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SubjectRe: [PATCH] cpufreq: intel_pstate: Optimize IO boost in non HWP mode
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On Friday, August 31, 2018 7:28:51 PM CEST Srinivas Pandruvada wrote:
> The io_boost mechanism, when scheduler update util callback indicates wake
> from IO was intended for short term boost to improve disk IO performance.
> But once i915 graphics driver changed to io-schedule_timeout() from
> schedule_timeout() during waiting for response from GPU, this caused
> constant IO boost, causing intel_pstate to constantly boost to turbo.
> This has bad side effect on TDP limited Atom platforms. The following two
> links shows the boost and frequency plot for GPU Test called
> triangle_benchmark.
> https://bugzilla.kernel.org/attachment.cgi?id=278091
> https://bugzilla.kernel.org/attachment.cgi?id=278093
> This type of behavior was observed with many graphics tests and regular
> use of such platforms with graphical interface.
>
> The fix in this patch is to optimize the io boost by:
> - Limit the maximum boost to base frequency on TDP limited Atom platforms
> and max limit as 1 core turbo for the rest of the non-HWP platforms (same
> as the current algorithm).
> - Multilevel gradual boost: Start with increment = half of max boost and
> increase to max on the subsequent IO wakes.
> - Once max is reached and subsequent IO wakes don't cause boost for TDP
> limited Atom platforms, with assumption that the target CPU already built
> up enough load to run at higher P-state and the use of average frequency
> in the current algorithm will also help not to reduce drastically. For
> other platforms this is not limited similar to the current algorithm.
>
> With this fix the resultant plots show the reduced average frequency and
> also causes upto 10% improvement in some graphics tests on Atom (Broxton)
> platform.
> https://bugzilla.kernel.org/attachment.cgi?id=278095
> https://bugzilla.kernel.org/attachment.cgi?id=278097
>
> As per testing Eero Tamminen, the results are comparable to the patchset
> https://patchwork.kernel.org/patch/10312259/
> But he has to watch results for several days to check trend.
>
> Since here boost is getting limited to turbo and non turbo, we need some
> ways to adjust the fractions corresponding to max non turbo as well. It
> is much easier to use the actual P-state limits for boost instead of
> fractions. So here P-state io boost limit is applied on top of the
> P-state limit calculated via current algorithm by removing current
> io_wait boost calculation using fractions.
>
> Since we prefer to use common algorithm for all processor platforms, this
> change was tested on other client and sever platforms as well. All results
> were within the margin of errors. Results:
> https://bugzilla.kernel.org/attachment.cgi?id=278149
>
> To identify TDP limited platforms a new callback boost_limited() is
> added, which will set a per cpudata field called iowait_boost_limited to
> 1. Currently this is set for Atom platforms only.
>
> Tested-by: Eero Tamminen <eero.t.tamminen@intel.com>
> Signed-off-by: Srinivas Pandruvada <srinivas.pandruvada@linux.intel.com>

Let me say I would do this differently in a couple of ways.

First off, the patch makes at least two different changes in one go which
I don't quite agree with: it changes the way iowait boost works for everybody
and introduces differences betwee Atom and Core. Doing them both in one
patch is quite questionable IMO.

It is not particularly clear that the iowait boost mechanism on non-Atom
needs to be changed at all and if so, then why. Yes, you have results showing
that the change doesn't regress the other systems, but since we are going to
distinguish between Atom and non-Atom anyway, why change the others?

Also, it is not particularly clear to me if there's any benefit from doing
the iowait boosting on Atoms at all. Wouldn't it be better to restrict
the iowait boosting to Core CPUs only and just leave Atoms alone?

On top of that, I don't quite like the new code organization, but let me
comment on the details below.

