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Subject[RFC v6 PATCH 2/2] mm: mmap: zap pages with read mmap_sem in munmap
Date
When running some mmap/munmap scalability tests with large memory (i.e.
> 300GB), the below hung task issue may happen occasionally.

INFO: task ps:14018 blocked for more than 120 seconds.
Tainted: G E 4.9.79-009.ali3000.alios7.x86_64 #1
"echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hung_task_timeout_secs" disables this
message.
ps D 0 14018 1 0x00000004
ffff885582f84000 ffff885e8682f000 ffff880972943000 ffff885ebf499bc0
ffff8828ee120000 ffffc900349bfca8 ffffffff817154d0 0000000000000040
00ffffff812f872a ffff885ebf499bc0 024000d000948300 ffff880972943000
Call Trace:
[<ffffffff817154d0>] ? __schedule+0x250/0x730
[<ffffffff817159e6>] schedule+0x36/0x80
[<ffffffff81718560>] rwsem_down_read_failed+0xf0/0x150
[<ffffffff81390a28>] call_rwsem_down_read_failed+0x18/0x30
[<ffffffff81717db0>] down_read+0x20/0x40
[<ffffffff812b9439>] proc_pid_cmdline_read+0xd9/0x4e0
[<ffffffff81253c95>] ? do_filp_open+0xa5/0x100
[<ffffffff81241d87>] __vfs_read+0x37/0x150
[<ffffffff812f824b>] ? security_file_permission+0x9b/0xc0
[<ffffffff81242266>] vfs_read+0x96/0x130
[<ffffffff812437b5>] SyS_read+0x55/0xc0
[<ffffffff8171a6da>] entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x1a/0xc5

It is because munmap holds mmap_sem exclusively from very beginning to
all the way down to the end, and doesn't release it in the middle. When
unmapping large mapping, it may take long time (take ~18 seconds to
unmap 320GB mapping with every single page mapped on an idle machine).

Zapping pages is the most time consuming part, according to the
suggestion from Michal Hocko [1], zapping pages can be done with holding
read mmap_sem, like what MADV_DONTNEED does. Then re-acquire write
mmap_sem to cleanup vmas.

But, some part may need write mmap_sem, for example, vma splitting. So,
the design is as follows:
acquire write mmap_sem
lookup vmas (find and split vmas)
detach vmas
deal with special mappings
downgrade_write

zap pages
free page tables
release mmap_sem

The vm events with read mmap_sem may come in during page zapping, but
since vmas have been detached before, they, i.e. page fault, gup, etc,
will not be able to find valid vma, then just return SIGSEGV or -EFAULT
as expected.

If the vma has VM_LOCKED | VM_HUGETLB | VM_PFNMAP or uprobe, they are
considered as special mappings. They will be dealt with before zapping
pages with write mmap_sem held. Basically, just update vm_flags.

And, since they are also manipulated by unmap_single_vma() which is
called by unmap_vma() with read mmap_sem held in this case, to
prevent from updating vm_flags in read critical section, a new
parameter, called "skip_flags" is added to unmap_region(), unmap_vmas()
and unmap_single_vma(). If it is true, then just skip unmap those
special mappings. Currently, the only place which pass true to this
parameter is us.

With this approach we don't have to re-acquire mmap_sem again to clean
up vmas to avoid race window which might get the address space changed.

And, since the lock acquire/release cost is managed to the minimum and
almost as same as before, the optimization could be extended to any size
of mapping without incurring significant penalty to small mappings.

For the time being, just do this in munmap syscall path. Other
vm_munmap() or do_munmap() call sites (i.e mmap, mremap, etc) remain
intact for stability reason.

With the patches, exclusive mmap_sem hold time when munmap a 80GB
address space on a machine with 32 cores of E5-2680 @ 2.70GHz dropped to
us level from second.

munmap_test-15002 [008] 594.380138: funcgraph_entry: | vm_munmap_zap_rlock() {
munmap_test-15002 [008] 594.380146: funcgraph_entry: !2485684 us | unmap_region();
munmap_test-15002 [008] 596.865836: funcgraph_exit: !2485692 us | }

Here the excution time of unmap_region() is used to evaluate the time of
holding read mmap_sem, then the remaining time is used with holding
exclusive lock.

[1] https://lwn.net/Articles/753269/

Suggested-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@kernel.org>
Suggested-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name>
Cc: Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>
Cc: Laurent Dufour <ldufour@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Yang Shi <yang.shi@linux.alibaba.com>
---
include/linux/mm.h | 2 +-
mm/memory.c | 41 ++++++++++++++++------
mm/mmap.c | 99 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
3 files changed, 123 insertions(+), 19 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index a0fbb9f..e4480d8 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -1321,7 +1321,7 @@ void zap_vma_ptes(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address,
void zap_page_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address,
unsigned long size);
void unmap_vmas(struct mmu_gather *tlb, struct vm_area_struct *start_vma,
- unsigned long start, unsigned long end);
+ unsigned long start, unsigned long end, bool skip_vm_flags);

