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SubjectRe: [PATCH 1/2 v6] kdump: add the vmcoreinfo documentation
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在 2019年01月11日 22:56, Borislav Petkov 写道:
> On Thu, Jan 10, 2019 at 08:19:43PM +0800, Lianbo Jiang wrote:
>> This document lists some variables that export to vmcoreinfo, and briefly
>> describles what these variables indicate. It should be instructive for
>> many people who do not know the vmcoreinfo.
>>
>> Suggested-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de>
>> Signed-off-by: Lianbo Jiang <lijiang@redhat.com>
>> ---
>> Documentation/kdump/vmcoreinfo.txt | 500 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>> 1 file changed, 500 insertions(+)
>> create mode 100644 Documentation/kdump/vmcoreinfo.txt
>
> Ok, below is what I'm going to commit if no one complains. I hope you'd
> find some time to work on adding the checkpatch check for patches which
> add vmcoreinfo members but do not document them

I noticed that the checkpatch was coded in Perl. But i am not familiar with
the Perl program language, that would be beyond my ability to do this, i have
to learn the Perl program language step by step. :-)

> and also remove those vmcoreinfo members which are unused.
>

Do you mean this one 'KERNEL_IMAGE_SIZE'?

Currently unused by Makedumpfile, but used to compute the module virtual
address by Crash.

I have corrected this issue in VMCOREINFO doc.