> ---
> drivers/cpufreq/intel_pstate.c | 112 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
> 1 file changed, 92 insertions(+), 20 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/drivers/cpufreq/intel_pstate.c b/drivers/cpufreq/intel_pstate.c
> index 1f2ce2f57842..15d9d5483d85 100644
> --- a/drivers/cpufreq/intel_pstate.c
> +++ b/drivers/cpufreq/intel_pstate.c
> @@ -195,7 +195,11 @@ struct global_params {
> * @policy: CPUFreq policy value
> * @update_util: CPUFreq utility callback information
> * @update_util_set: CPUFreq utility callback is set
> - * @iowait_boost: iowait-related boost fraction
> + * @iowait_boost: iowait-related boost P-state
> + * @iowait_boost_active: iowait boost processing is active
> + * @iowait_boost_max: Max boost P-state to apply
> + * @iowait_boost_increment: increment to last boost P-state

I don't think you need this field. It just takes space for almost no
speed benefit.

> + * @owait_boost_limited: If set give up boost, once reach max boost state

This field doesn't appear to be necessary too. The value of iowait_boost_max
depends on it, but it looks like using iowait_boost_max alone should be
sufficient.

> * @last_update: Time of the last update.
> * @pstate: Stores P state limits for this CPU
> * @vid: Stores VID limits for this CPU
> @@ -254,6 +258,10 @@ struct cpudata {
> bool valid_pss_table;
> #endif
> unsigned int iowait_boost;
> + unsigned int iowait_boost_active;
> + int iowait_boost_max;
> + int iowait_boost_increment;
> + int iowait_boost_limited;
> s16 epp_powersave;
> s16 epp_policy;
> s16 epp_default;
> @@ -276,6 +284,7 @@ static struct cpudata **all_cpu_data;
> * @get_scaling: Callback to get frequency scaling factor
> * @get_val: Callback to convert P state to actual MSR write value
> * @get_vid: Callback to get VID data for Atom platforms
> + * @boost_limited: Callback to get max boost P-state, when applicable
> *
> * Core and Atom CPU models have different way to get P State limits. This
> * structure is used to store those callbacks.
> @@ -289,6 +298,7 @@ struct pstate_funcs {
> int (*get_aperf_mperf_shift)(void);
> u64 (*get_val)(struct cpudata*, int pstate);
> void (*get_vid)(struct cpudata *);
> + void (*boost_limited)(struct cpudata *cpudata);
> };
>
> static struct pstate_funcs pstate_funcs __read_mostly;
> @@ -1251,6 +1261,11 @@ static void atom_get_vid(struct cpudata *cpudata)
> cpudata->vid.turbo = value & 0x7f;
> }
>
> +static void atom_client_boost_limited(struct cpudata *cpudata)
> +{
> + cpudata->iowait_boost_limited = 1;
> +}

Adding a new callback just for this is a bit excessive IMO.

> +
> static int core_get_min_pstate(void)
> {
> u64 value;
> @@ -1441,6 +1456,19 @@ static void intel_pstate_get_cpu_pstates(struct cpudata *cpu)
> pstate_funcs.get_vid(cpu);
>
> intel_pstate_set_min_pstate(cpu);
> +
> + if (pstate_funcs.boost_limited)
> + pstate_funcs.boost_limited(cpu);

And here the new callback is invoked just to set the new flag and this is
the only place the new flag is checked (apart from the check below that looks
redundant to me) and the only effect of it is the different value of
cpu->iowait_boost_max.

I really think this could be done in a more straightforward way. :-)

> +
> + if (cpu->iowait_boost_limited)
> + cpu->iowait_boost_max = cpu->pstate.max_pstate;
> + else
> + cpu->iowait_boost_max = cpu->pstate.turbo_pstate;
> +
> + cpu->iowait_boost_increment = (cpu->iowait_boost_max - cpu->pstate.min_pstate) >> 1;

This is a very simple and fast computation and you can do it when necessary
(so long as both iowait_boost_max and pstate.min_pstate reside in the same cache
line).

