accesses following the
> > smp_mb__after_atomic(), and does not necessarily provide any ordering
> > whatsoever against accesses preceding the atomic operation. Full ordering
> > therefore requires both an smp_mb__before_atomic() before the atomic
> > operation and an smp_mb__after_atomic() after the atomic operation.
> >
> > Therefore, linux-kernel.cat's current model of Before-atomic
> > and After-atomic is too strong, as it guarantees ordering of
> > accesses on the other side of the atomic operation from the
> > smp_mb__{before,after}_atomic(). This commit therefore weakens
> > the guarantee to match the semantics called out above.
> >
> > Reported-by: Andrea Parri <andrea.parri@amarulasolutions.com>
> > Suggested-by: Alan Stern <stern@rowland.harvard.edu>
> > Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
> >
> > diff --git a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> > index 169d938c0b53..e5b97c3e8e39 100644
> > --- a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> > +++ b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> > @@ -1888,7 +1888,37 @@ There are some more advanced barrier functions:
> > atomic_dec(&obj->ref_count);
> >
> > This makes sure that the death mark on the object is perceived to be set
> > - *before* the reference counter is decremented.
> > + *before* the reference counter is decremented. However, please note
> > + that smp_mb__before_atomic()'s ordering guarantee does not necessarily
> > + extend beyond the atomic operation. For example:
> > +
> > + obj->dead = 1;
> > + smp_mb__before_atomic();
> > + atomic_dec(&obj->ref_count);
> > + r1 = a;
> > +
> > + Here the store to obj->dead is not guaranteed to be ordered with
> > + with the load from a. This reordering can happen on x86 as follows:
>
> s/with//

Fixed fixed. ;-)

> And I beg you to avoid using the single letter variable "a".
> It's confusing.

Good point! I changed it to "x".

> > + (1) The compiler can reorder the load from a to precede the
> > + atomic_dec(), (2) Because x86 smp_mb__before_atomic() is only a
> > + compiler barrier, the CPU can reorder the preceding store to
> > + obj->dead with the later load from a.
> > +
> > + This could be avoided by using READ_ONCE(), which would prevent the
> > + compiler from reordering due to both atomic_dec() and READ_ONCE()
> > + being volatile accesses, and is usually preferable for loads from
> > + shared variables. However, weakly ordered CPUs would still be
> > + free to reorder the atomic_dec() with the load from a, so a more
> > + readable option is to also use smp_mb__after_atomic() as follows:
>
> The point here is not just "readability", but also the portability of the
> code, isn't it?

As Andrea noted, in this particular case, the guarantee that the
store to obj->dead precedes the load from x is portable. Either the
smp_mb__before_atomic() or the atomic_dec() must provide the ordering.
However, you are right that there is some non-portability. But this
non-portability involves the order of the atomic_dec() and the store to x.

So what I did was ...

> Thanks, Akira
>
> > +
> > + WRITE_ONCE(obj->dead, 1);
> > + smp_mb__before_atomic();
> > + atomic_dec(&obj->ref_count);
> > + smp_mb__after_atomic();
> > + r1 = READ_ONCE(a);
> > +
> > + This orders all three accesses against each other, and also makes
> > + the intent quite clear.

... change the above paragraph to read as follows:

In addition, the example without the smp_mb__after_atomic() does
not necessarily order the atomic_dec() with the load from x.
In contrast, the example with both smp_mb__before_atomic() and
smp_mb__after_atomic() orders all three accesses against each other,
and also makes the intent quite clear.

Does that help?

Thanx, Paul

> > See Documentation/atomic_{t,bitops}.txt for more information.
> >
> > diff --git a/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat b/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat
> > index 8dcb37835b61..b6866f93abb8 100644
> > --- a/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat
> > +++ b/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat
> > @@ -28,8 +28,8 @@ include "lock.cat"
> > let rmb = [R \ Noreturn] ; fencerel(Rmb) ; [R \ Noreturn]
> > let wmb = [W] ; fencerel(Wmb) ; [W]
> > let mb = ([M] ; fencerel(Mb) ; [M]) |
> > - ([M] ; fencerel(Before-atomic) ; [RMW] ; po? ; [M]) |
> > - ([M] ; po? ; [RMW] ; fencerel(After-atomic) ; [M]) |
> > + ([M] ; fencerel(Before-atomic) ; [RMW]) |
> > + ([RMW] ; fencerel(After-atomic) ; [M]) |
> > ([M] ; po? ; [LKW] ; fencerel(After-spinlock) ; [M]) |
> > ([M] ; po ; [UL] ; (co | po) ; [LKW] ;
> > fencerel(After-unlock-lock) ; [M])
> >
>

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