Thanks.
Lianbo

> Which should be easy because we don't have to be backwards-compatible
> with makedumpfile as this is not an ABI.
>
> Thx.
>
> ---
> From: Lianbo Jiang <lijiang@redhat.com>
> Date: Thu, 10 Jan 2019 20:19:43 +0800
> Subject: [PATCH] kdump: Document kernel data exported in the vmcoreinfo note
>
> Document data exported in vmcoreinfo and briefly describe its use by
> userspace tools.a
>
> [ bp: heavily massage and redact the text. ]
>
> Suggested-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de>
> Signed-off-by: Lianbo Jiang <lijiang@redhat.com>
> Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de>
> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
> Cc: Baoquan He <bhe@redhat.com>
> Cc: Dave Young <dyoung@redhat.com>
> Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
> Cc: Vivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com>
> Cc: anderson@redhat.com
> Cc: k-hagio@ab.jp.nec.com
> Cc: kexec@lists.infradead.org
> Cc: linux-doc@vger.kernel.org
> Cc: mingo@redhat.com
> Cc: x86-ml <x86@kernel.org>
> Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190110121944.6050-2-lijiang@redhat.com
> ---
> Documentation/kdump/vmcoreinfo.txt | 494 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 1 file changed, 494 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/kdump/vmcoreinfo.txt
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/kdump/vmcoreinfo.txt b/Documentation/kdump/vmcoreinfo.txt
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..2dc3797940a3
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/kdump/vmcoreinfo.txt
> @@ -0,0 +1,494 @@
> +================================================================
> + VMCOREINFO
> +================================================================
> +
> +===========
> +What is it?
> +===========
> +
> +VMCOREINFO is a special ELF note section. It contains various
> +information from the kernel like structure size, page size, symbol
> +values, field offsets, etc. These data are packed into an ELF note
> +section and used by user-space tools like crash and makedumpfile to
> +analyze a kernel's memory layout.
> +
> +================
> +Common variables
> +================
> +
> +init_uts_ns.name.release
> +------------------------
> +
> +The version of the Linux kernel. Used to find the corresponding source
> +code from which the kernel has been built.
> +
> +PAGE_SIZE
> +---------
> +
> +The size of a page. It is the smallest unit of data used by the memory
> +management facilities. It is usually 4096 bytes of size and a page is
> +aligned on 4096 bytes. Used for computing page addresses.
> +
> +init_uts_ns
> +-----------
> +
> +The UTS namespace which is used to isolate two specific elements of the
> +system that relate to the uname(2) system call. It is named after the
> +data structure used to store information returned by the uname(2) system
> +call.
> +
> +User-space tools can get the kernel name, host name, kernel release
> +number, kernel version, architecture name and OS type from it.
> +
> +node_online_map
> +---------------
> +
> +An array node_states[N_ONLINE] which represents the set of online nodes
> +in a system, one bit position per node number. Used to keep track of
> +which nodes are in the system and online.
> +
> +swapper_pg_dir
> +-------------
> +
> +The global page directory pointer of the kernel. Used to translate
> +virtual to physical addresses.
> +
> +_stext
> +------
> +
> +Defines the beginning of the text section. In general, _stext indicates
> +the kernel start address. Used to convert a virtual address from the
> +direct kernel map to a physical address.
> +
> +vmap_area_list
> +--------------
> +
> +Stores the virtual area list. makedumpfile gets the vmalloc start value
> +from this variable and its value is necessary for vmalloc translation.
> +
> +mem_map
> +-------
> +
> +Physical addresses are translated to struct pages by treating them as
> +an index into the mem_map array. Right-shifting a physical address
> +PAGE_SHIFT bits converts it into a page frame number which is an index
> +into that mem_map array.
> +
> +Used to map an address to the corresponding struct page.
> +
> +contig_page_data
> +----------------
> +
> +Makedumpfile gets the pglist_data structure from this symbol, which is
> +used to describe the memory layout.
> +
> +User-space tools use this to exclude free pages when dumping memory.
> +
> +mem_section|(mem_section, NR_SECTION_ROOTS)|(mem_section, section_mem_map)
> +--------------------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +The address of the mem_section array, its length, structure size, and
> +the section_mem_map offset.
> +
> +It exists in the sparse memory mapping model, and it is also somewhat
> +similar to the mem_map variable, both of them are used to translate an
> +address.
> +
> +page
> +----
> +
> +The size of a page structure. struct page is an important data structure
> +and it is widely used to compute contiguous memory.
> +
> +pglist_data
> +-----------
> +
> +The size of a pglist_data structure. This value is used to check if the
> +pglist_data structure is valid. It is also used for checking the memory
> +type.
> +
> +zone
> +----
> +
> +The size of a zone structure. This value is used to check if the zone
> +structure has been found. It is also used for excluding free pages.
> +
> +free_area
> +---------
> +