> + pr_debug("iowait_boost_limited: %d max_limit: %d increment %d\n",
> + cpu->iowait_boost_limited, cpu->iowait_boost_max,
> + cpu->iowait_boost_increment);
> }
>
> /*
> @@ -1616,18 +1644,12 @@ static inline int32_t get_avg_pstate(struct cpudata *cpu)
> static inline int32_t get_target_pstate(struct cpudata *cpu)
> {
> struct sample *sample = &cpu->sample;
> - int32_t busy_frac, boost;
> + int32_t busy_frac;
> int target, avg_pstate;
>
> busy_frac = div_fp(sample->mperf << cpu->aperf_mperf_shift,
> sample->tsc);
>
> - boost = cpu->iowait_boost;
> - cpu->iowait_boost >>= 1;
> -
> - if (busy_frac < boost)
> - busy_frac = boost;
> -
> sample->busy_scaled = busy_frac * 100;
>
> target = global.no_turbo || global.turbo_disabled ?
> @@ -1670,6 +1692,27 @@ static void intel_pstate_update_pstate(struct cpudata *cpu, int pstate)
> wrmsrl(MSR_IA32_PERF_CTL, pstate_funcs.get_val(cpu, pstate));
> }
>
> +static int intel_pstate_adjust_for_io(struct cpudata *cpu, int target_pstate)
> +{
> + if (!cpu->iowait_boost_active)
> + return target_pstate;
> +
> + cpu->iowait_boost_active = 0;
> +
> + if (!cpu->iowait_boost)
> + cpu->iowait_boost = cpu->pstate.min_pstate;
> +
> + cpu->iowait_boost += cpu->iowait_boost_increment;
> +
> + if (cpu->iowait_boost > cpu->iowait_boost_max)
> + cpu->iowait_boost = cpu->iowait_boost_max;
> +
> + if (cpu->iowait_boost > target_pstate)
> + return cpu->iowait_boost;
> +
> + return target_pstate;
> +}
> +
> static void intel_pstate_adjust_pstate(struct cpudata *cpu)
> {
> int from = cpu->pstate.current_pstate;
> @@ -1679,6 +1722,7 @@ static void intel_pstate_adjust_pstate(struct cpudata *cpu)
> update_turbo_state();
>
> target_pstate = get_target_pstate(cpu);
> + target_pstate = intel_pstate_adjust_for_io(cpu, target_pstate);
> target_pstate = intel_pstate_prepare_request(cpu, target_pstate);
> trace_cpu_frequency(target_pstate * cpu->pstate.scaling, cpu->cpu);
> intel_pstate_update_pstate(cpu, target_pstate);
> @@ -1692,7 +1736,7 @@ static void intel_pstate_adjust_pstate(struct cpudata *cpu)
> sample->aperf,
> sample->tsc,
> get_avg_frequency(cpu),
> - fp_toint(cpu->iowait_boost * 100));
> + cpu->iowait_boost);

This implicitly changes the definition of the tracepoint.

> }
>
> static void intel_pstate_update_util(struct update_util_data *data, u64 time,
> @@ -1701,27 +1745,42 @@ static void intel_pstate_update_util(struct update_util_data *data, u64 time,
> struct cpudata *cpu = container_of(data, struct cpudata, update_util);
> u64 delta_ns;
>
> + cpu->sched_flags |= flags;
> +
> /* Don't allow remote callbacks */
> if (smp_processor_id() != cpu->cpu)
> return;
>
> - if (flags & SCHED_CPUFREQ_IOWAIT) {
> - cpu->iowait_boost = int_tofp(1);
> - cpu->last_update = time;
> + if (cpu->sched_flags & SCHED_CPUFREQ_IOWAIT) {
> + cpu->sched_flags &= ~SCHED_CPUFREQ_IOWAIT;
> +
> + if (cpu->iowait_boost_limited && cpu->iowait_boost >= cpu->iowait_boost_max)

Isn't the iowait_boost_limited check redundant here? Why do you want to skip
only in that case?

> + goto skip_ioboost;
> +
> /*
> - * The last time the busy was 100% so P-state was max anyway
> - * so avoid overhead of computation.
> + * Set iowait_boost flag and update time. Since IO WAIT flag
> + * is set all the time, we can't just conclude that there is
> + * some IO bound activity is scheduled on this CPU with just
> + * one occurrence. If we receive at least two in two
> + * consecutive ticks, then we treat as a boost trigger.
> */
> - if (fp_toint(cpu->sample.busy_scaled) == 100)
> - return;
> + if (cpu->iowait_boost || time_before64(time, cpu->last_io_update + 2 * TICK_NSEC)) {

It took me quite a bit of time to figure out what was going on here. :-)

It might be clearer to treat the "iowait_boost in progress" and "start
iowait boosting" conditions as different and move some code from
intel_psate_adjust_for_io() to here with that in mind.

