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SubjectRe: [PATCH v24 11/12] LRNG - add SP800-90B compliant health tests
From
Date
11.11.2019 23:26, Stephan Müller пишет:
> Implement health tests for LRNG's slow noise sources as mandated by
> SP-800-90B The file contains the following health tests:
>
> - stuck test: The stuck test calculates the first, second and third
> discrete derivative of the time stamp to be processed by the LFSR.
> Only if all three values are zero, the received time delta is
> considered to be non-stuck.

The other way round?
>
> - SP800-90B Repetition Count Test (RCT): The LRNG uses an enhanced
> version of the RCT specified in SP800-90B section 4.4.1. Instead of
> counting identical back-to-back values, the input to the RCT is the
> counting of the stuck values during the processing of received
> interrupt events. The RCT is applied with alpha=2^-30 compliant to
> the recommendation of FIPS 140-2 IG 9.8. During the counting operation,
> the LRNG always calculates the RCT cut-off value of C. If that value
> exceeds the allowed cut-off value, the LRNG will trigger the health
> test failure discussed below. An error is logged to the kernel log
> that such RCT failure occurred. This test is only applied and
> enforced in FIPS mode, i.e. when the kernel compiled with
> CONFIG_CONFIG_FIPS is started with fips=1.
>
> - SP800-90B Adaptive Proportion Test (APT): The LRNG implements the
> APT as defined in SP800-90B section 4.4.2. The assumed

The sentence ends in the middle.

>
> The aforementioned health tests are applied to the first 1,024 time stamps
> obtained from interrupt events. In case one error is identified for either
> the RCT, or the APT, the collected entropy is invalidated and the
> SP800-90B startup health test is restarted.
>
> As long as the SP800-90B startup health test is not completed, all LRNG
> random number output interfaces that may block will block and not generate
> any data. This implies that only those potentially blocking interfaces are
> defined to provide random numbers that are seeded with the interrupt noise
> source being SP800-90B compliant. All other output interfaces will not be
> affected by the SP800-90B startup test and thus are not considered
> SP800-90B compliant.
>
> At runtime, the SP800-90B APT and RCT are applied to each time stamp
> generated for a received interrupt. When either the APT and RCT indicates
> a noise source failure, the LRNG is reset to a state it has immediately
> after boot:
>
> - all entropy counters are set to zero
>
> - the SP800-90B startup tests are re-performed which implies that
> getrandom(2) would block again until new entropy was collected
>
> To summarize, the following rules apply:
>
> • SP800-90B compliant output interfaces
>
> - /dev/random
>
> - getrandom(2) system call
>
> - get_random_bytes kernel-internal interface when being triggered by
> the callback registered with add_random_ready_callback
>
> • SP800-90B non-compliant output interfaces
>
> - /dev/urandom
>
> - get_random_bytes kernel-internal interface called directly
>
> - randomize_page kernel-internal interface
>
> - get_random_u32 and get_random_u64 kernel-internal interfaces
>
> - get_random_u32_wait, get_random_u64_wait, get_random_int_wait, and
> get_random_long_wait kernel-internal interfaces
>
> If either the RCT, or the APT health test fails irrespective whether
> during initialization or runtime, the following actions occur:
>
> 1. The entropy of the entire entropy pool is invalidated.
>
> 2. The primary and all secondary DRNGs are reset which imply that they
> are treated as being not seeded and require a reseed during next
> invocation.
>
> 3. The SP800-90B startup health test are initiated with all
> implications of the startup tests. That implies that from that point
> on, new events must be observed and its entropy must be inserted into
> the entropy pool before random numbers are calculated from the
> entropy pool.
>
> Further details on the SP800-90B compliance and the availability of all
> test tools required to perform all tests mandated by SP800-90B are
> provided at [1].
>
> The entire health testing code is compile-time configurable.
