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Subject[PATCH 2/2] media: docs-rst: Document memory-to-memory video encoder interface
Date
Due to complexity of the video encoding process, the V4L2 drivers of
stateful encoder hardware require specific sequences of V4L2 API calls
to be followed. These include capability enumeration, initialization,
encoding, encode parameters change, drain and reset.

Specifics of the above have been discussed during Media Workshops at
LinuxCon Europe 2012 in Barcelona and then later Embedded Linux
Conference Europe 2014 in Düsseldorf. The de facto Codec API that
originated at those events was later implemented by the drivers we already
have merged in mainline, such as s5p-mfc or coda.

The only thing missing was the real specification included as a part of
Linux Media documentation. Fix it now and document the encoder part of
the Codec API.

Signed-off-by: Tomasz Figa <tfiga@chromium.org>
---
Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/dev-encoder.rst | 550 +++++++++++++++++++
Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/devices.rst | 1 +
Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/v4l2.rst | 2 +
3 files changed, 553 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/dev-encoder.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/dev-encoder.rst b/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/dev-encoder.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..28be1698e99c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/dev-encoder.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,550 @@
+.. -*- coding: utf-8; mode: rst -*-
+
+.. _encoder:
+
+****************************************
+Memory-to-memory Video Encoder Interface
+****************************************
+
+Input data to a video encoder are raw video frames in display order
+to be encoded into the output bitstream. Output data are complete chunks of
+valid bitstream, including all metadata, headers, etc. The resulting stream
+must not need any further post-processing by the client.
+
+Performing software stream processing, header generation etc. in the driver
+in order to support this interface is strongly discouraged. In case such
+operations are needed, use of Stateless Video Encoder Interface (in
+development) is strongly advised.
+
+Conventions and notation used in this document
+==============================================
+
+1. The general V4L2 API rules apply if not specified in this document
+ otherwise.
+
+2. The meaning of words “must”, “may”, “should”, etc. is as per RFC
+ 2119.
+
+3. All steps not marked “optional” are required.
+
+4. :c:func:`VIDIOC_G_EXT_CTRLS`, :c:func:`VIDIOC_S_EXT_CTRLS` may be used
+ interchangeably with :c:func:`VIDIOC_G_CTRL`, :c:func:`VIDIOC_S_CTRL`,
+ unless specified otherwise.
+
+5. Single-plane API (see spec) and applicable structures may be used
+ interchangeably with Multi-plane API, unless specified otherwise,
+ depending on driver capabilities and following the general V4L2
+ guidelines.
+
+6. i = [a..b]: sequence of integers from a to b, inclusive, i.e. i =
+ [0..2]: i = 0, 1, 2.
+
+7. For ``OUTPUT`` buffer A, A’ represents a buffer on the ``CAPTURE`` queue
+ containing data (encoded frame/stream) that resulted from processing
+ buffer A.
+
+Glossary
+========
+
+CAPTURE
+ the destination buffer queue; the queue of buffers containing encoded
+ bitstream; ``V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE```` or
+ ``V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE_MPLANE``; data are captured from the
+ hardware into ``CAPTURE`` buffers
+
+client
+ application client communicating with the driver implementing this API
+
+coded format
+ encoded/compressed video bitstream format (e.g. H.264, VP8, etc.);
+ see also: raw format
+
+coded height
+ height for given coded resolution
+
+coded resolution
+ stream resolution in pixels aligned to codec and hardware requirements;
+ typically visible resolution rounded up to full macroblocks; see also:
+ visible resolution
+
+coded width
+ width for given coded resolution
+
+decode order
+ the order in which frames are decoded; may differ from display order if
+ coded format includes a feature of frame reordering; ``CAPTURE`` buffers
+ must be returned by the driver in decode order
+
+display order
+ the order in which frames must be displayed; ``OUTPUT`` buffers must be
+ queued by the client in display order
+
+IDR
+ a type of a keyframe in H.264-encoded stream, which clears the list of
+ earlier reference frames (DPBs)
+
+keyframe
+ an encoded frame that does not reference frames decoded earlier, i.e.
+ can be decoded fully on its own.
+
+macroblock
+ a processing unit in image and video compression formats based on linear
