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SubjectRe: [PATCH v4 4/4] powerpc: Book3S 64-bit "heavyweight" KASAN support
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On 12/19/2019 12:36 AM, Daniel Axtens wrote:
> KASAN support on Book3S is a bit tricky to get right:
>
> - It would be good to support inline instrumentation so as to be able to
> catch stack issues that cannot be caught with outline mode.
>
> - Inline instrumentation requires a fixed offset.
>
> - Book3S runs code in real mode after booting. Most notably a lot of KVM
> runs in real mode, and it would be good to be able to instrument it.
>
> - Because code runs in real mode after boot, the offset has to point to
> valid memory both in and out of real mode.
>
> [ppc64 mm note: The kernel installs a linear mapping at effective
> address c000... onward. This is a one-to-one mapping with physical
> memory from 0000... onward. Because of how memory accesses work on
> powerpc 64-bit Book3S, a kernel pointer in the linear map accesses the
> same memory both with translations on (accessing as an 'effective
> address'), and with translations off (accessing as a 'real
> address'). This works in both guests and the hypervisor. For more
> details, see s5.7 of Book III of version 3 of the ISA, in particular
> the Storage Control Overview, s5.7.3, and s5.7.5 - noting that this
> KASAN implementation currently only supports Radix.]
>
> One approach is just to give up on inline instrumentation. This way all
> checks can be delayed until after everything set is up correctly, and the
> address-to-shadow calculations can be overridden. However, the features and
> speed boost provided by inline instrumentation are worth trying to do
> better.
>
> If _at compile time_ it is known how much contiguous physical memory a
> system has, the top 1/8th of the first block of physical memory can be set
> aside for the shadow. This is a big hammer and comes with 3 big
> consequences:
>
> - there's no nice way to handle physically discontiguous memory, so only
> the first physical memory block can be used.
>
> - kernels will simply fail to boot on machines with less memory than
> specified when compiling.
>
> - kernels running on machines with more memory than specified when
> compiling will simply ignore the extra memory.
>
> Implement and document KASAN this way. The current implementation is Radix
> only.
>
> Despite the limitations, it can still find bugs,
> e.g. http://patchwork.ozlabs.org/patch/1103775/
>
> At the moment, this physical memory limit must be set _even for outline
> mode_. This may be changed in a later series - a different implementation
> could be added for outline mode that dynamically allocates shadow at a
> fixed offset. For example, see https://patchwork.ozlabs.org/patch/795211/
>
> Suggested-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
> Cc: Balbir Singh <bsingharora@gmail.com> # ppc64 out-of-line radix version
> Cc: Christophe Leroy <christophe.leroy@c-s.fr> # ppc32 version
> Signed-off-by: Daniel Axtens <dja@axtens.net>
>
> ---
> Changes since v3:
> - Address further feedback from Christophe.
> - Drop changes to stack walking, it looks like the issue I observed is
> related to that particular stack, not stack-walking generally.
>
> Changes since v2:
>
> - Address feedback from Christophe around cleanups and docs.
> - Address feedback from Balbir: at this point I don't have a good solution
> for the issues you identify around the limitations of the inline implementation
> but I think that it's worth trying to get the stack instrumentation support.
> I'm happy to have an alternative and more flexible outline mode - I had
> envisoned this would be called 'lightweight' mode as it imposes fewer restrictions.
> I've linked to your implementation. I think it's best to add it in a follow-up series.
> - Made the default PHYS_MEM_SIZE_FOR_KASAN value 1024MB. I think most people have
> guests with at least that much memory in the Radix 64s case so it's a much
> saner default - it means that if you just turn on KASAN without reading the
> docs you're much more likely to have a bootable kernel, which you will never
> have if the value is set to zero! I'm happy to bikeshed the value if we want.
>
> Changes since v1:
> - Landed kasan vmalloc support upstream
> - Lots of feedback from Christophe.
>
> Changes since the rfc:
>
> - Boots real and virtual hardware, kvm works.
>
> - disabled reporting when we're checking the stack for exception
> frames. The behaviour isn't wrong, just incompatible with KASAN.
>
> - Documentation!
>
> - Dropped old module stuff in favour of KASAN_VMALLOC.
>
> The bugs with ftrace and kuap were due to kernel bloat pushing
> prom_init calls to be done via the plt. Because we did not have
> a relocatable kernel, and they are done very early, this caused
> everything to explode. Compile with CONFIG_RELOCATABLE!
> ---
> Documentation/dev-tools/kasan.rst | 8 +-
> Documentation/powerpc/kasan.txt | 112 ++++++++++++++++++-
> arch/powerpc/Kconfig | 2 +
> arch/powerpc/Kconfig.debug | 21 ++++
> arch/powerpc/Makefile | 11 ++
> arch/powerpc/include/asm/book3s/64/hash.h | 4 +
> arch/powerpc/include/asm/book3s/64/pgtable.h | 7 ++
> arch/powerpc/include/asm/book3s/64/radix.h | 5 +
> arch/powerpc/include/asm/kasan.h | 21 +++-
> arch/powerpc/kernel/prom.c | 61 +++++++++-
> arch/powerpc/mm/kasan/Makefile | 1 +
> arch/powerpc/mm/kasan/init_book3s_64.c | 70 ++++++++++++
> arch/powerpc/platforms/Kconfig.cputype | 1 +
> 13 files changed, 316 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 arch/powerpc/mm/kasan/init_book3s_64.c
>
> diff --git a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/kasan.h b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/kasan.h
> index 296e51c2f066..f18268cbdc33 100644
> --- a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/kasan.h
> +++ b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/kasan.h
> @@ -2,6 +2,9 @@
> #ifndef __ASM_KASAN_H
> #define __ASM_KASAN_H
>
> +#include <asm/page.h>
> +#include <asm/pgtable.h>

