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SubjectRe: [RFC PATCH v1 0/6] Resolve unwanted DMA backing with IOMMU
On 8/16/18 8:23 PM, Robin Murphy wrote:
> On 15/08/18 20:56, Dmitry Osipenko wrote:
>> On Friday, 3 August 2018 18:43:41 MSK Robin Murphy wrote:
>>> On 02/08/18 19:24, Dmitry Osipenko wrote:
>>>> On Friday, 27 July 2018 20:16:53 MSK Dmitry Osipenko wrote:
>>>>> On Friday, 27 July 2018 20:03:26 MSK Jordan Crouse wrote:
>>>>>> On Fri, Jul 27, 2018 at 05:02:37PM +0100, Robin Murphy wrote:
>>>>>>> On 27/07/18 15:10, Dmitry Osipenko wrote:
>>>>>>>> On Friday, 27 July 2018 12:03:28 MSK Will Deacon wrote:
>>>>>>>>> On Fri, Jul 27, 2018 at 10:25:13AM +0200, Joerg Roedel wrote:
>>>>>>>>>> On Fri, Jul 27, 2018 at 02:16:18AM +0300, Dmitry Osipenko wrote:
>>>>>>>>>>> The proposed solution adds a new option to the base device driver
>>>>>>>>>>> structure that allows device drivers to explicitly convey to the
>>>>>>>>>>> drivers
>>>>>>>>>>> core that the implicit IOMMU backing for devices must not happen.
>>>>>>>>>> Why is IOMMU mapping a problem for the Tegra GPU driver?
>>>>>>>>>> If we add something like this then it should not be the choice of
>>>>>>>>>> the
>>>>>>>>>> device driver, but of the user and/or the firmware.
>>>>>>>>> Agreed, and it would still need somebody to configure an identity
>>>>>>>>> domain
>>>>>>>>> so
>>>>>>>>> that transactions aren't aborted immediately. We currently allow the
>>>>>>>>> identity domain to be used by default via a command-line option, so I
>>>>>>>>> guess
>>>>>>>>> we'd need a way for firmware to request that on a per-device basis.
>>>>>>>> The IOMMU mapping itself is not a problem, the problem is the
>>>>>>>> management
>>>>>>>> of
>>>>>>>> the IOMMU. For Tegra we don't want anything to intrude into the IOMMU
>>>>>>>> activities because:
>>>>>>>> 1) GPU HW require additional configuration for the IOMMU usage and
>>>>>>>> dumb
>>>>>>>> mapping of the allocations simply doesn't work.
>>>>>>> Generally, that's already handled by the DRM drivers allocating
>>>>>>> their own unmanaged domains. The only problem we really need to
>>>>>>> solve in that regard is that currently the device DMA ops don't get
>>>>>>> updated when moving away from the managed domain. That's been OK for
>>>>>>> the VFIO case where the device is bound to a different driver which
>>>>>>> we know won't make any explicit DMA API calls, but for the more
>>>>>>> general case of IOMMU-aware drivers we could certainly do with a bit
>>>>>>> of cooperation between the IOMMU API, DMA API, and arch code to
>>>>>>> update the DMA ops dynamically to cope with intermediate subsystems
>>>>>>> making DMA API calls on behalf of devices they don't know the
>>>>>>> intimate details of.
>>>>>>>> 2) Older Tegra generations have a limited resource and capabilities in
>>>>>>>> regards to IOMMU usage, allocating IOMMU domain per-device is just
>>>>>>>> impossible for example.
>>>>>>>> 3) HW performs context switches and so particular allocations have to
>>>>>>>> be
>>>>>>>> assigned to a particular contexts IOMMU domain.
>>>>>>> I understand Qualcomm SoCs have a similar thing too, and AFAICS that
>>>>>>> case just doesn't fit into the current API model at all. We need the
>>>>>>> IOMMU driver to somehow know about the specific details of which
>>>>>>> devices have magic associations with specific contexts, and we
>>>>>>> almost certainly need a more expressive interface than
>>>>>>> iommu_domain_alloc() to have any hope of reliable results.
>>>>>> This is correct for Qualcomm GPUs - The GPU hardware context switching
>>>>>> requires a specific context and there are some restrictions around
>>>>>> secure contexts as well.
>>>>>> We don't really care if the DMA attaches to a context just as long as it
>>>>>> doesn't attach to the one(s) we care about. Perhaps a "valid context"
>>>>>> mask
>>>>>> would work in from the DT or the device struct to give the subsystems a
>>>>>> clue as to which domains they were allowed to use. I recognize that
>>>>>> there
>>>>>> isn't a one-size-fits-all solution to this problem so I'm open to
>>>>>> different
>>>>>> ideas.
>>>>> Designating whether implicit IOMMU backing is appropriate for a device
>>>>> via
>>>>> device-tree property sounds a bit awkward because that will be a kinda
>>>>> software description (of a custom Linux driver model), while device-tree
>>>>> is
>>>>> supposed to describe HW.
>>>>> What about to grant IOMMU drivers with ability to decide whether the
>>>>> implicit backing for a device is appropriate? Like this:
>>>>> bool implicit_iommu_for_dma_is_allowed(struct device *dev)
>>>>> {
>>>>>     const struct iommu_ops *ops = dev->bus->iommu_ops;
>>>>>     struct iommu_group *group;
>>>>>     group = iommu_group_get(dev);
>>>>>     if (!group)
>>>>>         return NULL;
>>>>>     iommu_group_put(group);
>>>>>     if (!ops->implicit_iommu_for_dma_is_allowed)
>>>>>         return true;
>>>>>     return ops->implicit_iommu_for_dma_is_allowed(dev);
>>>>> }
>>>>> Then arch_setup_dma_ops() could have a clue whether implicit IOMMU
>>>>> backing
>>>>> for a device is appropriate.
>>>> Guys, does it sound good to you or maybe you have something else on your
>>>> mind? Even if it's not an ideal solution, it fixes the immediate problem
>>>> and should be good enough for the starter.
>>> To me that looks like a step ion the wrong direction that won't help at
>>> all in actually addressing the underlying issues.
>>> If the GPU driver wants to explicitly control IOMMU mappings instead of
>>> relying on the IOMMU_DOMAIN_DMA abstraction, then it should use its own
>>> unmanaged domain. At that point it shouldn't matter if a DMA ops domain
>>> was allocated, since the GPU device will no longer be attached to it.
>> It is not obvious to me what solution you are proposing..
>> Are you saying that the detaching from the DMA IOMMU domain that is provided
>> by dma_ops() implementer (ARM32 arch for example) should be generalized and
>> hence there should be something like:
>>     dma_detach_device_from_iommu_dma_domain(dev);
>> that drivers will have to invoke.
> No, I mean that drivers should not have to care at all. If the device has been
> given a set of DMA ops which rely on it being attached to a default DMA domain,
> that's not the driver's fault and it's not something the driver should have deal
> with. Either the DMA ops themselves should be robust and provide a non-IOMMU
> fallback if they detect that the device is currently attached to a different
> domain, or the attach operation (ideally in the IOMMU core, but at worst in the
> IOMMU driver's .attach_dev callback) should automatically tell the arch code to
> update the device's DMA ops appropriately for the target domain. There are
> already examples of both approaches dotted around arch-specific code, so the
> question is which particular solution is most appropriate to standardise on in
> what is intended to be generic code.
Okay, thank you for the clarification. It will be better to start with a
workaround within the driver, maybe later we could come up with a universal
solution. Is there any chance that you or Joerg could help with the
standardization in the future? I don't feel that I have enough expertise and
capacity to do that.