> + cpu->iowait_boost_active = 1;
> + cpu->last_io_update = time;
> + cpu->last_update = time;
> + goto set_pstate;
> + }
>
> - goto set_pstate;
> + cpu->last_io_update = time;
> } else if (cpu->iowait_boost) {
> /* Clear iowait_boost if the CPU may have been idle. */
> delta_ns = time - cpu->last_update;
> - if (delta_ns > TICK_NSEC)
> + if (delta_ns > TICK_NSEC) {
> + cpu->iowait_boost_active = 0;
> cpu->iowait_boost = 0;
> + }
> }
> +skip_ioboost:
> cpu->last_update = time;
> delta_ns = time - cpu->sample.time;
> if ((s64)delta_ns < INTEL_PSTATE_SAMPLING_INTERVAL)
> @@ -1749,6 +1808,7 @@ static const struct pstate_funcs silvermont_funcs = {
> .get_val = atom_get_val,
> .get_scaling = silvermont_get_scaling,
> .get_vid = atom_get_vid,
> + .boost_limited = atom_client_boost_limited,
> };

So as I said before, IMO this is unnecessarily convoluted.

I would introduce a struct cpu_model_data defined like this:

struct cpu_model_data {
const struct pstate_funcs funcs;
unsigned int iowait_boost_limited:1;
};

and redo the populating of intel_pstate_cpu_ids[] accordingly. That would
be more lines of code, but easier to follow IMO.

> static const struct pstate_funcs airmont_funcs = {
> @@ -1759,6 +1819,7 @@ static const struct pstate_funcs airmont_funcs = {
> .get_val = atom_get_val,
> .get_scaling = airmont_get_scaling,
> .get_vid = atom_get_vid,
> + .boost_limited = atom_client_boost_limited,
> };
>
> static const struct pstate_funcs knl_funcs = {
> @@ -1771,6 +1832,16 @@ static const struct pstate_funcs knl_funcs = {
> .get_val = core_get_val,
> };
>
> +static struct pstate_funcs atom_core_funcs = {

Missing const?

And this whole struct looks like a waste of space.

> + .get_max = core_get_max_pstate,
> + .get_max_physical = core_get_max_pstate_physical,
> + .get_min = core_get_min_pstate,
> + .get_turbo = core_get_turbo_pstate,
> + .get_scaling = core_get_scaling,
> + .get_val = core_get_val,
> + .boost_limited = atom_client_boost_limited,
> +};
> +
> #define ICPU(model, policy) \
> { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, model, X86_FEATURE_APERFMPERF,\
> (unsigned long)&policy }
> @@ -1794,8 +1865,8 @@ static const struct x86_cpu_id intel_pstate_cpu_ids[] = {
> ICPU(INTEL_FAM6_BROADWELL_XEON_D, core_funcs),
> ICPU(INTEL_FAM6_XEON_PHI_KNL, knl_funcs),
> ICPU(INTEL_FAM6_XEON_PHI_KNM, knl_funcs),
> - ICPU(INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_GOLDMONT, core_funcs),
> - ICPU(INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_GEMINI_LAKE, core_funcs),
> + ICPU(INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_GOLDMONT, atom_core_funcs),
> + ICPU(INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_GEMINI_LAKE, atom_core_funcs),
> ICPU(INTEL_FAM6_SKYLAKE_X, core_funcs),
> #ifdef INTEL_FAM6_ICELAKE_X
> ICPU(INTEL_FAM6_ICELAKE_X, core_funcs),
> @@ -2390,6 +2461,7 @@ static void __init copy_cpu_funcs(struct pstate_funcs *funcs)
> pstate_funcs.get_val = funcs->get_val;
> pstate_funcs.get_vid = funcs->get_vid;
> pstate_funcs.get_aperf_mperf_shift = funcs->get_aperf_mperf_shift;
> + pstate_funcs.boost_limited = funcs->boost_limited;
> }
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_ACPI
>


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