What do you need asm/pgtable.h for ?

Build failure due to circular inclusion of asm/pgtable.h:

CC arch/powerpc/kernel/asm-offsets.s
In file included from ./arch/powerpc/include/asm/nohash/32/pgtable.h:77:0,
from ./arch/powerpc/include/asm/nohash/pgtable.h:8,
from ./arch/powerpc/include/asm/pgtable.h:20,
from ./arch/powerpc/include/asm/kasan.h:6,
from ./include/linux/kasan.h:14,
from ./include/linux/slab.h:136,
from ./include/linux/crypto.h:19,
from ./include/crypto/hash.h:11,
from ./include/linux/uio.h:10,
from ./include/linux/socket.h:8,
from ./include/linux/compat.h:15,
from arch/powerpc/kernel/asm-offsets.c:14:
./include/asm-generic/fixmap.h: In function 'fix_to_virt':
./arch/powerpc/include/asm/fixmap.h:28:22: error: 'KASAN_SHADOW_START'
undeclared (first use in this function)
#define FIXADDR_TOP (KASAN_SHADOW_START - PAGE_SIZE)
^
./include/asm-generic/fixmap.h:21:27: note: in expansion of macro
'FIXADDR_TOP'
#define __fix_to_virt(x) (FIXADDR_TOP - ((x) << PAGE_SHIFT))
^
./include/asm-generic/fixmap.h:33:9: note: in expansion of macro
'__fix_to_virt'
return __fix_to_virt(idx);
^
./arch/powerpc/include/asm/fixmap.h:28:22: note: each undeclared
identifier is reported only once for each function it appears in
#define FIXADDR_TOP (KASAN_SHADOW_START - PAGE_SIZE)
^
./include/asm-generic/fixmap.h:21:27: note: in expansion of macro
'FIXADDR_TOP'
#define __fix_to_virt(x) (FIXADDR_TOP - ((x) << PAGE_SHIFT))
^
./include/asm-generic/fixmap.h:33:9: note: in expansion of macro
'__fix_to_virt'
return __fix_to_virt(idx);
^
In file included from ./include/linux/bug.h:5:0,
from ./include/linux/thread_info.h:12,
from ./include/asm-generic/preempt.h:5,
from ./arch/powerpc/include/generated/asm/preempt.h:1,
from ./include/linux/preempt.h:78,
from ./include/linux/spinlock.h:51,
from ./include/linux/seqlock.h:36,
from ./include/linux/time.h:6,
from ./include/linux/compat.h:10,
from arch/powerpc/kernel/asm-offsets.c:14:
./include/asm-generic/fixmap.h: In function 'virt_to_fix':
./arch/powerpc/include/asm/fixmap.h:28:22: error: 'KASAN_SHADOW_START'
undeclared (first use in this function)
#define FIXADDR_TOP (KASAN_SHADOW_START - PAGE_SIZE)
^
./arch/powerpc/include/asm/bug.h:73:27: note: in definition of macro
'BUG_ON'
if (__builtin_constant_p(x)) { \
^
./include/asm-generic/fixmap.h:38:18: note: in expansion of macro
'FIXADDR_TOP'
BUG_ON(vaddr >= FIXADDR_TOP || vaddr < FIXADDR_START);
^
In file included from ./arch/powerpc/include/asm/nohash/32/pgtable.h:77:0,
from ./arch/powerpc/include/asm/nohash/pgtable.h:8,
from ./arch/powerpc/include/asm/pgtable.h:20,
from ./arch/powerpc/include/asm/kasan.h:6,
from ./include/linux/kasan.h:14,
from ./include/linux/slab.h:136,
from ./include/linux/crypto.h:19,
from ./include/crypto/hash.h:11,
from ./include/linux/uio.h:10,
from ./include/linux/socket.h:8,
from ./include/linux/compat.h:15,
from arch/powerpc/kernel/asm-offsets.c:14:
./arch/powerpc/include/asm/fixmap.h: In function '__set_fixmap':
./arch/powerpc/include/asm/fixmap.h:28:22: error: 'KASAN_SHADOW_START'
undeclared (first use in this function)
#define FIXADDR_TOP (KASAN_SHADOW_START - PAGE_SIZE)
^
./include/asm-generic/fixmap.h:21:27: note: in expansion of macro
'FIXADDR_TOP'
#define __fix_to_virt(x) (FIXADDR_TOP - ((x) << PAGE_SHIFT))
^
./arch/powerpc/include/asm/fixmap.h:102:18: note: in expansion of macro
'__fix_to_virt'
map_kernel_page(__fix_to_virt(idx), phys, flags);
^
make[2]: *** [arch/powerpc/kernel/asm-offsets.s] Error 1
make[1]: *** [prepare0] Error 2
make: *** [sub-make] Error 2