>> And hence there will be dma_map_ops.iommu_detach_device() that dma_ops()
>> provider will have to implement. Thereby provider will detach device from DMA
>> domain, destroy the domain and update the DMA ops of the device.
>>> Yes, there may be some improvements to make like having unused domains
>>> not consume hardware contexts, but that's internal to the relevant IOMMU
>>> drivers. If moving in and out of DMA ops domains leaves the actual
>>> dma_ops broken, that's already a problem between the IOMMU API and the
>>> arch DMA code as I've mentioned before.
>>> Furthermore, given what the example above is trying to do,
>>> arch_setup_dma_ops() is way too late to do it - the default domain was
>>> already set up in iommu_group_get_for_dev() when the IOMMU driver first
>>> saw that device. An "opt-out" mechanism that doesn't actually opt out
>>> and just bodges around being opted-in after the fact doesn't strike me
>>> as something which can grow to be robust and maintainable.
>>> For the case where  a device has some special hardware relationship with
>>> a particular IOMMU context, the IOMMU driver *has* to be completely
>>> aware of that, i.e. it needs to be described in DT/ACPI, either via some
>>> explicit binding or at least inferred from some SoC/instance-specific
>>> IOMMU compatible. Then the IOMMU driver needs to know when the driver
>>> for that device is requesting its special domain so that it provide the
>>> correct context (and *not* allocate that context for other uses).
>>> Anything which just relies on the order in which things currently happen
>>> to be allocated is far too fragile long-term.
>> If hardware has some restrictions, then that should be reflected in the
>> hardware description. But that's not what we are trying to solve, at least
>> there is no such problem right now for NVIDIA Tegra.
> OK, maybe I misunderstood "HW performs context switches and so particular
> allocations have to be assigned to a particular contexts IOMMU domain." - is it
> that the domain can be backed by any hardware context and the Tegra GPU driver
> only needs to know *which* one, rather then needing a specific hard-wired
> context to be allocated as in the Qcom case?

Yes, I can't recall that Tegra has any limitations like Qcom has.

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