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Subject[PATCH v4 00/16] Add utilization clamping support
This is a respin of:

Which has been rebased on v4.19-rc1.

Thanks for all the valuable comments collected so far!
Further comments and feedbacks are more than welcome!

Cheers Patrick

Main changes in v4

.:: Fix issues due to limited number of clamp groups

As Juri pointed out in:

we had an issue related to the limited number of supported clamp groups, which
could have affected both normal users as well as cgroups users.

This problem has been fixed by a couple of new patches:

[PATCH v4 14/16] sched/core: uclamp: request CAP_SYS_ADMIN by default
[PATCH v4 15/16] sched/core: uclamp: add clamp group discretization support

which allows to ensure that only privileged tasks can create clamp groups
and/or the clamps groups are transformed into buckets to always ensure a
mapping for each possible userspace request.

.:: Better integrate RT tasks

Quentin pointed out a change in behavior for RT task in:

which has been fixed by improving this patch:

[PATCH v4 16/16] sched/cpufreq: uclamp: add utilization clamping for RT tasks

This patch has also been moved to the end of the series since the solution is
partially based on some bits already added by other patches of this series.

.:: Improved refcounting code

Pavan reported some code paths not covered by refcounting:

Which translated into a complete review and improvement of the slow-path code
where we refcount clamp groups availability.

We now properly refcount clamp groups usage for all the main entities, i.e.
init_task, root_task_group and sysfs defaults.
The same refcounting code has been properly integrated with fork/exit as well
as cgroups creation/release code paths.

.:: Series Organization

The series is organized into these main sections:

- Patches [01-05]: Per task (primary) API
- Patches [06] : Schedutil integration for CFS tasks
- Patches [07-13]: Per task group (secondary) API
- Patches [14-15]: Fix issues related to limited clamp groups
- Patches [16] : Schedutil integration for RT tasks

Newcomer's Short Abstract (Updated)

The Linux scheduler tracks a "utilization" signal for each scheduling entity
(SE), e.g. tasks, to know how much CPU time they use. This signal allows the
scheduler to know how "big" a task is and, in principle, it can support
advanced task placement strategies by selecting the best CPU to run a task.
Some of these strategies are represented by the Energy Aware scheduler
extension [1].

When the schedutil cpufreq's governor is in use, the utilization signal allows
also the Linux scheduler to drive frequency selection. The CPU utilization
signal, which represents the aggregated utilization of tasks scheduled on that
CPU, is used to select the frequency which best fits the task's generated

However, the current translation of utilization values into a frequency
selection is pretty simple: we just go to max for RT tasks or to the minimum
frequency which can accommodate the utilization of DL+FAIR tasks. Regarding
task placement instead utilization is of limited usage since its value alone is
not enough to properly describe what's the expected power/performance behaviors
of each task.

In general, for both RT and FAIR tasks we can aim at better tasks placement and
frequency selection policies if take into consideration hints coming from

Utilization clamping is a mechanism which allows to "clamp" (i.e. filter) the
utilization generated by RT and FAIR tasks within a range defined from
user-space. The clamped utilization value can then be used, for example, to
enforce a minimum and/or maximum frequency depending on which tasks are
currently active on a CPU.

The main use-cases for utilization clamping are:

- boosting: better interactive response for small tasks which
are affecting the user experience.

Consider for example the case of a small control thread for an external
accelerator (e.g. GPU, DSP, other devices). In this case, from its
utilization the scheduler does not have a complete view of what are the task
requirements and, if it's a small utilization task, schedutil will keep
selecting a more energy efficient CPU, with smaller capacity and lower
frequency, thus affecting the overall time required to complete the task

- capping: increase energy efficiency for background tasks not directly
affecting the user experience.

Since running on a lower capacity CPU at a lower frequency is in general
more energy efficient, when the completion time is not a main goal, then
capping the utilization considered for certain (maybe big) tasks can have
positive effects, both on energy consumption and thermal stress.
Moreover, this last support allows also to make RT tasks more energy
friendly on mobile systems, where running them on high capacity CPUs and at
the maximum frequency is not strictly required.

From these two use-cases, it's worth to notice that frequency selection
biasing, introduced by patches 6 and 16 of this series, is just one possible
usage of utilization clamping. Another compelling extension of utilization
clamping is in helping the scheduler on tasks placement decisions.