+ block transforms (e.g. H264, VP8, VP9); codec-specific, but for most of
+ popular codecs the size is 16x16 samples (pixels)
+
+OUTPUT
+ the source buffer queue; the queue of buffers containing raw frames;
+ ``V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT`` or
+ ``V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_OUTPUT_MPLANE``; the hardware is fed with data
+ from ``OUTPUT`` buffers
+
+PPS
+ Picture Parameter Set; a type of metadata entity in H.264 bitstream
+
+raw format
+ uncompressed format containing raw pixel data (e.g. YUV, RGB formats)
+
+resume point
+ a point in the bitstream from which decoding may start/continue, without
+ any previous state/data present, e.g.: a keyframe (VP8/VP9) or
+ SPS/PPS/IDR sequence (H.264); a resume point is required to start decode
+ of a new stream, or to resume decoding after a seek
+
+source
+ data fed to the encoder; ``OUTPUT``
+
+source height
+ height in pixels for given source resolution
+
+source resolution
+ resolution in pixels of source frames being source to the encoder and
+ subject to further cropping to the bounds of visible resolution
+
+source width
+ width in pixels for given source resolution
+
+SPS
+ Sequence Parameter Set; a type of metadata entity in H.264 bitstream
+
+stream metadata
+ additional (non-visual) information contained inside encoded bitstream;
+ for example: coded resolution, visible resolution, codec profile
+
+visible height
+ height for given visible resolution; display height
+
+visible resolution
+ stream resolution of the visible picture, in pixels, to be used for
+ display purposes; must be smaller or equal to coded resolution;
+ display resolution
+
+visible width
+ width for given visible resolution; display width
+
+Querying capabilities
+=====================
+
+1. To enumerate the set of coded formats supported by the driver, the
+ client may call :c:func:`VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT` on ``CAPTURE``.
+
+ * The driver must always return the full set of supported formats,
+ irrespective of the format set on the ``OUTPUT`` queue.
+
+2. To enumerate the set of supported raw formats, the client may call
+ :c:func:`VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT` on ``OUTPUT``.
+
+ * The driver must return only the formats supported for the format
+ currently active on ``CAPTURE``.
+
+ * In order to enumerate raw formats supported by a given coded format,
+ the client must first set that coded format on ``CAPTURE`` and then
+ enumerate the ``OUTPUT`` queue.
+
+3. The client may use :c:func:`VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES` to detect supported
+ resolutions for a given format, passing desired pixel format in
+ :c:type:`v4l2_frmsizeenum` ``pixel_format``.
+
+ * Values returned by :c:func:`VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES` on ``CAPTURE``
+ must include all possible coded resolutions supported by the encoder
+ for given coded pixel format.
+
+ * Values returned by :c:func:`VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES` on ``OUTPUT``
+ queue must include all possible frame buffer resolutions supported
+ by the encoder for given raw pixel format and coded format currently
+ set on ``CAPTURE``.
+
+4. Supported profiles and levels for given format, if applicable, may be
+ queried using their respective controls via :c:func:`VIDIOC_QUERYCTRL`.
+
+5. Any additional encoder capabilities may be discovered by querying
+ their respective controls.
+
+Initialization
+==============
+
+1. *[optional]* Enumerate supported formats and resolutions. See
+ capability enumeration.
+
+2. Set a coded format on the ``CAPTURE`` queue via :c:func:`VIDIOC_S_FMT`
+
+ * **Required fields:**
+
+ ``type``
+ a ``V4L2_BUF_TYPE_*`` enum appropriate for ``CAPTURE``
+
+ ``pixelformat``
+ set to a coded format to be produced
+
+ * **Return fields:**
+
+ ``width``, ``height``
+ coded resolution (based on currently active ``OUTPUT`` format)
+
+ .. note::
+
+ Changing ``CAPTURE`` format may change currently set ``OUTPUT``
+ format. The driver will derive a new ``OUTPUT`` format from
+ ``CAPTURE`` format being set, including resolution, colorimetry
+ parameters, etc. If the client needs a specific ``OUTPUT`` format,
+ it must adjust it afterwards.
+
+3. *[optional]* Enumerate supported ``OUTPUT`` formats (raw formats for
+ source) for the selected coded format via :c:func:`VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT`.
+
+ * **Required fields:**
+
+ ``type``
+ a ``V4L2_BUF_TYPE_*`` enum appropriate for ``OUTPUT``
+
+ ``index``
+ follows standard semantics
+
+ * **Return fields:**
+
+ ``pixelformat``
+ raw format supported for the coded format currently selected on
+ the ``OUTPUT`` queue.
+
+4. The client may set the raw source format on the ``OUTPUT`` queue via
