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Subject[PATCH] futex: Support smaller futexes of one byte or two byte size.
Date
This is option 2 out of 2. In both versions only the operations WAIT, WAKE,
REQUEUE and CMP_REQUEUE are supported. In this version all four of those
operations take a size argument. WAKE and REQUEUE only use the size argument
to verify that they were called with the same flags as the matching WAIT. WAIT
and CMP_REQUEUE use the size argument only for the "compare" part of their
operation. The other option would not have required a size argument for WAKE
and REQUEUE. See the mailing list for discussions as to which option we
should use.

None of these operations handle overlapping futexes. The mental model is
comparison+hashtable lookup and only an exact match on the address will find
the matching futex between WAIT and WAKE. An alternative would have been the
MONITOR/MWAIT mental model to handle overlapping futexes of different sizes,
but for mutexes and condition variables I just needed the normal futex
behavior. (except with smaller types)

There are two reasons for adding smaller futexes:
1. People often want smaller mutexes. Having mutexes that are only one byte in
size was the first reason WebKit gave for re-implementing futexes:
https://webkit.org/blog/6161/locking-in-webkit/

2. The C++ standard added futexes to the standard library in C++20 under the
name atomic_wait and atomic_notify:
http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/docs/papers/2019/p1135r5.html
The C++ version supports this for atomic variables of any size. The more sizes
we can support, the better the standard implementation can be on Linux.

I changed the location of two flags that used to be stored in the low bits of
the address, since the address is no longer aligned on four bytes. Luckily the
high bits were free as long as PAGE_SIZE is never more than 1 gigabyte.

The reason for only supporting 8 bit futexes and 16 bit futexes is that those
were easy to support with the existing interface. 64 bit futexes would require
bigger changes.

The reason for only supporting WAIT/WAKE and REQUEUE/CMP_REQUEUE is that those
are the only operations I need right now. (in fact the C++ standard only needs
WAIT/WAKE) The other operations are more complicated and will have to wait.

Signed-off-by: Malte Skarupke <malteskarupke@web.de>
---
include/linux/futex.h | 19 +++-
include/uapi/linux/futex.h | 12 ++-
kernel/futex.c | 183 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
3 files changed, 186 insertions(+), 28 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/futex.h b/include/linux/futex.h
index 5cc3fed27d4c..c05f4ad57133 100644
--- a/include/linux/futex.h
+++ b/include/linux/futex.h
@@ -16,18 +16,29 @@ struct task_struct;
* The key type depends on whether it's a shared or private mapping.
* Don't rearrange members without looking at hash_futex().
*
- * offset is aligned to a multiple of sizeof(u32) (== 4) by definition.
- * We use the two low order bits of offset to tell what is the kind of key :
+ * offset is the position within a page and is in the range [0, PAGE_SIZE).
+ * The high bits of offset are used to store flags :
+ * The next two bits above PAGE_SIZE indicate what kind of key this is :
* 00 : Private process futex (PTHREAD_PROCESS_PRIVATE)
* (no reference on an inode or mm)
* 01 : Shared futex (PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED)
* mapped on a file (reference on the underlying inode)
* 10 : Shared futex (PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED)
* (but private mapping on an mm, and reference taken on it)
+ * The two bits after that indicate the size of the futex :
+ * 00 : 32 bits
+ * 01 : 8 bits
+ : 10 : 16 bits
*/

-#define FUT_OFF_INODE 1 /* We set bit 0 if key has a reference on inode */
-#define FUT_OFF_MMSHARED 2 /* We set bit 1 if key has a reference on mm */
+/* We set the next highest bit if key has a reference on inode */
+#define FUT_OFF_INODE PAGE_SIZE
+/* We set the bit after that if key has a reference on mm */
+#define FUT_OFF_MMSHARED (PAGE_SIZE << 1)
+/* The bits after that indicate futexes of different sizes */
+#define FUT_OFF_8_BITS (PAGE_SIZE << 2)
+#define FUT_OFF_16_BITS (PAGE_SIZE << 3)
+#define FUT_OFF_SIZE_BITS (FUT_OFF_8_BITS | FUT_OFF_16_BITS)

union futex_key {
struct {
diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/futex.h b/include/uapi/linux/futex.h
index a89eb0accd5e..885961388c57 100644
--- a/include/uapi/linux/futex.h
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/futex.h
@@ -24,7 +24,17 @@