> +The size of a free_area structure. It indicates whether the free_area
> +structure is valid or not. Useful when excluding free pages.
> +
> +list_head
> +---------
> +
> +The size of a list_head structure. Used when iterating lists in a
> +post-mortem analysis session.
> +
> +nodemask_t
> +----------
> +
> +The size of a nodemask_t type. Used to compute the number of online
> +nodes.
> +
> +(page, flags|_refcount|mapping|lru|_mapcount|private|compound_dtor|
> + compound_order|compound_head)
> +-------------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +User-space tools compute their values based on the offset of these
> +variables. The variables are used when excluding unnecessary pages.
> +
> +(pglist_data, node_zones|nr_zones|node_mem_map|node_start_pfn|node_
> + spanned_pages|node_id)
> +-------------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +On NUMA machines, each NUMA node has a pg_data_t to describe its memory
> +layout. On UMA machines there is a single pglist_data which describes the
> +whole memory.
> +
> +These values are used to check the memory type and to compute the
> +virtual address for memory map.
> +
> +(zone, free_area|vm_stat|spanned_pages)
> +---------------------------------------
> +
> +Each node is divided into a number of blocks called zones which
> +represent ranges within memory. A zone is described by a structure zone.
> +
> +User-space tools compute required values based on the offset of these
> +variables.
> +
> +(free_area, free_list)
> +----------------------
> +
> +Offset of the free_list's member. This value is used to compute the number
> +of free pages.
> +
> +Each zone has a free_area structure array called free_area[MAX_ORDER].
> +The free_list represents a linked list of free page blocks.
> +
> +(list_head, next|prev)
> +----------------------
> +
> +Offsets of the list_head's members. list_head is used to define a
> +circular linked list. User-space tools need these in order to traverse
> +lists.
> +
> +(vmap_area, va_start|list)
> +--------------------------
> +
> +Offsets of the vmap_area's members. They carry vmalloc-specific
> +information. Makedumpfile gets the start address of the vmalloc region
> +from this.
> +
> +(zone.free_area, MAX_ORDER)
> +---------------------------
> +
> +Free areas descriptor. User-space tools use this value to iterate the
> +free_area ranges. MAX_ORDER is used by the zone buddy allocator.
> +
> +log_first_idx
> +-------------
> +
> +Index of the first record stored in the buffer log_buf. Used by
> +user-space tools to read the strings in the log_buf.
> +
> +log_buf
> +-------
> +
> +Console output is written to the ring buffer log_buf at index
> +log_first_idx. Used to get the kernel log.
> +
> +log_buf_len
> +-----------
> +
> +log_buf's length.
> +
> +clear_idx
> +---------
> +
> +The index that the next printk() record to read after the last clear
> +command. It indicates the first record after the last SYSLOG_ACTION
> +_CLEAR, like issued by 'dmesg -c'. Used by user-space tools to dump
> +the dmesg log.
> +
> +log_next_idx
> +------------
> +
> +The index of the next record to store in the buffer log_buf. Used to
> +compute the index of the current buffer position.
> +
> +printk_log
> +----------
> +
> +The size of a structure printk_log. Used to compute the size of
> +messages, and extract dmesg log. It encapsulates header information for
> +log_buf, such as timestamp, syslog level, etc.
> +
> +(printk_log, ts_nsec|len|text_len|dict_len)
> +-------------------------------------------
> +
> +It represents field offsets in struct printk_log. User space tools
> +parse it and check whether the values of printk_log's members have been
> +changed.
> +
> +(free_area.free_list, MIGRATE_TYPES)
> +------------------------------------
> +
> +The number of migrate types for pages. The free_list is described by the
> +array. Used by tools to compute the number of free pages.
> +
> +NR_FREE_PAGES
> +-------------
> +
> +On linux-2.6.21 or later, the number of free pages is in
> +vm_stat[NR_FREE_PAGES]. Used to get the number of free pages.
> +
> +PG_lru|PG_private|PG_swapcache|PG_swapbacked|PG_slab|PG_hwpoision
> +|PG_head_mask|PAGE_BUDDY_MAPCOUNT_VALUE(~PG_buddy)
> +|PAGE_OFFLINE_MAPCOUNT_VALUE(~PG_offline)
> +-----------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +Page attributes. These flags are used to filter various unnecessary for
> +dumping pages.
> +
> +HUGETLB_PAGE_DTOR
> +-----------------
> +
> +The HUGETLB_PAGE_DTOR flag denotes hugetlbfs pages. Makedumpfile
> +excludes these pages.
> +
> +======
> +x86_64
> +======
> +
> +phys_base
> +---------
> +
> +Used to convert the virtual address of an exported kernel symbol to its
> +corresponding physical address.
> +
> +init_top_pgt
> +------------
> +
> +Used to walk through the whole page table and convert virtual addresses
> +to physical addresses. The init_top_pgt is somewhat similar to
> +swapper_pg_dir, but it is only used in x86_64.
> +
> +pgtable_l5_enabled
> +------------------
> +
> +User-space tools need to know whether the crash kernel was in 5-level
> +paging mode.
> +
> +node_data
> +---------
> +
> +This is a struct pglist_data array and stores all NUMA nodes
> +information. Makedumpfile gets the pglist_data structure from it.
> +
> +(node_data, MAX_NUMNODES)
> +-------------------------
> +
> +The maximum number of nodes in system.
> +
> +KERNELOFFSET
> +------------
> +
