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Subject[PATCH tip/core/rcu 06/10] rcu: Allow only one expedited GP to run concurrently with wakeups
From: Neeraj Upadhyay <>

The current expedited RCU grace-period code expects that a task
requesting an expedited grace period cannot awaken until that grace
period has reached the wakeup phase. However, it is possible for a long
preemption to result in the waiting task never sleeping. For example,
consider the following sequence of events:

1. Task A starts an expedited grace period by invoking
synchronize_rcu_expedited(). It proceeds normally up to the
wait_event() near the end of that function, and is then preempted
(or interrupted or whatever).

2. The expedited grace period completes, and a kworker task starts
the awaken phase, having incremented the counter and acquired
the rcu_state structure's .exp_wake_mutex. This kworker task
is then preempted or interrupted or whatever.

3. Task A resumes and enters wait_event(), which notes that the
expedited grace period has completed, and thus doesn't sleep.

4. Task B starts an expedited grace period exactly as did Task A,
complete with the preemption (or whatever delay) just before
the call to wait_event().

5. The expedited grace period completes, and another kworker
task starts the awaken phase, having incremented the counter.
However, it blocks when attempting to acquire the rcu_state
structure's .exp_wake_mutex because step 2's kworker task has
not yet released it.

6. Steps 4 and 5 repeat, resulting in overflow of the rcu_node
structure's ->exp_wq[] array.

In theory, this is harmless. Tasks waiting on the various ->exp_wq[]
array will just be spuriously awakened, but they will just sleep again
on noting that the rcu_state structure's ->expedited_sequence value has
not advanced far enough.

In practice, this wastes CPU time and is an accident waiting to happen.
This commit therefore moves the rcu_exp_gp_seq_end() call that officially
ends the expedited grace period (along with associate tracing) until
after the ->exp_wake_mutex has been acquired. This prevents Task A from
awakening prematurely, thus preventing more than one expedited grace
period from being in flight during a previous expedited grace period's
wakeup phase.

Fixes: 3b5f668e715b ("rcu: Overlap wakeups with next expedited grace period")
Signed-off-by: Neeraj Upadhyay <>
[ paulmck: Added updated comment. ]
Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <>
kernel/rcu/tree_exp.h | 11 +++++------
1 file changed, 5 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)

diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree_exp.h b/kernel/rcu/tree_exp.h
index fa143e4..7a1f093 100644
--- a/kernel/rcu/tree_exp.h
+++ b/kernel/rcu/tree_exp.h
@@ -539,14 +539,13 @@ static void rcu_exp_wait_wake(unsigned long s)
struct rcu_node *rnp;

- rcu_exp_gp_seq_end();
- trace_rcu_exp_grace_period(, s, TPS("end"));

- /*
- * Switch over to wakeup mode, allowing the next GP, but -only- the
- * next GP, to proceed.
- */
+ // Switch over to wakeup mode, allowing the next GP to proceed.
+ // End the previous grace period only after acquiring the mutex
+ // to ensure that only one GP runs concurrently with wakeups.
+ rcu_exp_gp_seq_end();
+ trace_rcu_exp_grace_period(, s, TPS("end"));

rcu_for_each_node_breadth_first(rnp) {
if (ULONG_CMP_LT(READ_ONCE(rnp->exp_seq_rq), s)) {
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