#define FUTEX_PRIVATE_FLAG 128
#define FUTEX_CLOCK_REALTIME 256
-#define FUTEX_CMD_MASK ~(FUTEX_PRIVATE_FLAG | FUTEX_CLOCK_REALTIME)
+#define FUTEX_SIZE_8_BITS 512
+#define FUTEX_SIZE_16_BITS 1024
+#define FUTEX_SIZE_32_BITS 0
+#define FUTEX_SECOND_SIZE_8_BITS 2048
+#define FUTEX_SECOND_SIZE_16_BITS 4096
+#define FUTEX_SECOND_SIZE_32_BITS 0
+#define FUTEX_ALL_SIZE_BITS (FUTEX_SIZE_8_BITS | FUTEX_SIZE_16_BITS | \
+ FUTEX_SECOND_SIZE_8_BITS | \
+ FUTEX_SECOND_SIZE_16_BITS)
+#define FUTEX_CMD_MASK ~(FUTEX_PRIVATE_FLAG | FUTEX_CLOCK_REALTIME | \
+ FUTEX_ALL_SIZE_BITS)

#define FUTEX_WAIT_PRIVATE (FUTEX_WAIT | FUTEX_PRIVATE_FLAG)
#define FUTEX_WAKE_PRIVATE (FUTEX_WAKE | FUTEX_PRIVATE_FLAG)
diff --git a/kernel/futex.c b/kernel/futex.c
index 03c518e9747e..e2308cea7580 100644
--- a/kernel/futex.c
+++ b/kernel/futex.c
@@ -183,6 +183,14 @@ static int __read_mostly futex_cmpxchg_enabled;
#endif
#define FLAGS_CLOCKRT 0x02
#define FLAGS_HAS_TIMEOUT 0x04
+/* size flags used for uaddr1 */
+#define FLAGS_FIRST_8_BITS 0x08
+#define FLAGS_FIRST_16_BITS 0x10
+/* size flags used for uaddr2 */
+#define FLAGS_SECOND_8_BITS 0x20
+#define FLAGS_SECOND_16_BITS 0x40
+#define FLAGS_FIRST_SIZE_BITS (FLAGS_FIRST_8_BITS | FLAGS_FIRST_16_BITS)
+#define FLAGS_SECOND_SIZE_BITS (FLAGS_SECOND_8_BITS | FLAGS_SECOND_16_BITS)

/*
* Priority Inheritance state:
@@ -385,9 +393,15 @@ static inline int hb_waiters_pending(struct futex_hash_bucket *hb)
*/
static struct futex_hash_bucket *hash_futex(union futex_key *key)
{
+ /*
+ * we exclude the size bits from the hash so that futexes of different
+ * sizes hash to the same bucket. we use this to check for mismatching
+ * size flags between WAIT and WAKE
+ */
+ u32 hash_init = key->both.offset & ~FUT_OFF_SIZE_BITS;
u32 hash = jhash2((u32*)&key->both.word,
(sizeof(key->both.word)+sizeof(key->both.ptr))/4,
- key->both.offset);
+ hash_init);
return &futex_queues[hash & (futex_hashsize - 1)];
}

@@ -401,10 +415,19 @@ static struct futex_hash_bucket *hash_futex(union futex_key *key)
*/
static inline int match_futex(union futex_key *key1, union futex_key *key2)
{
+ /*
+ * compare every member except for the size bits in offset. the size
+ * bits are only used for verification, and for that we need to first
+ * detect that two futexes are the same except for the size bits (which
+ * this function does) and then check if the size bits are different.
+ * since all other code doesn't care about the size bits, we can skip
+ * the comparison in all other cases as well.
+ */
return (key1 && key2
&& key1->both.word == key2->both.word
&& key1->both.ptr == key2->both.ptr
- && key1->both.offset == key2->both.offset);
+ && (key1->both.offset & ~FUT_OFF_SIZE_BITS)
+ == (key2->both.offset & ~FUT_OFF_SIZE_BITS));
}

/*
@@ -505,10 +528,20 @@ futex_setup_timer(ktime_t *time, struct hrtimer_sleeper *timeout,
return timeout;
}

