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SubjectRe: [RFC v5 4/4] Documentation: pstore/blk: create document for pstore_blk
On Mon, Jan 7, 2019 at 4:02 AM liaoweixiong
<liaoweixiong@allwinnertech.com> wrote:
>
> The documemt, at Documentation/admin-guide/pstore-block.rst,

typo: documemt -> document

> tells user how to use pstore_blk and the attentions about panic
> read/write

Yay! I love seeing documentation. :)

-Kees

>
> Signed-off-by: liaoweixiong <liaoweixiong@allwinnertech.com>
> ---
> Documentation/admin-guide/pstore-block.rst | 226 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> MAINTAINERS | 1 +
> fs/pstore/Kconfig | 4 +
> 3 files changed, 231 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/pstore-block.rst
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/pstore-block.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/pstore-block.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..2fc9fd8
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/pstore-block.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,226 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +Pstore block oops/panic logger
> +==============================
> +
> +Introduction
> +------------
> +
> +Pstore block (pstore_blk) is an oops/panic logger that write its logs to block
> +device before the system crashes. Pstore_blk needs block device driver
> +registering a partition path of the block device, like /dev/mmcblk0p7 for mmc
> +driver, and read/write APIs for this partition when on panic.
> +
> +Pstore block concepts
> +---------------------
> +
> +Pstore block begins at function ``blkz_register``, by which block driver
> +registers to pstore_blk. Recomemd that, block driver should register to
> +pstore_blk after block device is ready. Block driver transfers a structure
> +``blkz_info`` which is defined in *linux/pstore_blk.h*.
> +
> +The following key members of ``struct blkz_info`` may be of interest to you.
> +
> +part_path
> +~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The path of partition used for pstore_blk. It may be ``/dev/mmcblk[N]p[M]`` for
> +mmc, and ``/dev/mtdblock[N]`` for mtd device.
> +
> +The ``part_path`` is not necessarily if you self-defined general read/write APIs
> +on ``blkz_info``. In other words, the ``part_path`` is only used (by function
> +blkz_sample_read/write) when general read/write APIs are not defined.
> +
> +See more on section **read/write**.
> +
> +part_size
> +~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The total size in bytes of partition used for pstore_blk. This member **MUST**
> +be effective and a multiple of 4096. It is recommended to 1M or larger for block
> +device.
> +
> +The block device area is divided into many chunks, and each event writes
> +a chunk of information.
> +
> +dmesg_size
> +~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The chunk size in bytes for dmesg(oops/panic). It **MUST** be a multiple of
> +SECTOR_SIZE (Most of the time, the SECTOR_SIZE is 512). If you don't need dmesg,
> +you are safely to set it to 0.
> +
> +NOTE that, the remaining space, except ``pmsg_size`` and others, belongs to
> +dmesg. It means that there are multiple chunks for dmesg.
> +
> +Psotre_blk will log to dmesg chunks one by one, and always overwrite the oldest
> +chunk if no free chunk.
> +
> +pmsg_size
> +~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The chunk size in bytes for pmsg. It **MUST** be a multiple of SECTOR_SIZE (Most
> +of the time, the SECTOR_SIZE is 512). If you don't need pmsg, you are safely to
> +set it to 0.
> +
> +There is only one chunk for pmsg.
> +
> +Pmsg is a user space accessible pstore object. Writes to */dev/pmsg0* are
> +appended to the chunk. On reboot the contents are available in
> +/sys/fs/pstore/pmsg-blkoops-0.
> +
> +dump_oops
> +~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +Dumping both oopses and panics can be done by setting 1 in the ``dump_oops``
> +member while setting 0 in that variable dumps only the panics.
> +
> +read/write
> +~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +They are general ``read/write`` APIs. It is safely and recommended to ignore it,
> +but set ``part_path``.
> +
> +These general APIs are used all the time expect panic. The ``read`` API is
> +usually used to recover data from block device, and the ``write`` API is usually
> +to flush new data and erase to block device.
> +
> +Pstore_blk will temporarily hold all new data before block device is ready. If
> +you ignore both of ``read/write`` and ``part_path``, the old data will not be
> +recovered and the new data will not be flushed until panic, using panic APIs.
> +If you don't have panic APIs neither, all the data will be dropped when reboot.
> +
> +NOTE that, the general APIs must check whether the block device is ready if
> +self-defined.
> +
> +panic_read/panic_write
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +They are ``read/write`` APIs for panic. They are likely to general