/**
* mm_walk - callbacks for walk_page_range
diff --git a/mm/memory.c b/mm/memory.c
index 7206a63..6a772bd 100644
--- a/mm/memory.c
+++ b/mm/memory.c
@@ -1514,7 +1514,7 @@ void unmap_page_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
static void unmap_single_vma(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start_addr,
unsigned long end_addr,
- struct zap_details *details)
+ struct zap_details *details, bool skip_vm_flags)
{
unsigned long start = max(vma->vm_start, start_addr);
unsigned long end;
@@ -1525,11 +1525,19 @@ static void unmap_single_vma(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
if (end <= vma->vm_start)
return;

- if (vma->vm_file)
- uprobe_munmap(vma, start, end);
+ /*
+ * Since unmap_single_vma might be called with read mmap_sem held
+ * in munmap optimization, so vm_flags can't be updated in this case.
+ * They have been updated before this call with write mmap_sem held.
+ * Here if skip_vm_flags is true, just skip the update.
+ */
+ if (!skip_vm_flags) {
+ if (vma->vm_file)
+ uprobe_munmap(vma, start, end);

- if (unlikely(vma->vm_flags & VM_PFNMAP))
- untrack_pfn(vma, 0, 0);
+ if (unlikely(vma->vm_flags & VM_PFNMAP))
+ untrack_pfn(vma, 0, 0);
+ }

if (start != end) {
if (unlikely(is_vm_hugetlb_page(vma))) {
@@ -1546,7 +1554,19 @@ static void unmap_single_vma(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
*/
if (vma->vm_file) {
i_mmap_lock_write(vma->vm_file->f_mapping);
- __unmap_hugepage_range_final(tlb, vma, start, end, NULL);
+ if (!skip_vm_flags) {
+ /*
+ * The vma is being unmapped with read
+ * mmap_sem.
+ * Can't update vm_flags here, it has
+ * been updated before this call with
+ * write mmap_sem held.
+ */
+ __unmap_hugepage_range(tlb, vma, start,
+ end, NULL);
+ } else
+ __unmap_hugepage_range_final(tlb, vma,
+ start, end, NULL);
i_mmap_unlock_write(vma->vm_file->f_mapping);
}
} else
@@ -1574,13 +1594,14 @@ static void unmap_single_vma(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
*/
void unmap_vmas(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start_addr,
- unsigned long end_addr)
+ unsigned long end_addr, bool skip_vm_flags)
{
struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;

mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start(mm, start_addr, end_addr);
for ( ; vma && vma->vm_start < end_addr; vma = vma->vm_next)
- unmap_single_vma(tlb, vma, start_addr, end_addr, NULL);
+ unmap_single_vma(tlb, vma, start_addr, end_addr, NULL,
+ skip_vm_flags);
mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_end(mm, start_addr, end_addr);
}

@@ -1604,7 +1625,7 @@ void zap_page_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start,
update_hiwater_rss(mm);
mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start(mm, start, end);
for ( ; vma && vma->vm_start < end; vma = vma->vm_next) {
- unmap_single_vma(&tlb, vma, start, end, NULL);
+ unmap_single_vma(&tlb, vma, start, end, NULL, false);

/*
* zap_page_range does not specify whether mmap_sem should be
@@ -1641,7 +1662,7 @@ static void zap_page_range_single(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr
tlb_gather_mmu(&tlb, mm, address, end);
update_hiwater_rss(mm);
mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start(mm, address, end);
- unmap_single_vma(&tlb, vma, address, end, details);
+ unmap_single_vma(&tlb, vma, address, end, details, false);
mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_end(mm, address, end);
tlb_finish_mmu(&tlb, address, end);
}
diff --git a/mm/mmap.c b/mm/mmap.c
index 2504094..663a0c5 100644
--- a/mm/mmap.c
+++ b/mm/mmap.c
@@ -73,7 +73,7 @@

static void unmap_region(struct mm_struct *mm,
struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct vm_area_struct *prev,
- unsigned long start, unsigned long end);
+ unsigned long start, unsigned long end, bool skip_flags);

/* description of effects of mapping type and prot in current implementation.
* this is due to the limited x86 page protection hardware. The expected
@@ -1824,7 +1824,7 @@ unsigned long mmap_region(struct file *file, unsigned long addr,
fput(file);