+static inline int futex_size(int flags)
+{
+ if (flags & (FLAGS_FIRST_8_BITS | FLAGS_SECOND_8_BITS))
+ return sizeof(u8);
+ else if (flags & (FLAGS_FIRST_16_BITS | FLAGS_SECOND_16_BITS))
+ return sizeof(u16);
+ else
+ return sizeof(u32);
+}
+
/**
* get_futex_key() - Get parameters which are the keys for a futex
* @uaddr: virtual address of the futex
- * @fshared: 0 for a PROCESS_PRIVATE futex, 1 for PROCESS_SHARED
+ * @flags: futex flags (FLAGS_SHARED, FLAGS_8_BITS etc.)
* @key: address where result is stored.
* @rw: mapping needs to be read/write (values: FUTEX_READ,
* FUTEX_WRITE)
@@ -524,23 +557,31 @@ futex_setup_timer(ktime_t *time, struct hrtimer_sleeper *timeout,
* lock_page() might sleep, the caller should not hold a spinlock.
*/
static int
-get_futex_key(u32 __user *uaddr, int fshared, union futex_key *key, enum futex_access rw)
+get_futex_key(u32 __user *uaddr, int flags, union futex_key *key, enum futex_access rw)
{
unsigned long address = (unsigned long)uaddr;
struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
struct page *page, *tail;
struct address_space *mapping;
- int err, ro = 0;
+ int err, fshared, size, ro = 0;
+
+ fshared = flags & FLAGS_SHARED;
+ size = futex_size(flags);
+
+ key->both.offset = address % PAGE_SIZE;
+ if (size == sizeof(u8))
+ key->both.offset |= FUT_OFF_8_BITS;
+ else if (size == sizeof(u16))
+ key->both.offset |= FUT_OFF_16_BITS;

/*
* The futex address must be "naturally" aligned.
*/
- key->both.offset = address % PAGE_SIZE;
- if (unlikely((address % sizeof(u32)) != 0))
+ if (unlikely((address & (size - 1)) != 0))
return -EINVAL;
address -= key->both.offset;

- if (unlikely(!access_ok(uaddr, sizeof(u32))))
+ if (unlikely(!access_ok(uaddr, size)))
return -EFAULT;

if (unlikely(should_fail_futex(fshared)))
@@ -792,6 +833,18 @@ static int cmpxchg_futex_value_locked(u32 *curval, u32 __user *uaddr,
return ret;
}

+static inline int __get_sized_futex_value(u32 *dest, u32 __user *from, int size)
+{
+ switch (size) {
+ case 1:
+ return __get_user(*dest, (u8 __user *)from);
+ case 2:
+ return __get_user(*dest, (u16 __user *)from);
+ default:
+ return __get_user(*dest, from);
+ }
+}
+
static int get_futex_value_locked(u32 *dest, u32 __user *from)
{
int ret;
@@ -803,6 +856,26 @@ static int get_futex_value_locked(u32 *dest, u32 __user *from)
return ret ? -EFAULT : 0;
}

+static int get_sized_futex_value_locked(u32 *dest, u32 __user *from, int size)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ pagefault_disable();
+ ret = __get_sized_futex_value(dest, from, size);
+ pagefault_enable();
+
+ return ret ? -EFAULT : 0;
+}
+
+static int get_sized_futex_value(u32 *dest, u32 __user *from, int size)
+{
+ might_fault();
+ if (access_ok(from, size))
+ return __get_sized_futex_value(dest, from, size);
+ else
+ return -EFAULT;
+}
+

/*
* PI code:
@@ -1658,12 +1731,13 @@ futex_wake(u32 __user *uaddr, unsigned int flags, int nr_wake, u32 bitset)
struct futex_q *this, *next;
union futex_key key = FUTEX_KEY_INIT;
int ret;
+ bool found_size_mismatch = false;
DEFINE_WAKE_Q(wake_q);

if (!bitset)
return -EINVAL;

- ret = get_futex_key(uaddr, flags & FLAGS_SHARED, &key, FUTEX_READ);
+ ret = get_futex_key(uaddr, flags, &key, FUTEX_READ);
if (unlikely(ret != 0))
goto out;

@@ -1686,11 +1760,18 @@ futex_wake(u32 __user *uaddr, unsigned int flags, int nr_wake, u32 bitset)
if (!(this->bitset & bitset))
continue;