> +``read/write`` but will be used only when on panic.
> +
> +The attentions for panic read/write see section
> +**Attentions in panic read/write APIs**.
> +
> +Register to pstore block
> +------------------------
> +
> +Block device driver call ``blkz_register`` to register to Psotre_blk.
> +For example:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> + #include <linux/pstore_blk.h>
> + [...]
> +
> + static ssize_t XXXX_panic_read(char *buf, size bytes, loff_t pos)
> + {
> + [...]
> + }
> +
> + static ssize_t XXXX_panic_write(const char *buf, size_t bytes, loff_t pos)
> + {
> + [...]
> + }
> +
> + struct blkz_info XXXX_info = {
> + .onwer = THIS_MODULE,
> + .name = <...>,
> + .dmesg_size = <...>,
> + .pmsg_size = <...>,
> + .dump_oops = true,
> + .panic_read = XXXX_panic_read,
> + .panic_write = XXXX_panic_write,
> + };
> +
> + static int __init XXXX_init(void)
> + {
> + [... get partition information ...]
> + XXXX_info.part_path = <...>;
> + XXXX_info.part_size = <...>;
> +
> + [...]
> + return blkz_register(&XXXX_info);
> + }
> +
> +There are multiple ways by which you can get partition information.
> +
> +A. Use the module parameters and kernel cmdline.
> +B. Use Device Tree bindings.
> +C. Use Kconfig.
> +D. Use Driver Feature.
> + For example, traverse all MTD device by ``register_mtd_user``, and get the
> + matching name MTD partition.
> +
> +NOTE that, all of above are done by block driver rather then pstore_blk.
> +
> +The attentions for panic read/write see section
> +**Attentions in panic read/write APIs**.
> +
> +Compression and header
> +----------------------
> +
> +Block device is large enough, it is not necessary to compress dmesg data.
> +Actually, we recommend not compress. Because pstore_blk will insert some
> +information into the first line of dmesg data if no compression.
> +For example::
> +
> + blkoops: Panic: Total 16 times
> +
> +It means that it's the 16th times panic log since burning.
> +Sometimes, the oops|panic counter since burning is very important for embedded
> +device to judge whether the system is stable.
> +
> +The follow line is insert by pstore filesystem.
> +For example::
> +
> + Oops#2 Part1
> +
> +It means that it's the 2nd times oops log on last booting.
> +
> +Reading the data
> +----------------
> +
> +The dump data can be read from the pstore filesystem. The format for these
> +files is ``dmesg-blkoops-[N]`` for dmesg(oops|panic) and ``pmsg-blkoops-0`` for
> +pmsg, where N is the record number. To delete a stored record from block device,
> +simply unlink the respective pstore file. The timestamp of the dump file records
> +the trigger time.
> +
> +Attentions in panic read/write APIs
> +-----------------------------------
> +
> +If on panic, the kernel is not going to be running for much longer. The tasks
> +will not be scheduled and the most kernel resources will be out of service. It
> +looks like a single-threaded program running on a single-core computer.
> +
> +The following points need special attention for panic read/write APIs:
> +
> +1. Can **NOT** allocate any memory.
> +
> + If you need memory, just allocate while the block driver is initialing rather
> + than waiting until the panic.
> +
> +2. Must be polled, **NOT** interrupt driven.
> +
> + No task schedule any more. The block driver should delay to ensure the write
> + succeeds, but NOT sleep.
> +
> +3. Can **NOT** take any lock.
> +
> + There is no other task, no any share resource, you are safely to break all
> + locks.
> +
> +4. Just use cpu to transfer.
> +
> + Do not use DMA to transfer unless you are sure that DMA will not keep lock.
> +
> +5. Operate register directly.
> +
> + Try not to use linux kernel resources. Do io map while initialing rather than
> + waiting until the panic.
> +
> +6. Reset your block device and controller if necessary.
> +
> + If you are not sure the state of you block device and controller when panic,
> + you are safely to stop and reset them.
> diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
> index 0abecc5..ebf9c71 100644
> --- a/MAINTAINERS
> +++ b/MAINTAINERS
> @@ -12054,6 +12054,7 @@ F: include/linux/pstore*
> F: drivers/firmware/efi/efi-pstore.c
> F: drivers/acpi/apei/erst.c
> F: Documentation/admin-guide/ramoops.rst
> +F: Documentation/admin-guide/pstore-block.rst
> F: Documentation/devicetree/bindings/reserved-memory/ramoops.txt
> K: \b(pstore|ramoops)
>
> diff --git a/fs/pstore/Kconfig b/fs/pstore/Kconfig
> index 18b1fe6..5c5273c 100644
> --- a/fs/pstore/Kconfig
> +++ b/fs/pstore/Kconfig
> @@ -160,6 +160,10 @@ config PSTORE_BLK
> This enables panic and oops message to be logged to a block dev
> where it can be read back at some later point.
>
> + For more information, see Documentation/admin-guide/pstore-block.rst.
> +
> + If unsure, say N.
> +
> config PSTORE_BLKBUF
> tristate "pstore block buffer sample"
> depends on PSTORE_BLK
> --
> 1.9.1
>


--
Kees Cook

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