>
> CC: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
> CC: "Alexander E. Patrakov" <patrakov@gmail.com>
> CC: "Ahmed S. Darwish" <darwish.07@gmail.com>
> CC: "Theodore Y. Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
> CC: Willy Tarreau <w@1wt.eu>
> CC: Matthew Garrett <mjg59@srcf.ucam.org>
> CC: Vito Caputo <vcaputo@pengaru.com>
> CC: Andreas Dilger <adilger.kernel@dilger.ca>
> CC: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
> CC: Ray Strode <rstrode@redhat.com>
> CC: William Jon McCann <mccann@jhu.edu>
> CC: zhangjs <zachary@baishancloud.com>
> CC: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
> CC: Florian Weimer <fweimer@redhat.com>
> CC: Lennart Poettering <mzxreary@0pointer.de>
> CC: Nicolai Stange <nstange@suse.de>
> Reviewed-by: Roman Drahtmueller <draht@schaltsekun.de>
> Tested-by: Roman Drahtmüller <draht@schaltsekun.de>
> Tested-by: Marcelo Henrique Cerri <marcelo.cerri@canonical.com>
> Tested-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@redhat.com>
> Signed-off-by: Stephan Mueller <smueller@chronox.de>
> ---
> drivers/char/lrng/Kconfig | 13 +
> drivers/char/lrng/Makefile | 1 +
> drivers/char/lrng/lrng_health.c | 424 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 3 files changed, 438 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 drivers/char/lrng/lrng_health.c
>
> diff --git a/drivers/char/lrng/Kconfig b/drivers/char/lrng/Kconfig
> index efc5f9aaa2a3..4373a1a19538 100644
> --- a/drivers/char/lrng/Kconfig
> +++ b/drivers/char/lrng/Kconfig
> @@ -113,4 +113,17 @@ config LRNG_TRNG_SUPPORT
> With the TRNG support the /dev/random device will block
> if insufficient entropy is available.
>
> +config LRNG_HEALTH_TESTS
> + bool "Enable noise source online health tests"
> + help
> + The online health tests validate the noise source at
> + runtime for fatal errors. These tests include SP800-90B
> + compliant tests which are invoked if the system is booted
> + with fips=1. In case of fatal errors during active
> + SP800-90B tests, the issue is logged and the noise
> + data is discarded. These tests are required for full
> + compliance with SP800-90B.

How have you tested that these tests work at runtime? Maybe add some
code under a new CONFIG item that depends on CONFIG_BROKEN that
deliberately botches the RNG and triggers failures?

> +
> + If unsure, say Y.
> +
> endif # LRNG
> diff --git a/drivers/char/lrng/Makefile b/drivers/char/lrng/Makefile
> index 1c72bc060bce..0713e9c0aa6e 100644
> --- a/drivers/char/lrng/Makefile
> +++ b/drivers/char/lrng/Makefile
> @@ -15,3 +15,4 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_LRNG_DRBG) += lrng_drbg.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_LRNG_KCAPI) += lrng_kcapi.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_LRNG_JENT) += lrng_jent.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_LRNG_TRNG_SUPPORT) += lrng_trng.o
> +obj-$(CONFIG_LRNG_HEALTH_TESTS) += lrng_health.o
> diff --git a/drivers/char/lrng/lrng_health.c b/drivers/char/lrng/lrng_health.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..b8d96cec1f71
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/drivers/char/lrng/lrng_health.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,424 @@
> +// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 OR BSD-2-Clause
> +/*
> + * Linux Random Number Generator (LRNG) Health Testing
> + *
> + * Copyright (C) 2019, Stephan Mueller <smueller@chronox.de>
> + *
> + * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
> + * WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
> + * OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ALL OF
> + * WHICH ARE HEREBY DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE
> + * LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
> + * CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT
> + * OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
> + * BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
> + * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
> + * (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE
> + * USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF NOT ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
> + * DAMAGE.