> +
> #ifdef CONFIG_KASAN
> #define _GLOBAL_KASAN(fn) _GLOBAL(__##fn)
> #define _GLOBAL_TOC_KASAN(fn) _GLOBAL_TOC(__##fn)
> @@ -14,13 +17,19 @@
>
> #ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
>
> -#include <asm/page.h>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_KASAN
> +void kasan_init(void);
> +#else
> +static inline void kasan_init(void) { }
> +#endif

I don't think it is worth moving this. Just keep everything out of the
#ifdef CONFIG_PPC32. Having undefined/unused functions there shouldn't
matter.

>
> #define KASAN_SHADOW_SCALE_SHIFT 3
>
> #define KASAN_SHADOW_START (KASAN_SHADOW_OFFSET + \
> (PAGE_OFFSET >> KASAN_SHADOW_SCALE_SHIFT))
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_PPC32
> +
> #define KASAN_SHADOW_OFFSET ASM_CONST(CONFIG_KASAN_SHADOW_OFFSET)
>
> #define KASAN_SHADOW_END 0UL
> @@ -30,11 +39,17 @@

Keep the block below out of the CONFIG_PPC32 ifdef, don't need to move
kasan_init()

> #ifdef CONFIG_KASAN
> void kasan_early_init(void);
> void kasan_mmu_init(void);
> -void kasan_init(void);
> #else
> -static inline void kasan_init(void) { }
> static inline void kasan_mmu_init(void) { }
> #endif
> +#endif
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_PPC_BOOK3S_64
> +
> +#define KASAN_SHADOW_SIZE ((u64)CONFIG_PHYS_MEM_SIZE_FOR_KASAN * \
> + 1024 * 1024 * 1 / 8)

What about:

(ASM_CONST(CONFIG_PHYS_MEM_SIZE_FOR_KASAN) * SZ_1G) >>
KASAN_SHADOW_SCALE_SHIFT

> +
> +#endif /* CONFIG_PPC_BOOK3S_64 */
>
> #endif /* __ASSEMBLY */
> #endif
> diff --git a/arch/powerpc/kernel/prom.c b/arch/powerpc/kernel/prom.c
> index 6620f37abe73..f8ef0074b320 100644
> --- a/arch/powerpc/kernel/prom.c
> +++ b/arch/powerpc/kernel/prom.c
> @@ -72,6 +72,7 @@ unsigned long tce_alloc_start, tce_alloc_end;
> u64 ppc64_rma_size;
> #endif
> static phys_addr_t first_memblock_size;
> +static phys_addr_t top_phys_addr;
> static int __initdata boot_cpu_count;
>
> static int __init early_parse_mem(char *p)
> @@ -449,6 +450,26 @@ static bool validate_mem_limit(u64 base, u64 *size)
> {
> u64 max_mem = 1UL << (MAX_PHYSMEM_BITS);
>
> + /*
> + * To handle the NUMA/discontiguous memory case, don't allow a block
> + * to be added if it falls completely beyond the configured physical
> + * memory. Print an informational message.
> + *
> + * Frustratingly we also see this with qemu - it seems to split the
> + * specified memory into a number of smaller blocks. If this happens
> + * under qemu, it probably represents misconfiguration. So we want
> + * the message to be noticeable, but not shouty.
> + *
> + * See Documentation/powerpc/kasan.txt
> + */
> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_KASAN) &&
> + (base >= ((u64)CONFIG_PHYS_MEM_SIZE_FOR_KASAN << 20))) {
> + pr_warn("KASAN: not adding memory block at %llx (size %llx)\n"
> + "This could be due to discontiguous memory or kernel misconfiguration.",
> + base, *size);
> + return false;
> + }
> +
> if (base >= max_mem)
> return false;
> if ((base + *size) > max_mem)
> @@ -572,8 +593,10 @@ void __init early_init_dt_add_memory_arch(u64 base, u64 size)
>
> /* Add the chunk to the MEMBLOCK list */
> if (add_mem_to_memblock) {
> - if (validate_mem_limit(base, &size))
> + if (validate_mem_limit(base, &size)) {
> memblock_add(base, size);
> + top_phys_addr = max(top_phys_addr, base + size);