Utilization is a task specific property which is used by the scheduler to know
how much CPU bandwidth a task requires (under certain conditions).
Thus, the utilization clamp values, defined either per-task or via the CPU
controller, can be used to represent tasks to the scheduler as being bigger
(or smaller) than what they really are.

Utilization clamping thus ultimately enable interesting additional
optimizations, especially on asymmetric capacity systems like Arm
big.LITTLE and DynamIQ CPUs, where:

- boosting: small tasks are preferably scheduled on higher-capacity CPUs
where, despite being less energy efficient, they can complete faster

- capping: big/background tasks are preferably scheduled on low-capacity CPUs
where, being more energy efficient, they can still run but save power and
thermal headroom for more important tasks.

This additional usage of the utilization clamping is not presented in this
series but it's an integral part of the Energy Aware Scheduler (EAS) feature
set, where [1] is one of its main components. A solution similar to utilization
clamping, namely SchedTune, is already used on Android kernels to biasing of
both 'frequency selection' and 'task placement'.
This series provides the foundation bits to add a similar features to mainline
by focusing just on schedutil integration.


Detailed Changelog

Changes in v4:
Message-ID: <20180809152313.lewfhufidhxb2qrk@darkstar>
- implements the idea discussed in this thread
Message-ID: <>
- remove not required default setting
- fixed some tabs/spaces
Message-ID: <20180807095905.GB2288@localhost.localdomain>
- replace/rephrase "bandwidth" references to use "capacity"
- better stress that this do not enforce any bandwidth requirement
but "just" give hints to the scheduler
- fixed some typos
Message-ID: <>
- add uclamp_exit_task() to release clamp refcount from do_exit()
Message-ID: <20180816133249.GA2964@e110439-lin>
- keep the WARN but beautify a bit that code
- keep the WARN in uclamp_cpu_put_id() but beautify a bit that code
- add another WARN on the unexpected condition of releasing a refcount
from a CPU which has a lower clamp value active
Message-ID: <>
- move uclamp_enabled at the top of sched_class to keep it on the same
cache line of other main wakeup time callbacks
Message-ID: <20180816132249.GA2960@e110439-lin>
- inline uclamp_task_active() code into uclamp_task_update_active()
- get rid of the now unused uclamp_task_active()
Message-ID: <20180816172016.GG2960@e110439-lin>
- ensure to always reset clamp holding on wakeup from IDLE
Message-ID: <>
- use *rq instead of cpu for both uclamp_util() and uclamp_value()
Message-ID: <20180816135300.GC2960@e110439-lin>
- remove uclamp_value() which is never used outside CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
Message-ID: <20180816140731.GD2960@e110439-lin>
- add ".effective" attributes to the default hierarchy
- reuse already existing:
instead of adding:
to back annotate the effective clamp group in which a task has been
Message-ID: <20180820122728.GM2960@e110439-lin>
- fix unwanted reset of clamp values on refcount success
- by default all tasks have a UCLAMP_NOT_VALID task specific clamp
- always use:
to track the actual clamp value the task has been refcounted into.
This matches with the usage of
- allow to call uclamp_group_get() without a task pointer, which is
used to refcount the initial clamp group for all the global objects
(init_task, root_task_group and system_defaults)
- ensure (and check) that all tasks have a valid group_id at
- rework uclamp_cpu layout to better fit into just 2x64B cache lines
- init uclamp for the init_task and refcount its clamp groups
- add uclamp specific fork time code into uclamp_fork
- add support for SCHED_FLAG_RESET_ON_FORK
default clamps are now set for init_task and inherited/reset at
fork time (when then flag is set for the parent)
- enable uclamp only for FAIR tasks, RT class will be enabled only
by a following patch which also integrate the class to schedutil
- define uclamp_maps ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp
- in uclamp_group_get() ensure to include uclamp_group_available() and
uclamp_group_init() into the atomic section defined by:
- do not use mutex_lock(&uclamp_mutex) in uclamp_exit_task
which is also not needed since refcounting is already guarded by
the uc_map[group_id].se_lock spinlock
- consolidate init_uclamp_sched_group() into init_uclamp()
- refcount root_task_group's clamp groups from init_uclamp()
- small documentation fixes
- rebased on v4.19-rc1

