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SubjectRe: TLB flushes on fixmap changes
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at 11:45 AM, Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org> wrote:

> On Mon, Aug 27, 2018 at 10:34 AM, Nadav Amit <nadav.amit@gmail.com> wrote:
>> at 1:05 AM, Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org> wrote:
>>
>>> On Sun, 26 Aug 2018 20:26:09 -0700
>>> Nadav Amit <nadav.amit@gmail.com> wrote:
>>>
>>>> at 8:03 PM, Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>> On Sun, 26 Aug 2018 11:09:58 +0200
>>>>> Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>>> On Sat, Aug 25, 2018 at 09:21:22PM -0700, Andy Lutomirski wrote:
>>>>>>> I just re-read text_poke(). It's, um, horrible. Not only is the
>>>>>>> implementation overcomplicated and probably buggy, but it's SLOOOOOW.
>>>>>>> It's totally the wrong API -- poking one instruction at a time
>>>>>>> basically can't be efficient on x86. The API should either poke lots
>>>>>>> of instructions at once or should be text_poke_begin(); ...;
>>>>>>> text_poke_end();.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> I don't think anybody ever cared about performance here. Only
>>>>>> correctness. That whole text_poke_bp() thing is entirely tricky.
>>>>>
>>>>> Agreed. Self modification is a special event.
>>>>>
>>>>>> FWIW, before text_poke_bp(), text_poke() would only be used from
>>>>>> stop_machine, so all the other CPUs would be stuck busy-waiting with
>>>>>> IRQs disabled. These days, yeah, that's lots more dodgy, but yes
>>>>>> text_mutex should be serializing all that.
>>>>>
>>>>> I'm still not sure that speculative page-table walk can be done
>>>>> over the mutex. Also, if the fixmap area is for aliasing
>>>>> pages (which always mapped to memory), what kind of
>>>>> security issue can happen?
>>>>
>>>> The PTE is accessible from other cores, so just as we assume for L1TF that
>>>> the every addressable memory might be cached in L1, we should assume and
>>>> PTE might be cached in the TLB when it is present.
>>>
>>> Ok, so other cores can accidentally cache the PTE in TLB, (and no way
>>> to shoot down explicitly?)
>>
>> There is way (although current it does not). But it seems that the consensus
>> is that it is better to avoid it being mapped at all in remote cores.
>>
>>>> Although the mapping is for an alias, there are a couple of issues here.
>>>> First, this alias mapping is writable, so it might an attacker to change the
>>>> kernel code (following another initial attack).
>>>
>>> Combined with some buffer overflow, correct? If the attacker already can
>>> write a kernel data directly, he is in the kernel mode.
>>
>> Right.
>>
>>>> Second, the alias mapping is
>>>> never explicitly flushed. We may assume that once the original mapping is
>>>> removed/changed, a full TLB flush would take place, but there is no
>>>> guarantee it actually takes place.
>>>
>>> Hmm, would this means a full TLB flush will not flush alias mapping?
>>> (or, the full TLB flush just doesn't work?)
>>
>> It will flush the alias mapping, but currently there is no such explicit
>> flush.
>>
>>>>> Anyway, from the viewpoint of kprobes, either per-cpu fixmap or
>>>>> changing CR3 sounds good to me. I think we don't even need per-cpu,
>>>>> it can call a thread/function on a dedicated core (like the first
>>>>> boot processor) and wait :) This may prevent leakage of pte change
>>>>> to other cores.
>>>>
>>>> I implemented per-cpu fixmap, but I think that it makes more sense to take
>>>> peterz approach and set an entry in the PGD level. Per-CPU fixmap either
>>>> requires to pre-populate various levels in the page-table hierarchy, or
>>>> conditionally synchronize whenever module memory is allocated, since they
>>>> can share the same PGD, PUD & PMD. While usually the synchronization is not
>>>> needed, the possibility that synchronization is needed complicates locking.
>>>
>>> Could you point which PeterZ approach you said? I guess it will be
>>> make a clone of PGD and use it for local page mapping (as new mm).
>>> If so, yes it sounds perfectly fine to me.
>>
>> The thread is too long. What I think is best is having a mapping in the PGD
>> level. I’ll try to give it a shot, and see what I get.
>>
>>>> Anyhow, having fixed addresses for the fixmap can be used to circumvent
>>>> KASLR.
>>>
>>> I think text_poke doesn't mind using random address :)
>>>
>>>> I don’t think a dedicated core is needed. Anyhow there is a lock
>>>> (text_mutex), so use_mm() can be used after acquiring the mutex.
>>>
>>> Hmm, use_mm() said;
>>>
>>> /*
>>> * use_mm
>>> * Makes the calling kernel thread take on the specified
>>> * mm context.
>>> * (Note: this routine is intended to be called only
>>> * from a kernel thread context)
>>> */
>>>
>>> So maybe we need a dedicated kernel thread for safeness?
>>