Build failure, you have to cast (base + size) to (phys_addr_t) as
phys_addr_t is not always u64.

CC arch/powerpc/kernel/asm-offsets.s
CALL scripts/checksyscalls.sh
CALL scripts/atomic/check-atomics.sh
CC arch/powerpc/kernel/prom.o
In file included from arch/powerpc/kernel/prom.c:15:0:
arch/powerpc/kernel/prom.c: In function 'early_init_dt_add_memory_arch':
./include/linux/kernel.h:844:29: error: comparison of distinct pointer
types lacks a cast [-Werror]
(!!(sizeof((typeof(x) *)1 == (typeof(y) *)1)))
^
./include/linux/kernel.h:858:4: note: in expansion of macro '__typecheck'
(__typecheck(x, y) && __no_side_effects(x, y))
^
./include/linux/kernel.h:868:24: note: in expansion of macro '__safe_cmp'
__builtin_choose_expr(__safe_cmp(x, y), \
^
./include/linux/kernel.h:884:19: note: in expansion of macro '__careful_cmp'
#define max(x, y) __careful_cmp(x, y, >)
^
arch/powerpc/kernel/prom.c:598:20: note: in expansion of macro 'max'
top_phys_addr = max(top_phys_addr, base + size);
^
cc1: all warnings being treated as errors
make[3]: *** [arch/powerpc/kernel/prom.o] Error 1
make[2]: *** [arch/powerpc/kernel] Error 2
make[1]: *** [arch/powerpc] Error 2
make: *** [sub-make] Error 2
> + }
> }
> }
>
> @@ -613,6 +636,8 @@ static void __init early_reserve_mem_dt(void)
> static void __init early_reserve_mem(void)
> {
> __be64 *reserve_map;
> + phys_addr_t kasan_shadow_start;
> + phys_addr_t kasan_memory_size;
>
> reserve_map = (__be64 *)(((unsigned long)initial_boot_params) +
> fdt_off_mem_rsvmap(initial_boot_params));
> @@ -651,6 +676,40 @@ static void __init early_reserve_mem(void)
> return;
> }
> #endif
> +
> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_KASAN) && IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_PPC_BOOK3S_64)) {
> + kasan_memory_size =
> + ((phys_addr_t)CONFIG_PHYS_MEM_SIZE_FOR_KASAN << 20);
> +
> + if (top_phys_addr < kasan_memory_size) {
> + /*
> + * We are doomed. We shouldn't even be able to get this
> + * far, but we do in qemu. If we continue and turn
> + * relocations on, we'll take fatal page faults for
> + * memory that's not physically present. Instead,
> + * panic() here: it will be saved to __log_buf even if
> + * it doesn't get printed to the console.
> + */
> + panic("Tried to boot a KASAN kernel configured for %u MB with only %llu MB! Aborting.",
> + CONFIG_PHYS_MEM_SIZE_FOR_KASAN,
> + (u64)(top_phys_addr >> 20));
> + } else if (top_phys_addr > kasan_memory_size) {
> + /* print a biiiig warning in hopes people notice */
> + pr_err("===========================================\n"
> + "Physical memory exceeds compiled-in maximum!\n"
> + "This kernel was compiled for KASAN with %u MB physical memory.\n"
> + "The physical memory detected is at least %llu MB.\n"
> + "Memory above the compiled limit will not be used!\n"
> + "===========================================\n",
> + CONFIG_PHYS_MEM_SIZE_FOR_KASAN,
> + (u64)(top_phys_addr >> 20));
> + }
> +
> + kasan_shadow_start = _ALIGN_DOWN(kasan_memory_size * 7 / 8, PAGE_SIZE);
> + DBG("reserving %llx -> %llx for KASAN",
> + kasan_shadow_start, top_phys_addr);
> + memblock_reserve(kasan_shadow_start, top_phys_addr - kasan_shadow_start);
> + }
> }
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_PPC_TRANSACTIONAL_MEM

Christophe

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