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Subject[PATCH v4 3/6] x86,sched: Add support for frequency invariance on XEON_PHI_KNL/KNM
Date
The scheduler needs the ratio freq_curr/freq_max for frequency-invariant
accounting. On Xeon Phi CPUs set freq_max to the second-highest frequency
reported by the CPU.

Xeon Phi CPUs such as Knights Landing and Knights Mill typically have either
one or two turbo frequencies; in the former case that's 100 MHz above the base
frequency, in the latter case the two levels are 100 MHz and 200 MHz above
base frequency.

We set freq_max to the second-highest frequency reported by the CPU. This
could be the base frequency (if only one turbo level is available) or the first
turbo level (if two levels are available). The rationale is to compromise
between power efficiency or performance -- going straight to max turbo would
favor efficiency and blindly using base freq would favor performance.

For reference, this is how MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT must be parsed on a Xeon Phi
to get the available frequencies (taken from a comment in turbostat's sources):

[0] -- Reserved
[7:1] -- Base value of number of active cores of bucket 1.
[15:8] -- Base value of freq ratio of bucket 1.
[20:16] -- +ve delta of number of active cores of bucket 2.
i.e. active cores of bucket 2 =
active cores of bucket 1 + delta
[23:21] -- Negative delta of freq ratio of bucket 2.
i.e. freq ratio of bucket 2 =
freq ratio of bucket 1 - delta
[28:24]-- +ve delta of number of active cores of bucket 3.
[31:29]-- -ve delta of freq ratio of bucket 3.
[36:32]-- +ve delta of number of active cores of bucket 4.
[39:37]-- -ve delta of freq ratio of bucket 4.
[44:40]-- +ve delta of number of active cores of bucket 5.
[47:45]-- -ve delta of freq ratio of bucket 5.
[52:48]-- +ve delta of number of active cores of bucket 6.
[55:53]-- -ve delta of freq ratio of bucket 6.
[60:56]-- +ve delta of number of active cores of bucket 7.
[63:61]-- -ve delta of freq ratio of bucket 7.

1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: TBENCH +5%
2. NEUTRAL BENCHMARKS (ALL OTHERS)
3. TEST SETUP

1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: TBENCH +5%
-------------------------------------

A performance evaluation was conducted on a Knights Mill machine (see "Test
Setup" below), were the frequency-invariance patch (on schedutil) is compared
to both non-invariant schedutil and active intel_pstate with powersave: all
three tested kernels behave the same performance-wise and with regard to power
consumption (performance per watt). The only notable difference is tbench:

comparison ratio of performance with baseline; 1.00 means neutral,
higher is better:

I_PSTATE FREQ-INV
----------------------------------------
tbench 1.04 1.05

performance-per-watt ratios with baseline; 1.00 means neutral, higher is better:

I_PSTATE FREQ-INV
----------------------------------------
tbench 1.03 1.04

which essentially means that frequency-invariant schedutil is 5% better than
baseline, the same as intel_pstate+powersave.

As the results above are averaged over the varying parameter, here the detailed
table.

Varying parameter : number of clients
Unit : MB/sec (higher is better)

5.2.0 vanilla (BASELINE) 5.2.0 intel_pstate 5.2.0 freq-inv
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hmean 1 49.06 +- 2.12% ( ) 51.66 +- 1.52% ( 5.30%) 52.87 +- 0.88% ( 7.76%)
Hmean 2 93.82 +- 0.45% ( ) 103.24 +- 0.70% ( 10.05%) 105.90 +- 0.70% ( 12.88%)
Hmean 4 192.46 +- 1.15% ( ) 215.95 +- 0.60% ( 12.21%) 215.78 +- 1.43% ( 12.12%)
Hmean 8 406.74 +- 2.58% ( ) 438.58 +- 0.36% ( 7.83%) 437.61 +- 0.97% ( 7.59%)
Hmean 16 857.70 +- 1.22% ( ) 890.26 +- 0.72% ( 3.80%) 889.11 +- 0.73% ( 3.66%)
Hmean 32 1760.10 +- 0.92% ( ) 1791.70 +- 0.44% ( 1.79%) 1787.95 +- 0.44% ( 1.58%)
Hmean 64 3183.50 +- 0.34% ( ) 3183.19 +- 0.36% ( -0.01%) 3187.53 +- 0.36% ( 0.13%)
Hmean 128 4830.96 +- 0.31% ( ) 4846.53 +- 0.30% ( 0.32%) 4855.86 +- 0.30% ( 0.52%)
Hmean 256 5467.98 +- 0.38% ( ) 5793.80 +- 0.28% ( 5.96%) 5821.94 +- 0.17% ( 6.47%)
Hmean 512 5398.10 +- 0.06% ( ) 5745.56 +- 0.08% ( 6.44%) 5503.68 +- 0.07% ( 1.96%)
Hmean 1024 5290.43 +- 0.63% ( ) 5221.07 +- 0.47% ( -1.31%) 5277.22 +- 0.80% ( -0.25%)
Hmean 1088 5139.71 +- 0.57% ( ) 5236.02 +- 0.71% ( 1.87%) 5190.57 +- 0.41% ( 0.99%)