>> Yes, it says so. But I am not sure it cannot be changed, at least for this
>> specific use-case. Switching kernel threads just for patching seems to me as
>> an overkill.
>>
>> Let me see if I can get something half-reasonable doing so...
>
> I don't understand at all how a kernel thread helps. The useful bit
> is to have a dedicated mm, which would involve setting up an mm_struct
> and mapping the kernel and module text, EFI-style, in the user portion
> of the mm. But, to do the text_poke(), we'd just use the mm *without
> calling use_mm*.
>
> In other words, the following sequence should be (almost) just fine:
>
> typedef struct {
> struct mm_struct *prev;
> } temporary_mm_state_t;
>
> temporary_mm_state_t use_temporary_mm(struct mm_struct *mm)
> {
> temporary_mm_state_t state;
>
> lockdep_assert_irqs_disabled();
> state.prev = this_cpu_read(cpu_tlbstate.loaded_mm);
> switch_mm_irqs_off(NULL, mm, current);
> }
>
> void unuse_temporary_mm(temporary_mm_state_t prev)
> {
> lockdep_assert_irqs_disabled();
> switch_mm_irqs_off(NULL, prev.prev, current);
> }
>
> The only thing wrong with this that I can see is that it interacts
> poorly with perf. But perf is *already* busted in this regard. The
> following (whitespace damaged, sorry) should fix it:
>
> commit b62bff5a8406d252de752cfe75068d0b73b9cdf0
> Author: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
> Date: Mon Aug 27 11:41:55 2018 -0700
>
> x86/nmi: Fix some races in NMI uaccess
>
> In NMI context, we might be in the middle of context switching or in
> the middle of switch_mm_irqs_off(). In either case, CR3 might not
> match current->mm, which could cause copy_from_user_nmi() and
> friends to read the wrong memory.
>
> Fix it by adding a new nmi_uaccess_okay() helper and checking it in
> copy_from_user_nmi() and in __copy_from_user_nmi()'s callers.
>
> Signed-off-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
>
> diff --git a/arch/x86/events/core.c b/arch/x86/events/core.c
> index 5f4829f10129..dfb2f7c0d019 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/events/core.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/events/core.c
> @@ -2465,7 +2465,7 @@ perf_callchain_user(struct
> perf_callchain_entry_ctx *entry, struct pt_regs *regs
>
> perf_callchain_store(entry, regs->ip);
>
> - if (!current->mm)
> + if (!nmi_uaccess_okay())
> return;
>
> if (perf_callchain_user32(regs, entry))
> diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/tlbflush.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/tlbflush.h
> index 89a73bc31622..b23b2625793b 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/include/asm/tlbflush.h
> +++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/tlbflush.h
> @@ -230,6 +230,22 @@ struct tlb_state {
> };
> DECLARE_PER_CPU_SHARED_ALIGNED(struct tlb_state, cpu_tlbstate);
>
> +/*
> + * Blindly accessing user memory from NMI context can be dangerous
> + * if we're in the middle of switching the current user task or
> + * switching the loaded mm. It can also be dangerous if we
> + * interrupted some kernel code that was temporarily using a
> + * different mm.
> + */
> +static inline bool nmi_uaccess_okay(void)
> +{
> + struct mm_struct *loaded_mm = this_cpu_read(cpu_tlbstate.loaded_mm);
> + struct mm_struct *current_mm = current->mm;
> +
> + return current_mm && loaded_mm == current_mm &&
> + loaded_mm->pgd == __va(read_cr3_pa());
> +}
> +
> /* Initialize cr4 shadow for this CPU. */
> static inline void cr4_init_shadow(void)
> {
> diff --git a/arch/x86/lib/usercopy.c b/arch/x86/lib/usercopy.c
> index c8c6ad0d58b8..c5f758430be2 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/lib/usercopy.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/lib/usercopy.c
> @@ -19,6 +19,9 @@ copy_from_user_nmi(void *to, const void __user
> *from, unsigned long n)
> if (__range_not_ok(from, n, TASK_SIZE))
> return n;
>
> + if (!nmi_uaccess_okay())
> + return n;
> +
> /*
> * Even though this function is typically called from NMI/IRQ context
> * disable pagefaults so that its behaviour is consistent even when
> diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c b/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
> index 457b281b9339..f4b41d5a93dd 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
> @@ -345,6 +345,9 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev,
> struct mm_struct *next,
> */
> trace_tlb_flush_rcuidle(TLB_FLUSH_ON_TASK_SWITCH, TLB_FLUSH_ALL);
> } else {
> + /* Let NMI code know that CR3 may not match expectations. */
> + this_cpu_write(cpu_tlbstate.loaded_mm, NULL);
> +
> /* The new ASID is already up to date. */
> load_new_mm_cr3(next->pgd, new_asid, false);
>
> What do you all think?

I agree in general. But I think that current->mm would need to be loaded, as
otherwise I am afraid it would break switch_mm_irqs_off().

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