> + */
> +
> +#define pr_fmt(fmt) KBUILD_MODNAME ": " fmt
> +
> +#include <linux/fips.h>
> +#include <linux/module.h>
> +
> +#include "lrng_internal.h"
> +
> +/* Stuck Test */
> +struct lrng_stuck_test {
> + u32 last_time; /* Stuck test: time of previous IRQ */
> + u32 last_delta; /* Stuck test: delta of previous IRQ */
> + u32 last_delta2; /* Stuck test: 2. time derivation of prev IRQ */
> +};
> +
> +/* Repetition Count Test */
> +struct lrng_rct {
> + atomic_t rct_count; /* Number of stuck values */
> +};
> +
> +/* Adaptive Proportion Test */
> +struct lrng_apt {
> + /* Taken from SP800-90B sec 4.4.2 - significance level 2^-30 */
> +#define LRNG_APT_CUTOFF 325
> + /* Data window size */
> +#define LRNG_APT_WINDOW_SIZE 512
> + /* LSB of time stamp to process */
> +#define LRNG_APT_LSB 16
> +#define LRNG_APT_WORD_MASK (LRNG_APT_LSB - 1)
> + atomic_t apt_count; /* APT counter */
> + atomic_t apt_base; /* APT base reference */
> +
> + atomic_t apt_trigger;
> + bool apt_base_set; /* Is APT base set? */
> +};
> +
> +/* The health test code must operate lock-less */
> +struct lrng_health {
> + struct lrng_rct rct;
> + struct lrng_apt apt;
> +
> + bool health_test_enabled;
> +
> + /* SP800-90B startup health tests */
> +#define LRNG_SP80090B_STARTUP_SAMPLES 1024
> +#define LRNG_SP80090B_STARTUP_BLOCKS ((LRNG_SP80090B_STARTUP_SAMPLES + \
> + LRNG_APT_WINDOW_SIZE - 1) / \
> + LRNG_APT_WINDOW_SIZE)
> + bool sp80090b_startup_done;
> + atomic_t sp80090b_startup_blocks;
> +};
> +
> +static struct lrng_health lrng_health = {
> + .rct.rct_count = ATOMIC_INIT(0),
> +
> + .apt.apt_count = ATOMIC_INIT(0),
> + .apt.apt_base = ATOMIC_INIT(-1),
> + .apt.apt_trigger = ATOMIC_INIT(LRNG_APT_WINDOW_SIZE),
> + .apt.apt_base_set = false,
> +
> + .health_test_enabled = true,
> +
> + .sp80090b_startup_blocks = ATOMIC_INIT(LRNG_SP80090B_STARTUP_BLOCKS),
> + .sp80090b_startup_done = false,
> +};
> +
> +static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct lrng_stuck_test, lrng_stuck_test);
> +
> +static inline bool lrng_sp80090b_health_requested(void)
> +{
> + /* Health tests are only requested in FIPS mode */
> + return fips_enabled;
> +}
> +
> +static inline bool lrng_sp80090b_health_enabled(void)
> +{
> + struct lrng_health *health = &lrng_health;
> +
> + return lrng_sp80090b_health_requested() && health->health_test_enabled;
> +}
> +
> +/***************************************************************************
> + * SP800-90B Compliance
> + *
> + * If the Linux-RNG is booted into FIPS mode, the following interfaces
> + * provide an SP800-90B compliant noise source:
> + *
> + * * /dev/random
> + * * getrandom(2)
> + * * get_random_bytes when using it in conjunction with
> + * add_random_ready_callback
> + *
> + * All other interfaces, including /dev/urandom or get_random_bytes without
> + * the add_random_ready_callback cannot claim to use an SP800-90B compliant
> + * noise source.
> + ***************************************************************************/
> +
> +/**
> + * Perform SP800-90B startup testing
> + */
> +static inline void lrng_sp80090b_startup(struct lrng_health *health)
> +{
> + if (!health->sp80090b_startup_done &&
> + atomic_dec_and_test(&health->sp80090b_startup_blocks)) {
> + health->sp80090b_startup_done = true;
> + pr_info("SP800-90B startup health tests completed\n");
> + lrng_init_ops(0);
> +
> + /*
> + * Force a reseed of secondary DRNGs to ensure they are
> + * seeded with entropy that passed the SP800-90B health tests.
> + * As the primary DRNG always will reseed before generating
> + * random numbers, it does not need a reseed trigger.
> + */
> + lrng_sdrng_force_reseed();
> + }
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * Handle failure of SP800-90B startup testing
> + */
> +static inline void lrng_sp80090b_startup_failure(struct lrng_health *health)
> +{
> + /* Reset of LRNG and its entropy - NOTE: we are in atomic context */
> + lrng_reset();
> +
> + /*
> + * Reset the SP800-90B startup test.
> + *
> + * NOTE SP800-90B section 4.3 bullet 4 does not specify what
> + * exactly is to be done in case of failure! Thus, we do what
> + * makes sense, i.e. restarting the health test and thus gating
> + * the output function of /dev/random and getrandom(2).