2. NEUTRAL BENCHMARKS (ALL OTHERS)
----------------------------------

* pgbench (both read/write and read-only)
* NASA Parallel Benchmarks (NPB), MPI or OpenMP for message-passing
* hackbench
* netperf
* dbench
* kernbench
* gitsource (git unit test suite)

3. TEST SETUP
-------------

Test machine:

CPU Model : Intel Xeon Phi CPU 7255 @ 1.10GHz (a.k.a. Knights Mill)
Fam/Mod/Ste : 6:133:0
Topology : 1 socket, 68 cores / 272 threads
Memory : 96G
Storage : rotary, XFS filesystem

Max EFFICiency, BASE frequency and available turbo levels (MHz):

EFFIC 1000 |**********
BASE 1100 |***********
68C 1100 |***********
30C 1200 |************

Tested kernels:

Baseline : v5.2, intel_pstate passive, schedutil
Comparison #1 : v5.2, intel_pstate active , powersave
Comparison #2 : v5.2, this patch, intel_pstate passive, schedutil

Signed-off-by: Giovanni Gherdovich <ggherdovich@suse.cz>
---
arch/x86/kernel/smpboot.c | 54 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
1 file changed, 52 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/smpboot.c b/arch/x86/kernel/smpboot.c
index 11d57d741584..0e79dcc03ae4 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/smpboot.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/smpboot.c
@@ -1841,6 +1841,55 @@ static const struct x86_cpu_id has_glm_turbo_ratio_limits[] = {
{}
};

+static int get_knl_turbo_ratio(u64 *turbo_ratio)
+{
+ u64 msr;
+ u32 ratio, delta_ratio;
+ int err, i, found = 0;
+
+ err = rdmsrl_safe(MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT, &msr);
+ if (err)
+ return err;
+
+ ratio = (msr >> 8) & 0xFF;
+
+ for (i = 16; i < 64; i += 8) {
+ delta_ratio = (msr >> (i + 5)) & 0x7;
+ if (delta_ratio) {
+ *turbo_ratio = ratio - delta_ratio;
+ found = 1;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (!found)
+ return 1;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static bool knl_set_cpu_max_freq(u64 *ratio, u64 *turbo_ratio)
+{
+ int err;
+
+ if (!x86_match_cpu(has_knl_turbo_ratio_limits))
+ return false;
+
+ err = rdmsrl_safe(MSR_PLATFORM_INFO, ratio);
+ if (err)
+ return false;
+
+ /* second highest turbo ratio */
+ err = get_knl_turbo_ratio(turbo_ratio);
+ if (err)
+ return false;
+
+ /* max P state ratio */
+ *ratio = (*ratio >> 8) & 0xFF;
+
+ return true;
+}
+
static int get_turbo_ratio_group(u64 *turbo_ratio)
{
u64 ratio, core_counts;
@@ -1913,7 +1962,6 @@ static void intel_set_cpu_max_freq(void)
/*
* TODO: add support for:
*
- * - Xeon Phi (KNM, KNL)
* - Atom Goldmont
* - Atom Silvermont
*
@@ -1923,10 +1971,12 @@ static void intel_set_cpu_max_freq(void)
u64 ratio = 1, turbo_ratio = 1;

if (turbo_disabled() ||
- x86_match_cpu(has_knl_turbo_ratio_limits) ||
x86_match_cpu(has_glm_turbo_ratio_limits))
return;

+ if (knl_set_cpu_max_freq(&ratio, &turbo_ratio))
+ goto set_value;
+
if (skx_set_cpu_max_freq(&ratio, &turbo_ratio))
goto set_value;

--
2.16.4
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