+ if (this->key.both.offset != key.both.offset) {
+ found_size_mismatch = true;
+ continue;
+ }
+
mark_wake_futex(&wake_q, this);
if (++ret >= nr_wake)
break;
}
}
+ if (found_size_mismatch && ret == 0)
+ ret = -EINVAL;

spin_unlock(&hb->lock);
wake_up_q(&wake_q);
@@ -1762,10 +1843,10 @@ futex_wake_op(u32 __user *uaddr1, unsigned int flags, u32 __user *uaddr2,
DEFINE_WAKE_Q(wake_q);

retry:
- ret = get_futex_key(uaddr1, flags & FLAGS_SHARED, &key1, FUTEX_READ);
+ ret = get_futex_key(uaddr1, flags, &key1, FUTEX_READ);
if (unlikely(ret != 0))
goto out;
- ret = get_futex_key(uaddr2, flags & FLAGS_SHARED, &key2, FUTEX_WRITE);
+ ret = get_futex_key(uaddr2, flags, &key2, FUTEX_WRITE);
if (unlikely(ret != 0))
goto out_put_key1;

@@ -2001,6 +2082,7 @@ static int futex_requeue(u32 __user *uaddr1, unsigned int flags,
{
union futex_key key1 = FUTEX_KEY_INIT, key2 = FUTEX_KEY_INIT;
int drop_count = 0, task_count = 0, ret;
+ bool found_size_mismatch = false;
struct futex_pi_state *pi_state = NULL;
struct futex_hash_bucket *hb1, *hb2;
struct futex_q *this, *next;
@@ -2047,11 +2129,12 @@ static int futex_requeue(u32 __user *uaddr1, unsigned int flags,
}

retry:
- ret = get_futex_key(uaddr1, flags & FLAGS_SHARED, &key1, FUTEX_READ);
+ ret = get_futex_key(uaddr1, flags & ~FLAGS_SECOND_SIZE_BITS,
+ &key1, FUTEX_READ);
if (unlikely(ret != 0))
goto out;
- ret = get_futex_key(uaddr2, flags & FLAGS_SHARED, &key2,
- requeue_pi ? FUTEX_WRITE : FUTEX_READ);
+ ret = get_futex_key(uaddr2, flags & ~FLAGS_FIRST_SIZE_BITS,
+ &key2, requeue_pi ? FUTEX_WRITE : FUTEX_READ);
if (unlikely(ret != 0))
goto out_put_key1;

@@ -2073,14 +2156,15 @@ static int futex_requeue(u32 __user *uaddr1, unsigned int flags,

if (likely(cmpval != NULL)) {
u32 curval;
+ int size = futex_size(flags & ~FLAGS_SECOND_SIZE_BITS);

- ret = get_futex_value_locked(&curval, uaddr1);
+ ret = get_sized_futex_value_locked(&curval, uaddr1, size);

if (unlikely(ret)) {
double_unlock_hb(hb1, hb2);
hb_waiters_dec(hb2);

- ret = get_user(curval, uaddr1);
+ ret = get_sized_futex_value(&curval, uaddr1, size);
if (ret)
goto out_put_keys;

@@ -2186,6 +2270,11 @@ static int futex_requeue(u32 __user *uaddr1, unsigned int flags,
if (!match_futex(&this->key, &key1))
continue;

+ if (this->key.both.offset != key1.both.offset) {
+ found_size_mismatch = true;
+ continue;
+ }
+
/*
* FUTEX_WAIT_REQEUE_PI and FUTEX_CMP_REQUEUE_PI should always
* be paired with each other and no other futex ops.
@@ -2272,6 +2361,9 @@ static int futex_requeue(u32 __user *uaddr1, unsigned int flags,
*/
put_pi_state(pi_state);

+ if (found_size_mismatch && ret == 0 && task_count == 0)
+ ret = -EINVAL;
+
out_unlock:
double_unlock_hb(hb1, hb2);
wake_up_q(&wake_q);
@@ -2727,7 +2819,7 @@ static int futex_wait_setup(u32 __user *uaddr, u32 val, unsigned int flags,
struct futex_q *q, struct futex_hash_bucket **hb)
{
u32 uval;
- int ret;
+ int ret, size = futex_size(flags);