+ :c:func:`VIDIOC_S_FMT`.
+
+ * **Required fields:**
+
+ ``type``
+ a ``V4L2_BUF_TYPE_*`` enum appropriate for ``OUTPUT``
+
+ ``pixelformat``
+ raw format of the source
+
+ ``width``, ``height``
+ source resolution
+
+ ``num_planes`` (for _MPLANE)
+ set to number of planes for pixelformat
+
+ ``sizeimage``, ``bytesperline``
+ follow standard semantics
+
+ * **Return fields:**
+
+ ``width``, ``height``
+ may be adjusted by driver to match alignment requirements, as
+ required by the currently selected formats
+
+ ``sizeimage``, ``bytesperline``
+ follow standard semantics
+
+ * Setting the source resolution will reset visible resolution to the
+ adjusted source resolution rounded up to the closest visible
+ resolution supported by the driver. Similarly, coded resolution will
+ be reset to source resolution rounded up to the closest coded
+ resolution supported by the driver (typically a multiple of
+ macroblock size).
+
+ .. note::
+
+ This step is not strictly required, since ``OUTPUT`` is expected to
+ have a valid default format. However, the client needs to ensure that
+ ``OUTPUT`` format matches its expectations via either
+ :c:func:`VIDIOC_S_FMT` or :c:func:`VIDIOC_G_FMT`, with the former
+ being the typical scenario, since the default format is unlikely to
+ be what the client needs.
+
+5. *[optional]* Set visible resolution for the stream metadata via
+ :c:func:`VIDIOC_S_SELECTION` on the ``OUTPUT`` queue.
+
+ * **Required fields:**
+
+ ``type``
+ a ``V4L2_BUF_TYPE_*`` enum appropriate for ``OUTPUT``
+
+ ``target``
+ set to ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_CROP``
+
+ ``r.left``, ``r.top``, ``r.width``, ``r.height``
+ visible rectangle; this must fit within the framebuffer resolution
+ and might be subject to adjustment to match codec and hardware
+ constraints
+
+ * **Return fields:**
+
+ ``r.left``, ``r.top``, ``r.width``, ``r.height``
+ visible rectangle adjusted by the driver
+
+ * The driver must expose following selection targets on ``OUTPUT``:
+
+ ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_CROP_BOUNDS``
+ maximum crop bounds within the source buffer supported by the
+ encoder
+
+ ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_CROP_DEFAULT``
+ suggested cropping rectangle that covers the whole source picture
+
+ ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_CROP``
+ rectangle within the source buffer to be encoded into the
+ ``CAPTURE`` stream; defaults to ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_CROP_DEFAULT``
+
+ ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_COMPOSE_BOUNDS``
+ maximum rectangle within the coded resolution, which the cropped
+ source frame can be output into; always equal to (0, 0)x(width of
+ ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_CROP``, height of ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_CROP``), if the
+ hardware does not support compose/scaling
+
+ ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_COMPOSE_DEFAULT``
+ equal to ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_CROP``
+
+ ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_COMPOSE``
+ rectangle within the coded frame, which the cropped source frame
+ is to be output into; defaults to
+ ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_COMPOSE_DEFAULT``; read-only on hardware without
+ additional compose/scaling capabilities; resulting stream will
+ have this rectangle encoded as the visible rectangle in its
+ metadata
+
+ ``V4L2_SEL_TGT_COMPOSE_PADDED``
+ always equal to coded resolution of the stream, as selected by the
+ encoder based on source resolution and crop/compose rectangles
+
+ .. note::
+
+ The driver may adjust the crop/compose rectangles to the nearest
+ supported ones to meet codec and hardware requirements.
+
+6. Allocate buffers for both ``OUTPUT`` and ``CAPTURE`` via
+ :c:func:`VIDIOC_REQBUFS`. This may be performed in any order.
+
+ * **Required fields:**
+
+ ``count``
+ requested number of buffers to allocate; greater than zero
+
+ ``type``
+ a ``V4L2_BUF_TYPE_*`` enum appropriate for ``OUTPUT`` or
+ ``CAPTURE``
+
+ ``memory``
+ follows standard semantics
+
+ * **Return fields:**
+
+ ``count``
+ adjusted to allocated number of buffers
+
+ * The driver must adjust count to minimum of required number of
+ buffers for given format and count passed. The client must
+ check this value after the ioctl returns to get the number of
+ buffers actually allocated.
+
+ .. note::
+
+ To allocate more than minimum number of buffers (for pipeline
+ depth), use G_CTRL(``V4L2_CID_MIN_BUFFERS_FOR_OUTPUT``) or
+ G_CTRL(``V4L2_CID_MIN_BUFFERS_FOR_CAPTURE``), respectively,
+ to get the minimum number of buffers required by the
+ driver/format, and pass the obtained value plus the number of
