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SubjectRe: [PATCH v3 1/3] arm64, vmcoreinfo : Append 'PTRS_PER_PGD' to vmcoreinfo
Hi James,

Thanks for your review. Please see my comments inline:

On 03/26/2019 10:06 PM, James Morse wrote:
> Hi Bhupesh,
> On 20/03/2019 05:09, Bhupesh Sharma wrote:
>> With ARMv8.2-LVA architecture extension availability, arm64 hardware
>> which supports this extension can support a virtual address-space upto
>> 52-bits.
>> Since at the moment we enable the support of this extension in kernel
>> via CONFIG flags, e.g.
>> - User-space 52-bit LVA via CONFIG_ARM64_USER_VA_BITS_52
>> so, there is no clear mechanism in the user-space right now to
>> determine these CONFIG flag values and hence determine the maximum
>> virtual address space supported by the underlying kernel.
>> User-space tools like 'makedumpfile' therefore are broken currently
>> as they have no proper method to calculate the 'PTRS_PER_PGD' value
>> which is required to perform a page table walk to determine the
>> physical address of a corresponding virtual address found in
>> kcore/vmcoreinfo.
>> If one appends 'PTRS_PER_PGD' number to vmcoreinfo for arm64,
>> it can be used in user-space to determine the maximum virtual address
>> supported by underlying kernel.
> I don't think this really solves the problem, it feels fragile.
> I can see how vmcoreinfo tells you VA_BITS==48, PAGE_SIZE==64K and PTRS_PER_PGD=1024.
> You can use this to work out that the top level page table size isn't consistent with a
> 48bit VA, so 52bit VA must be in use...
> But wasn't your problem walking the kernel page tables? In particular the offset that we
> apply because the tables were based on a 48bit VA shifted up in swapper_pg_dir.
> Where does the TTBR1_EL1 offset come from with this property? I assume makedumpfile
> hard-codes it when it sees 52bit is in use ... somewhere.
> We haven't solved the problem!

But isn't the TTBR1_EL1 offset already appended by the kernel via
e842dfb5a2d3 ("arm64: mm: Offset TTBR1 to allow 52-bit PTRS_PER_PGD")
in case of kernel configuration where 52-bit userspace VAs are possible.

I copy a snippet from the git log of the above from Steve, which
explains the above:

" In other words a 48-bit kernel virtual address will have a different
pgd_index when using PTRS_PER_PGD = 64 and 1024.

If, however, we note that:
kva = 0xFFFF << 48 + lower (where lower[63:48] == 0b)
and, PGDIR_SHIFT = 42 (as we are dealing with 64KB PAGE_SIZE)

We can consider:
(kva >> PGDIR_SHIFT) & (1024 - 1) - (kva >> PGDIR_SHIFT) & (64 - 1)
= (0xFFFF << 6) & 0x3FF - (0xFFFF << 6) & 0x3F // "lower"
cancels out
= 0x3C0

In other words, one can switch PTRS_PER_PGD to the 52-bit value
provided that they increment ttbr1_el1 by 0x3C0 * 8 = 0x1E00 bytes when
running with 48-bit kernel VAs (TCR_EL1.T1SZ = 16).

For kernel configuration where 52-bit userspace VAs are possible, this
patch offsets ttbr1_el1 and sets PTRS_PER_PGD corresponding to the
52-bit value.

Accordingly we have the following assembler helper in

.macro offset_ttbr1, ttbr
#ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_52BIT_VA
orr \ttbr, \ttbr, #TTBR1_BADDR_4852_OFFSET

#ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_52BIT_VA
/* Must be at least 64-byte aligned to prevent corruption of the TTBR */
#define TTBR1_BADDR_4852_OFFSET (((UL(1) << (52 - PGDIR_SHIFT)) - \
(UL(1) << (48 - PGDIR_SHIFT))) * 8)

And before any load TTBR1 operation in the kernel we offset ttbr1_el1,
in case CONFIG_ARM64_52BIT_VA is true, for e.g in

offset_ttbr1 x1
msr ttbr1_el1, x1 // load TTBR1

So, the user-space (makedumpfile, for e.g.), just needs to know the
PTRS_PER_PGD value and it can calculate the pgd_index for a virtual
address using the following formula:

pgd_index(vaddr) = (((vaddr) >> PGDIR_SHIFT) & (PTRS_PER_PGD - 1));

Note that the above computation holds true both for PTRS_PER_PGD = 64
(48-bit kernel with 48-bit User VA) and 1024 (48-bit with 52-bit User
VA) cases. And these are the configurations for which we are trying to
fix the user-space regressions reported (on arm64) recently.

> Today __cpu_setup() sets T0SZ and T1SZ differently for 52bit VA, but in the future it
> could set them the same, or different the other-way-round.
> Will makedumpfile using this value keep working once T1SZ is 52bit VA too? In this case
> there would be no ttbr offset.
> If you need another vmcoreinfo flag once that happens, we've done something wrong here.

I am currently experimenting with Steve's patches for 52-bit kernel VA
(<>) and will comment more on the same
when I am able to get the user-space utilities like makedumpfile and
kexec-tools to work with the same on both ARMv8 Fast Simulator model and
older CPUs which don't support ARMv8.2 extensions.

However, I think we should not hold up fixes for regressions already
reported, because the 52-bit kernel VA changes probably still need some
more rework.

> (Not to mention what happens if the TTBR1_EL1 uses 52bit va, but TTBR0_EL1 doesn't)

I am wondering if there are any real users of the above combination.

So far, I have generally come across discussions where the following
variations of the address spaces have been proposed/requested:
- 48bit kernel VA + 48-bit User VA,
- 48-bit kernel VA + 52-bit User VA,
- 52-bit kernel VA + 52-bit User VA.


>> Suggested-by: Steve Capper <>
> (CC: +Steve)
> Thanks,
> James

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