> +The kernel randomization offset. Used to compute the page offset. If
> +KASLR is disabled, this value is zero.
> +
> +KERNEL_IMAGE_SIZE
> +-----------------
> +
> +Currently unused by Makedumpfile. Used to compute the module virtual
> +address by Crash.
> +
> +sme_mask
> +--------
> +
> +AMD-specific with SME support: it indicates the secure memory encryption
> +mask. Makedumpfile tools need to know whether the crash kernel was
> +encrypted. If SME is enabled in the first kernel, the crash kernel's
> +page table entries (pgd/pud/pmd/pte) contain the memory encryption
> +mask. This is used to remove the SME mask and obtain the true physical
> +address.
> +
> +Currently, sme_mask stores the value of the C-bit position. If needed,
> +additional SME-relevant info can be placed in that variable.
> +
> +For example:
> +[ misc ][ enc bit ][ other misc SME info ]
> +0000_0000_0000_0000_1000_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_..._0000
> +63 59 55 51 47 43 39 35 31 27 ... 3
> +
> +======
> +x86_32
> +======
> +
> +X86_PAE
> +-------
> +
> +Denotes whether physical address extensions are enabled. It has the cost
> +of a higher page table lookup overhead, and also consumes more page
> +table space per process. Used to check whether PAE was enabled in the
> +crash kernel when converting virtual addresses to physical addresses.
> +
> +====
> +ia64
> +====
> +
> +pgdat_list|(pgdat_list, MAX_NUMNODES)
> +-------------------------------------
> +
> +pg_data_t array storing all NUMA nodes information. MAX_NUMNODES
> +indicates the number of the nodes.
> +
> +node_memblk|(node_memblk, NR_NODE_MEMBLKS)
> +------------------------------------------
> +
> +List of node memory chunks. Filled when parsing the SRAT table to obtain
> +information about memory nodes. NR_NODE_MEMBLKS indicates the number of
> +node memory chunks.
> +
> +These values are used to compute the number of nodes the crashed kernel used.
> +
> +node_memblk_s|(node_memblk_s, start_paddr)|(node_memblk_s, size)
> +----------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +The size of a struct node_memblk_s and the offsets of the
> +node_memblk_s's members. Used to compute the number of nodes.
> +
> +PGTABLE_3|PGTABLE_4
> +-------------------
> +
> +User-space tools need to know whether the crash kernel was in 3-level or
> +4-level paging mode. Used to distinguish the page table.
> +
> +=====
> +ARM64
> +=====
> +
> +VA_BITS
> +-------
> +
> +The maximum number of bits for virtual addresses. Used to compute the
> +virtual memory ranges.
> +
> +kimage_voffset
> +--------------
> +
> +The offset between the kernel virtual and physical mappings. Used to
> +translate virtual to physical addresses.
> +
> +PHYS_OFFSET
> +-----------
> +
> +Indicates the physical address of the start of memory. Similar to
> +kimage_voffset, which is used to translate virtual to physical
> +addresses.
> +
> +KERNELOFFSET
> +------------
> +
> +The kernel randomization offset. Used to compute the page offset. If
> +KASLR is disabled, this value is zero.
> +
> +====
> +arm
> +====
> +
> +ARM_LPAE
> +--------
> +
> +It indicates whether the crash kernel supports large physical address
> +extensions. Used to translate virtual to physical addresses.
> +
> +====
> +s390
> +====
> +
> +lowcore_ptr
> +----------
> +
> +An array with a pointer to the lowcore of every CPU. Used to print the
> +psw and all registers information.
> +
> +high_memory
> +-----------
> +
> +Used to get the vmalloc_start address from the high_memory symbol.
> +
> +(lowcore_ptr, NR_CPUS)
> +----------------------
> +
> +The maximum number of CPUs.
> +
> +=======
> +powerpc
> +=======
> +
> +
> +node_data|(node_data, MAX_NUMNODES)
> +-----------------------------------
> +
> +See above.
> +
> +contig_page_data
> +----------------
> +
> +See above.
> +
> +vmemmap_list
> +------------
> +
> +The vmemmap_list maintains the entire vmemmap physical mapping. Used
> +to get vmemmap list count and populated vmemmap regions info. If the
> +vmemmap address translation information is stored in the crash kernel,
> +it is used to translate vmemmap kernel virtual addresses.
> +
> +mmu_vmemmap_psize
> +-----------------
> +
> +The size of a page. Used to translate virtual to physical addresses.
> +
> +mmu_psize_defs
> +--------------
> +
> +Page size definitions, i.e. 4k, 64k, or 16M.
> +
> +Used to make vtop translations.
> +
> +vmemmap_backing|(vmemmap_backing, list)|(vmemmap_backing, phys)|
> +(vmemmap_backing, virt_addr)
> +----------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +The vmemmap virtual address space management does not have a traditional
> +page table to track which virtual struct pages are backed by a physical
> +mapping. The virtual to physical mappings are tracked in a simple linked
> +list format.
> +
> +User-space tools need to know the offset of list, phys and virt_addr
> +when computing the count of vmemmap regions.
> +
> +mmu_psize_def|(mmu_psize_def, shift)
> +------------------------------------
> +
> +The size of a struct mmu_psize_def and the offset of mmu_psize_def's
> +member.
> +
> +Used in vtop translations.
> +
> +==
> +sh
> +==
> +
> +node_data|(node_data, MAX_NUMNODES)
> +-----------------------------------
> +
> +See above.
> +
> +X2TLB
> +-----
> +
> +Indicates whether the crashed kernel enabled SH extended mode.
>

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