/* Undo any partial mapping done by a device driver. */
- unmap_region(mm, vma, prev, vma->vm_start, vma->vm_end);
+ unmap_region(mm, vma, prev, vma->vm_start, vma->vm_end, false);
charged = 0;
if (vm_flags & VM_SHARED)
mapping_unmap_writable(file->f_mapping);
@@ -2559,7 +2559,7 @@ static void remove_vma_list(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
*/
static void unmap_region(struct mm_struct *mm,
struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct vm_area_struct *prev,
- unsigned long start, unsigned long end)
+ unsigned long start, unsigned long end, bool skip_flags)
{
struct vm_area_struct *next = prev ? prev->vm_next : mm->mmap;
struct mmu_gather tlb;
@@ -2567,7 +2567,7 @@ static void unmap_region(struct mm_struct *mm,
lru_add_drain();
tlb_gather_mmu(&tlb, mm, start, end);
update_hiwater_rss(mm);
- unmap_vmas(&tlb, vma, start, end);
+ unmap_vmas(&tlb, vma, start, end, skip_flags);
free_pgtables(&tlb, vma, prev ? prev->vm_end : FIRST_USER_ADDRESS,
next ? next->vm_start : USER_PGTABLES_CEILING);
tlb_finish_mmu(&tlb, start, end);
@@ -2778,6 +2778,79 @@ static inline void munmap_mlock_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
}
}

+/*
+ * Zap pages with read mmap_sem held
+ *
+ * uf is the list for userfaultfd
+ */
+static int do_munmap_zap_rlock(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long start,
+ size_t len, struct list_head *uf)
+{
+ unsigned long end = 0;
+ struct vm_area_struct *start_vma = NULL, *prev, *vma;
+ int ret = 0;
+
+ if (!munmap_addr_sanity(start, len))
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ len = PAGE_ALIGN(len);
+
+ end = start + len;
+
+ /*
+ * Need write mmap_sem to split vmas and detach vmas
+ * splitting vma up-front to save PITA to clean if it is failed
+ */
+ if (down_write_killable(&mm->mmap_sem))
+ return -EINTR;
+
+ ret = munmap_lookup_vma(mm, &start_vma, &prev, start, end);
+ if (ret != 1)
+ goto out;
+
+ if (unlikely(uf)) {
+ ret = userfaultfd_unmap_prep(start_vma, start, end, uf);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /* Handle mlocked vmas */
+ if (mm->locked_vm)
+ munmap_mlock_vma(start_vma, end);
+
+ /* Detach vmas from rbtree */
+ detach_vmas_to_be_unmapped(mm, start_vma, prev, end);
+
+ /*
+ * Clear uprobe, VM_PFNMAP and hugetlb mapping in advance since they
+ * need update vm_flags with write mmap_sem
+ */
+ vma = start_vma;
+ for ( ; vma && vma->vm_start < end; vma = vma->vm_next) {
+ if (vma->vm_file)
+ uprobe_munmap(vma, vma->vm_start, vma->vm_end);
+ if (unlikely(vma->vm_flags & VM_PFNMAP))
+ untrack_pfn(vma, 0, 0);
+ if (is_vm_hugetlb_page(vma))
+ vma->vm_flags &= ~VM_MAYSHARE;
+ }
+
+ downgrade_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
+
+ /* Zap mappings with read mmap_sem */
+ unmap_region(mm, start_vma, prev, start, end, true);
+
+ arch_unmap(mm, start_vma, start, end);
+ remove_vma_list(mm, start_vma);
+ up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
+
+ return 0;
+
+out:
+ up_write(&mm->mmap_sem);
+ return ret;
+}
+
/* Munmap is split into 2 main parts -- this part which finds
* what needs doing, and the areas themselves, which do the
* work. This now handles partial unmappings.
@@ -2826,7 +2899,7 @@ int do_munmap(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long start, size_t len,
* Remove the vma's, and unmap the actual pages
*/
detach_vmas_to_be_unmapped(mm, vma, prev, end);
- unmap_region(mm, vma, prev, start, end);
+ unmap_region(mm, vma, prev, start, end, false);

arch_unmap(mm, vma, start, end);

@@ -2836,6 +2909,17 @@ int do_munmap(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long start, size_t len,
return 0;
}

+static int vm_munmap_zap_rlock(unsigned long start, size_t len)
+{
+ int ret;
+ struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
+ LIST_HEAD(uf);
+
+ ret = do_munmap_zap_rlock(mm, start, len, &uf);
+ userfaultfd_unmap_complete(mm, &uf);
+ return ret;
+}
+
int vm_munmap(unsigned long start, size_t len)
{
int ret;
@@ -2855,10 +2939,9 @@ int vm_munmap(unsigned long start, size_t len)
SYSCALL_DEFINE2(munmap, unsigned long, addr, size_t, len)
{
profile_munmap(addr);
- return vm_munmap(addr, len);
+ return vm_munmap_zap_rlock(addr, len);
}

-
/*
* Emulation of deprecated remap_file_pages() syscall.
*/
@@ -3146,7 +3229,7 @@ void exit_mmap(struct mm_struct *mm)
tlb_gather_mmu(&tlb, mm, 0, -1);
/* update_hiwater_rss(mm) here? but nobody should be looking */
/* Use -1 here to ensure all VMAs in the mm are unmapped */
- unmap_vmas(&tlb, vma, 0, -1);
+ unmap_vmas(&tlb, vma, 0, -1, false);
free_pgtables(&tlb, vma, FIRST_USER_ADDRESS, USER_PGTABLES_CEILING);
tlb_finish_mmu(&tlb, 0, -1);

--
1.8.3.1
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