Changes in v3:
Message-ID: <>
- removed UCLAMP_NONE not used by this patch
- remove not necessary checks in uclamp_group_find()
- add WARN on unlikely un-referenced decrement in uclamp_group_put()
- add WARN on unlikely un-referenced decrement in uclamp_cpu_put_id()
- make __setscheduler_uclamp() able to set just one clamp value
- make __setscheduler_uclamp() failing if both clamps are required but
there is no clamp groups available for one of them
- remove uclamp_group_find() from uclamp_group_get() which now takes a
group_id as a parameter
- add explicit calls to uclamp_group_find()
which is now not more part of uclamp_group_get()
- fixed a not required override
- fixed some typos in comments and changelog
Message-ID: <>
- few typos fixed
Message-ID: <>
- use "." notation for attributes naming
i.e. s/util_{min,max}/util.{min,max}/
- added new patches: 09 and 12
Other changes:
- rebased on tip/sched/core

Changes in v2:
Message-ID: <>
- refactored struct rq::uclamp_cpu to be more cache efficient
no more holes, re-arranged vectors to match cache lines with expected
data locality
Message-ID: <>
- use *rq as parameter whenever already available
- add scheduling class's uclamp_enabled marker
- get rid of the "confusing" single callback uclamp_task_update()
and use uclamp_cpu_{get,put}() directly from {en,de}queue_task()
- fix/remove "bad" comments
Message-ID: <20180413113337.GU14248@e110439-lin>
- remove inline from init_uclamp, flag it __init
Message-ID: <>
- get rid of the group_id back annotation
which is not requires at this stage where we have only per-task
clamping support. It will be introduce later when cgroup support is
Message-ID: <>
- make attributes available only on non-root nodes
a system wide API seems of not immediate interest and thus it's not
supported anymore
- remove implicit parent-child constraints and dependencies
Message-ID: <>
- add some cgroup-v2 documentation for the new attributes
- (hopefully) better explain intended use-cases
the changelog above has been extended to better justify the naming
proposed by the new attributes
Other changes:
- improved documentation to make more explicit some concepts
- set UCLAMP_GROUPS_COUNT=2 by default
which allows to fit all the hot-path CPU clamps data into a single cache
line while still supporting up to 2 different {min,max}_utiql clamps.
- use -ERANGE as range violation error
- add attributes to the default hierarchy as well as the legacy one
- implement a "nice" semantics where cgroup clamp values are always
used to restrict task specific clamp values,
i.e. tasks running on a TG are only allowed to demote themself.
- patches re-ordering in top-down way
- rebased on v4.18-rc4

Patrick Bellasi (16):
sched/core: uclamp: extend sched_setattr to support utilization
sched/core: uclamp: map TASK's clamp values into CPU's clamp groups
sched/core: uclamp: add CPU's clamp groups accounting
sched/core: uclamp: update CPU's refcount on clamp changes
sched/core: uclamp: enforce last task UCLAMP_MAX
sched/cpufreq: uclamp: add utilization clamping for FAIR tasks
sched/core: uclamp: extend cpu's cgroup controller
sched/core: uclamp: propagate parent clamps
sched/core: uclamp: map TG's clamp values into CPU's clamp groups
sched/core: uclamp: use TG's clamps to restrict Task's clamps
sched/core: uclamp: add system default clamps
sched/core: uclamp: update CPU's refcount on TG's clamp changes
sched/core: uclamp: use percentage clamp values
sched/core: uclamp: request CAP_SYS_ADMIN by default
sched/core: uclamp: add clamp group discretization support
sched/cpufreq: uclamp: add utilization clamping for RT tasks

Documentation/admin-guide/cgroup-v2.rst | 46 +
.../admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt | 3 +
include/linux/sched.h | 65 +
include/linux/sched/sysctl.h | 11 +
include/linux/sched/task.h | 6 +
include/uapi/linux/sched.h | 8 +-
include/uapi/linux/sched/types.h | 68 +-
init/Kconfig | 63 +
init/init_task.c | 1 +
kernel/exit.c | 1 +
kernel/sched/core.c | 1368 ++++++++++++++++-
kernel/sched/cpufreq_schedutil.c | 31 +-
kernel/sched/fair.c | 4 +
kernel/sched/features.h | 10 +
kernel/sched/rt.c | 4 +
kernel/sched/sched.h | 177 ++-
kernel/sysctl.c | 16 +
17 files changed, 1863 insertions(+), 19 deletions(-)


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