> + */
> + atomic_set(&health->sp80090b_startup_blocks,
> + LRNG_SP80090B_STARTUP_BLOCKS);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * Handle failure of SP800-90B runtime testing
> + */
> +static inline void lrng_sp80090b_runtime_failure(struct lrng_health *health)
> +{
> + lrng_sp80090b_startup_failure(health);
> + health->sp80090b_startup_done = false;
> +}
> +
> +static inline void lrng_sp80090b_failure(struct lrng_health *health)
> +{
> + if (health->sp80090b_startup_done) {
> + pr_err("SP800-90B runtime health test failure - invalidating "
> + "all existing entropy and initiate SP800-90B startup\n");
> + lrng_sp80090b_runtime_failure(health);
> + } else {
> + pr_err("SP800-90B startup test failure - resetting\n");
> + lrng_sp80090b_startup_failure(health);
> + }
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * Is the SP800-90B startup testing complete?
> + *
> + * This function is called by the LRNG to determine whether to unblock
> + * a certain user interface. Therefore, only the potentially blocking
> + * user interfaces are considered SP800-90B compliant.
> + */
> +bool lrng_sp80090b_startup_complete(void)
> +{
> + struct lrng_health *health = &lrng_health;
> +
> + return (lrng_sp80090b_health_enabled()) ? health->sp80090b_startup_done:
> + true;
> +}
> +
> +bool lrng_sp80090b_compliant(void)
> +{
> + struct lrng_health *health = &lrng_health;
> +
> + return lrng_sp80090b_health_enabled() && health->sp80090b_startup_done;
> +}
> +
> +/***************************************************************************
> + * Adaptive Proportion Test
> + *
> + * This test complies with SP800-90B section 4.4.2.
> + ***************************************************************************/
> +
> +/**
> + * Reset the APT counter
> + *
> + * @health [in] Reference to health state
> + */
> +static inline void lrng_apt_reset(struct lrng_health *health,
> + unsigned int time_masked)
> +{
> + struct lrng_apt *apt = &health->apt;
> +
> + pr_debug("APT value %d for base %d\n",
> + atomic_read(&apt->apt_count), atomic_read(&apt->apt_base));
> +
> + /* Reset APT */
> + atomic_set(&apt->apt_count, 0);
> + atomic_set(&apt->apt_base, time_masked);
> +}
> +
> +static inline void lrng_apt_restart(struct lrng_health *health)
> +{
> + struct lrng_apt *apt = &health->apt;
> +
> + atomic_set(&apt->apt_trigger, LRNG_APT_WINDOW_SIZE);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * Insert a new entropy event into APT
> + *
> + * This function does is void as it does not decide about the fate of a time
> + * stamp. An APT failure can only happen at the same time of a stuck test
> + * failure. Thus, the stuck failure will already decide how the time stamp
> + * is handled.
> + *
> + * @health [in] Reference to health state
> + * @now_time [in] Time stamp to process
> + */
> +static inline void lrng_apt_insert(struct lrng_health *health,
> + unsigned int now_time)
> +{
> + struct lrng_apt *apt = &health->apt;
> +
> + if (!lrng_sp80090b_health_requested())
> + return;
> +
> + now_time &= LRNG_APT_WORD_MASK;
> +
> + /* Initialization of APT */
> + if (!apt->apt_base_set) {
> + atomic_set(&apt->apt_base, now_time);
> + apt->apt_base_set = true;
> + return;
> + }
> +
> + if (now_time == (unsigned int)atomic_read(&apt->apt_base)) {
> + u32 apt_val = (u32)atomic_inc_return_relaxed(&apt->apt_count);
> +
> + if (apt_val >= LRNG_APT_CUTOFF)
> + lrng_sp80090b_failure(health);
> + }
> +
> + if (atomic_dec_and_test(&apt->apt_trigger)) {
> + lrng_apt_restart(health);
> + lrng_apt_reset(health, now_time);
> + lrng_sp80090b_startup(health);
> + }
> +}
> +
> +/***************************************************************************
> + * Repetition Count Test
> + *
> + * The LRNG uses an enhanced version of the Repetition Count Test
> + * (RCT) specified in SP800-90B section 4.4.1. Instead of counting identical
> + * back-to-back values, the input to the RCT is the counting of the stuck
> + * values while filling the entropy pool.
> + *
> + * The RCT is applied with an alpha of 2^-30 compliant to FIPS 140-2 IG 9.8.
> + *
> + * During the counting operation, the LRNG always calculates the RCT
> + * cut-off value of C. If that value exceeds the allowed cut-off value,
> + * the LRNG will invalidate all entropy for the entropy pool which implies
> + * that no data can be extracted from the entropy pool unless new entropy
> + * is received.