/*
* Access the page AFTER the hash-bucket is locked.
@@ -2748,19 +2840,19 @@ static int futex_wait_setup(u32 __user *uaddr, u32 val, unsigned int flags,
* while the syscall executes.
*/
retry:
- ret = get_futex_key(uaddr, flags & FLAGS_SHARED, &q->key, FUTEX_READ);
+ ret = get_futex_key(uaddr, flags, &q->key, FUTEX_READ);
if (unlikely(ret != 0))
return ret;

retry_private:
*hb = queue_lock(q);

- ret = get_futex_value_locked(&uval, uaddr);
+ ret = get_sized_futex_value_locked(&uval, uaddr, size);

if (ret) {
queue_unlock(*hb);

- ret = get_user(uval, uaddr);
+ ret = get_sized_futex_value(&uval, uaddr, size);
if (ret)
goto out;

@@ -2893,7 +2985,7 @@ static int futex_lock_pi(u32 __user *uaddr, unsigned int flags,
to = futex_setup_timer(time, &timeout, FLAGS_CLOCKRT, 0);

retry:
- ret = get_futex_key(uaddr, flags & FLAGS_SHARED, &q.key, FUTEX_WRITE);
+ ret = get_futex_key(uaddr, flags, &q.key, FUTEX_WRITE);
if (unlikely(ret != 0))
goto out;

@@ -3084,7 +3176,7 @@ static int futex_unlock_pi(u32 __user *uaddr, unsigned int flags)
if ((uval & FUTEX_TID_MASK) != vpid)
return -EPERM;

- ret = get_futex_key(uaddr, flags & FLAGS_SHARED, &key, FUTEX_WRITE);
+ ret = get_futex_key(uaddr, flags, &key, FUTEX_WRITE);
if (ret)
return ret;

@@ -3321,7 +3413,7 @@ static int futex_wait_requeue_pi(u32 __user *uaddr, unsigned int flags,
*/
rt_mutex_init_waiter(&rt_waiter);

- ret = get_futex_key(uaddr2, flags & FLAGS_SHARED, &key2, FUTEX_WRITE);
+ ret = get_futex_key(uaddr2, flags, &key2, FUTEX_WRITE);
if (unlikely(ret != 0))
goto out;

@@ -3847,6 +3939,13 @@ void futex_exit_release(struct task_struct *tsk)
futex_cleanup_end(tsk, FUTEX_STATE_DEAD);
}

+int futex_op_to_size_flags(int op)
+{
+ int size_flags = op & FUTEX_ALL_SIZE_BITS;
+
+ return (size_flags / FUTEX_SIZE_8_BITS) * FLAGS_FIRST_8_BITS;
+}
+
long do_futex(u32 __user *uaddr, int op, u32 val, ktime_t *timeout,
u32 __user *uaddr2, u32 val2, u32 val3)
{
@@ -3862,6 +3961,44 @@ long do_futex(u32 __user *uaddr, int op, u32 val, ktime_t *timeout,
cmd != FUTEX_WAIT_REQUEUE_PI)
return -ENOSYS;
}
+ if (op & FUTEX_ALL_SIZE_BITS) {
+ flags |= futex_op_to_size_flags(op);
+
+ if ((flags & FLAGS_FIRST_SIZE_BITS) == FLAGS_FIRST_SIZE_BITS ||
+ (flags & FLAGS_SECOND_SIZE_BITS) == FLAGS_SECOND_SIZE_BITS) {
+ /*
+ * if both bits are set we could silently treat that as
+ * a 32 bit futex, but we may want to use this pattern
+ * in the future to indicate a 64 bit futex or an
+ * arbitrarily sized futex. so we don't want code
+ * relying on this yet.
+ */
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+ switch (cmd) {
+ case FUTEX_WAIT:
+ case FUTEX_WAIT_BITSET:
+ case FUTEX_WAKE:
+ case FUTEX_WAKE_BITSET:
+ if (flags & FLAGS_SECOND_SIZE_BITS) {
+ /*
+ * these operations only take one argument so
+ * only the size bits for the first argument
+ * should be used
+ */
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+ break;
+ case FUTEX_REQUEUE:
+ case FUTEX_CMP_REQUEUE:
+ break;
+ default:
+ /*
+ * all other cases are not supported yet
+ */
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+ }

switch (cmd) {
case FUTEX_LOCK_PI:
--
2.17.1
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