+ additional buffers needed in count field to :c:func:`VIDIOC_REQBUFS`.
+
+7. Begin streaming on both ``OUTPUT`` and ``CAPTURE`` queues via
+ :c:func:`VIDIOC_STREAMON`. This may be performed in any order. Actual
+ encoding process starts when both queues start streaming.
+
+.. note::
+
+ If the client stops ``CAPTURE`` during the encode process and then
+ restarts it again, the encoder will be expected to generate a stream
+ independent from the stream generated before the stop. Depending on the
+ coded format, that may imply that:
+
+ * encoded frames produced after the restart must not reference any
+ frames produced before the stop, e.g. no long term references for
+ H264,
+
+ * any headers that must be included in a standalone stream must be
+ produced again, e.g. SPS and PPS for H264.
+
+Encoding
+========
+
+This state is reached after a successful initialization sequence. In
+this state, client queues and dequeues buffers to both queues via
+:c:func:`VIDIOC_QBUF` and :c:func:`VIDIOC_DQBUF`, following standard
+semantics.
+
+Both queues operate independently, following standard behavior of V4L2
+buffer queues and memory-to-memory devices. In addition, the order of
+encoded frames dequeued from ``CAPTURE`` queue may differ from the order of
+queuing raw frames to ``OUTPUT`` queue, due to properties of selected coded
+format, e.g. frame reordering. The client must not assume any direct
+relationship between ``CAPTURE`` and ``OUTPUT`` buffers, other than
+reported by :c:type:`v4l2_buffer` ``timestamp``.
+
+Encoding parameter changes
+==========================
+
+The client is allowed to use :c:func:`VIDIOC_S_CTRL` to change encoder
+parameters at any time. The availability of parameters is driver-specific
+and the client must query the driver to find the set of available controls.
+
+The ability to change each parameter during encoding of is driver-specific,
+as per standard semantics of the V4L2 control interface. The client may
+attempt setting a control of its interest during encoding and if it the
+operation fails with the -EBUSY error code, ``CAPTURE`` queue needs to be
+stopped for the configuration change to be allowed (following the drain
+sequence will be needed to avoid losing already queued/encoded frames).
+
+The timing of parameter update is driver-specific, as per standard
+semantics of the V4L2 control interface. If the client needs to apply the
+parameters exactly at specific frame and the encoder supports it, using
+Request API should be considered.
+
+Drain
+=====
+
+To ensure that all queued ``OUTPUT`` buffers have been processed and
+related ``CAPTURE`` buffers output to the client, the following drain
+sequence may be followed. After the drain sequence is complete, the client
+has received all encoded frames for all ``OUTPUT`` buffers queued before
+the sequence was started.
+
+1. Begin drain by issuing :c:func:`VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD`.
+
+ * **Required fields:**
+
+ ``cmd``
+ set to ``V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP``
+
+ ``flags``
+ set to 0
+
+ ``pts``
+ set to 0
+
+2. The driver must process and encode as normal all ``OUTPUT`` buffers
+ queued by the client before the :c:func:`VIDIOC_ENCODER_CMD` was issued.
+
+3. Once all ``OUTPUT`` buffers queued before ``V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP`` are
+ processed:
+
+ * Once all decoded frames (if any) are ready to be dequeued on the
+ ``CAPTURE`` queue the driver must send a ``V4L2_EVENT_EOS``. The
+ driver must also set ``V4L2_BUF_FLAG_LAST`` in :c:type:`v4l2_buffer`
+ ``flags`` field on the buffer on the ``CAPTURE`` queue containing the
+ last frame (if any) produced as a result of processing the ``OUTPUT``
+ buffers queued before
+ ``V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP``.
+
+ * If no more frames are left to be returned at the point of handling
+ ``V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP``, the driver must return an empty buffer (with
+ :c:type:`v4l2_buffer` ``bytesused`` = 0) as the last buffer with
+ ``V4L2_BUF_FLAG_LAST`` set.
+
+ * Any attempts to dequeue more buffers beyond the buffer marked with
+ ``V4L2_BUF_FLAG_LAST`` will result in a -EPIPE error code returned by
+ :c:func:`VIDIOC_DQBUF`.
+
+4. At this point, encoding is paused and the driver will accept, but not
+ process any newly queued ``OUTPUT`` buffers until the client issues
+ ``V4L2_ENC_CMD_START`` or restarts streaming on any queue.
+
+* Once the drain sequence is initiated, the client needs to drive it to
+ completion, as described by the above steps, unless it aborts the process
+ by issuing :c:func:`VIDIOC_STREAMOFF` on ``CAPTURE`` queue. The client
+ is not allowed to issue ``V4L2_ENC_CMD_START`` or ``V4L2_ENC_CMD_STOP``