> + ***************************************************************************/
> +
> +/**
> + * Hot code path - Insert data for Repetition Count Test
> + *
> + * @health: Reference to health information
> + * @stuck: Decision of stuck test
> + */
> +static inline void lrng_rct(struct lrng_health *health, int stuck)
> +{
> + struct lrng_rct *rct = &health->rct;
> +
> + if (!lrng_sp80090b_health_requested())
> + return;
> +
> + if (stuck) {
> + u32 rct_count = atomic_add_return_relaxed(1, &rct->rct_count);
> +
> + pr_debug("RCT count: %u\n", rct_count);
> +
> + /*
> + * The cutoff value is based on the following consideration:
> + * alpha = 2^-30 as recommended in FIPS 140-2 IG 9.8.
> + * In addition, we imply an entropy value H of 1 bit as this
> + * is the minimum entropy required to provide full entropy.
> + *
> + * Note, rct_count (which equals to value B in the
> + * pseudo code of SP800-90B section 4.4.1) starts with zero.
> + * Hence we need to subtract one from the cutoff value as
> + * calculated following SP800-90B.
> + */
> + if (rct_count >= 30) {
> + atomic_set(&rct->rct_count, 0);
> +
> + /*
> + * APT must start anew as we consider all previously
> + * recorded data to contain no entropy.
> + */
> + lrng_apt_restart(health);
> +
> + lrng_sp80090b_failure(health);
> + }
> + } else {
> + atomic_set(&rct->rct_count, 0);
> + }
> +}
> +
> +/***************************************************************************
> + * Stuck Test
> + *
> + * Checking the:
> + * 1st derivative of the event occurrence (time delta)
> + * 2nd derivative of the event occurrence (delta of time deltas)
> + * 3rd derivative of the event occurrence (delta of delta of time deltas)
> + *
> + * All values must always be non-zero. The stuck test is only valid disabled if
> + * high-resolution time stamps are identified after initialization.
> + ***************************************************************************/
> +
> +static inline u32 lrng_delta(u32 prev, u32 next)
> +{
> + /*
> + * Note that this (unsigned) subtraction does yield the correct value
> + * in the wraparound-case, i.e. when next < prev.
> + */
> + return (next - prev);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * Hot code path
> + *
> + * @health: Reference to health information
> + * @now: Event time
> + * @return: 0 event occurrence not stuck (good time stamp)
> + * != 0 event occurrence stuck (reject time stamp)
> + */
> +static inline int lrng_irq_stuck(struct lrng_stuck_test *stuck, u32 now_time)
> +{
> + u32 delta = lrng_delta(stuck->last_time, now_time);
> + u32 delta2 = lrng_delta(stuck->last_delta, delta);
> + u32 delta3 = lrng_delta(stuck->last_delta2, delta2);
> +
> + stuck->last_time = now_time;
> + stuck->last_delta = delta;
> + stuck->last_delta2 = delta2;
> +
> + if (!delta || !delta2 || !delta3)
> + return 1;
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +/***************************************************************************
> + * Health test interfaces
> + ***************************************************************************/
> +
> +/**
> + * Disable all health tests
> + */
> +void lrng_health_disable(void)
> +{
> + struct lrng_health *health = &lrng_health;
> +
> + health->health_test_enabled = false;
> +
> + if (lrng_sp80090b_health_requested())
> + pr_warn("SP800-90B compliance requested but the Linux RNG is "
> + "NOT SP800-90B compliant\n");
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * Hot code path - Perform health test on time stamp received from an event
> + *
> + * @now_time Time stap
> + */
> +enum lrng_health_res lrng_health_test(u32 now_time)
> +{
> + struct lrng_health *health = &lrng_health;
> + struct lrng_stuck_test *stuck_test = this_cpu_ptr(&lrng_stuck_test);
> + int stuck;
> +
> + if (!health->health_test_enabled)
> + return lrng_health_pass;
> +
> + lrng_apt_insert(health, now_time);
> +
> + stuck = lrng_irq_stuck(stuck_test, now_time);
> + lrng_rct(health, stuck);
> + if (stuck) {
> + /* SP800-90B disallows using a failing health test time stamp */
> + return lrng_sp80090b_health_requested() ?
> + lrng_health_fail_drop : lrng_health_fail_use;
> + }
> +
> + return lrng_health_pass;
> +}
>


--
Alexander E. Patrakov

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