+ again while the drain sequence is in progress and they will fail with
+ -EBUSY error code if attempted.
+
+* Restarting streaming on ``CAPTURE`` queue will implicitly end the paused
+ state and make the encoder continue encoding, as long as other encoding
+ conditions are met. Restarting ``OUTPUT`` queue will not affect an
+ in-progress drain sequence.
+
+* The drivers must also implement :c:func:`VIDIOC_TRY_ENCODER_CMD`, as a
+ way to let the client query the availability of encoder commands.
+
+Reset
+=====
+
+The client may want to request the encoder to reinitialize the encoding,
+so that the stream produced becomes independent from the stream generated
+before. Depending on the coded format, that may imply that:
+
+* encoded frames produced after the restart must not reference any frames
+ produced before the stop, e.g. no long term references for H264,
+
+* any headers that must be included in a standalone stream must be produced
+ again, e.g. SPS and PPS for H264.
+
+This can be achieved by performing the reset sequence.
+
+1. *[optional]* If the client is interested in encoded frames resulting
+ from already queued source frames, it needs to perform the Drain
+ sequence. Otherwise, the reset sequence would cause the already
+ encoded and not dequeued encoded frames to be lost.
+
+2. Stop streaming on ``CAPTURE`` queue via :c:func:`VIDIOC_STREAMOFF`. This
+ will return all currently queued ``CAPTURE`` buffers to the client,
+ without valid frame data.
+
+3. *[optional]* Restart streaming on ``OUTPUT`` queue via
+ :c:func:`VIDIOC_STREAMOFF` followed by :c:func:`VIDIOC_STREAMON` to
+ drop any source frames enqueued to the encoder before the reset
+ sequence. This is useful if the client requires the new stream to begin
+ at specific source frame. Otherwise, the new stream might include
+ frames encoded from source frames queued before the reset sequence.
+
+4. Restart streaming on ``CAPTURE`` queue via :c:func:`VIDIOC_STREAMON` and
+ continue with regular encoding sequence. The encoded frames produced
+ into ``CAPTURE`` buffers from now on will contain a standalone stream
+ that can be decoded without the need for frames encoded before the reset
+ sequence.
+
+Commit points
+=============
+
+Setting formats and allocating buffers triggers changes in the behavior
+of the driver.
+
+1. Setting format on ``CAPTURE`` queue may change the set of formats
+ supported/advertised on the ``OUTPUT`` queue. In particular, it also
+ means that ``OUTPUT`` format may be reset and the client must not
+ rely on the previously set format being preserved.
+
+2. Enumerating formats on ``OUTPUT`` queue must only return formats
+ supported for the ``CAPTURE`` format currently set.
+
+3. Setting/changing format on ``OUTPUT`` queue does not change formats
+ available on ``CAPTURE`` queue. An attempt to set ``OUTPUT`` format that
+ is not supported for the currently selected ``CAPTURE`` format must
+ result in the driver adjusting the requested format to an acceptable
+ one.
+
+4. Enumerating formats on ``CAPTURE`` queue always returns the full set of
+ supported coded formats, irrespective of the current ``OUTPUT``
+ format.
+
+5. After allocating buffers on the ``CAPTURE`` queue, it is not possible to
+ change format on it.
+
+To summarize, setting formats and allocation must always start with the
+``CAPTURE`` queue and the ``CAPTURE`` queue is the master that governs the
+set of supported formats for the ``OUTPUT`` queue.
diff --git a/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/devices.rst b/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/devices.rst
index 12d43fe711cf..1822c66c2154 100644
--- a/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/devices.rst
+++ b/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/devices.rst
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@ Interfaces
dev-osd
dev-codec
dev-decoder
+ dev-encoder
dev-effect
dev-raw-vbi
dev-sliced-vbi
diff --git a/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/v4l2.rst b/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/v4l2.rst
index 65dc096199ad..2ef6693b9499 100644
--- a/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/v4l2.rst
+++ b/Documentation/media/uapi/v4l/v4l2.rst
@@ -56,6 +56,7 @@ Authors, in alphabetical order:
- Figa, Tomasz <tfiga@chromium.org>

- Documented the memory-to-memory decoder interface.
+ - Documented the memory-to-memory encoder interface.

- H Schimek, Michael <mschimek@gmx.at>

@@ -68,6 +69,7 @@ Authors, in alphabetical order:
- Osciak, Pawel <posciak@chromium.org>

- Documented the memory-to-memory decoder interface.
+ - Documented the memory-to-memory encoder interface.

- Osciak, Pawel <pawel@osciak.com>

--
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