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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 02/12] sched/core: uclamp: map TASK's clamp values into CPU's clamp groups
On Mon, Jul 16, 2018 at 1:28 AM, Patrick Bellasi
<patrick.bellasi@arm.com> wrote:
> Utilization clamping requires each CPU to know which clamp values are
> assigned to tasks that are currently RUNNABLE on that CPU.
> Multiple tasks can be assigned the same clamp value and tasks with
> different clamp values can be concurrently active on the same CPU.
> Thus, a proper data structure is required to support a fast and
> efficient aggregation of the clamp values required by the currently
> RUNNABLE tasks.
>
> For this purpose we use a per-CPU array of reference counters,
> where each slot is used to account how many tasks require a certain
> clamp value are currently RUNNABLE on each CPU.
> Each clamp value corresponds to a "clamp index" which identifies the
> position within the array of reference couters.
>
> :
> (user-space changes) : (kernel space / scheduler)
> :
> SLOW PATH : FAST PATH
> :
> task_struct::uclamp::value : sched/core::enqueue/dequeue
> : cpufreq_schedutil
> :
> +----------------+ +--------------------+ +-------------------+
> | TASK | | CLAMP GROUP | | CPU CLAMPS |
> +----------------+ +--------------------+ +-------------------+
> | | | clamp_{min,max} | | clamp_{min,max} |
> | util_{min,max} | | se_count | | tasks count |
> +----------------+ +--------------------+ +-------------------+
> :
> +------------------> : +------------------->
> group_id = map(clamp_value) : ref_count(group_id)
> :
> :
>
> Let's introduce the support to map tasks to "clamp groups".
> Specifically we introduce the required functions to translate a
> "clamp value" into a clamp's "group index" (group_id).
>
> Only a limited number of (different) clamp values are supported since:
> 1. there are usually only few classes of workloads for which it makes
> sense to boost/limit to different frequencies,
> e.g. background vs foreground, interactive vs low-priority
> 2. it allows a simpler and more memory/time efficient tracking of
> the per-CPU clamp values in the fast path.
>
> The number of possible different clamp values is currently defined at
> compile time. Thus, setting a new clamp value for a task can result into
> a -ENOSPC error in case this will exceed the number of maximum different
> clamp values supported.
>
> Signed-off-by: Patrick Bellasi <patrick.bellasi@arm.com>
> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
> Cc: Paul Turner <pjt@google.com>
> Cc: Todd Kjos <tkjos@google.com>
> Cc: Joel Fernandes <joelaf@google.com>
> Cc: Juri Lelli <juri.lelli@redhat.com>
> Cc: Dietmar Eggemann <dietmar.eggemann@arm.com>
> Cc: Morten Rasmussen <morten.rasmussen@arm.com>
> Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
> Cc: linux-pm@vger.kernel.org
> ---
> include/linux/sched.h | 15 ++-
> init/Kconfig | 22 ++++
> kernel/sched/core.c | 300 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
> 3 files changed, 330 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
> index fd8495723088..0635e8073cd3 100644
> --- a/include/linux/sched.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sched.h
> @@ -578,6 +578,19 @@ struct sched_dl_entity {
> struct hrtimer inactive_timer;
> };
>
> +/**
> + * Utilization's clamp group
> + *
> + * A utilization clamp group maps a "clamp value" (value), i.e.
> + * util_{min,max}, to a "clamp group index" (group_id).
> + */
> +struct uclamp_se {
> + /* Utilization constraint for tasks in this group */
> + unsigned int value;
> + /* Utilization clamp group for this constraint */
> + unsigned int group_id;
> +};
> +
> union rcu_special {
> struct {
> u8 blocked;
> @@ -662,7 +675,7 @@ struct task_struct {
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
> /* Utlization clamp values for this task */
> - int uclamp[UCLAMP_CNT];
> + struct uclamp_se uclamp[UCLAMP_CNT];
> #endif
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_NOTIFIERS
> diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
> index 1d45a6877d6f..0a377ad7c166 100644
> --- a/init/Kconfig
> +++ b/init/Kconfig
> @@ -601,7 +601,29 @@ config UCLAMP_TASK
>
> If in doubt, say N.
>
> +config UCLAMP_GROUPS_COUNT
> + int "Number of different utilization clamp values supported"
> + range 0 127
> + default 2
> + depends on UCLAMP_TASK
> + help
> + This defines the maximum number of different utilization clamp
> + values which can be concurrently enforced for each utilization
> + clamp index (i.e. minimum and maximum utilization).
> +
> + Only a limited number of clamp values are supported because:
> + 1. there are usually only few classes of workloads for which it
> + makes sense to boost/cap for different frequencies,
> + e.g. background vs foreground, interactive vs low-priority.
> + 2. it allows a simpler and more memory/time efficient tracking of
> + the per-CPU clamp values.
> +
> + Set to 0 (default value) to disable the utilization clamping feature.
> +
> + If in doubt, use the default value.
> +
> endmenu
> +
> #
> # For architectures that want to enable the support for NUMA-affine scheduler
> # balancing logic:
> diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
> index 6a42cd86b6f3..50e749067df5 100644
> --- a/kernel/sched/core.c
> +++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
> @@ -740,25 +740,309 @@ static void set_load_weight(struct task_struct *p, bool update_load)
> }
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
> +/**
> + * uclamp_mutex: serializes updates of utilization clamp values
> + *
> + * A utilization clamp value update is usually triggered from a user-space
> + * process (slow-path) but it requires a synchronization with the scheduler's
> + * (fast-path) enqueue/dequeue operations.
> + * While the fast-path synchronization is protected by RQs spinlock, this
> + * mutex ensures that we sequentially serve user-space requests.
> + */
> +static DEFINE_MUTEX(uclamp_mutex);
> +
> +/**
> + * uclamp_map: reference counts a utilization "clamp value"
> + * @value: the utilization "clamp value" required
> + * @se_count: the number of scheduling entities requiring the "clamp value"
> + * @se_lock: serialize reference count updates by protecting se_count
> + */
> +struct uclamp_map {
> + int value;
> + int se_count;
> + raw_spinlock_t se_lock;
> +};
> +
> +/**
> + * uclamp_maps: maps each SEs "clamp value" into a CPUs "clamp group"
> + *
> + * Since only a limited number of different "clamp values" are supported, we
> + * need to map each different clamp value into a "clamp group" (group_id) to
> + * be used by the per-CPU accounting in the fast-path, when tasks are
> + * enqueued and dequeued.
> + * We also support different kind of utilization clamping, min and max
> + * utilization for example, each representing what we call a "clamp index"
> + * (clamp_id).
> + *
> + * A matrix is thus required to map "clamp values" to "clamp groups"
> + * (group_id), for each "clamp index" (clamp_id), where:
> + * - rows are indexed by clamp_id and they collect the clamp groups for a
> + * given clamp index
> + * - columns are indexed by group_id and they collect the clamp values which
> + * maps to that clamp group
> + *
> + * Thus, the column index of a given (clamp_id, value) pair represents the
> + * clamp group (group_id) used by the fast-path's per-CPU accounting.
> + *
> + * NOTE: first clamp group (group_id=0) is reserved for tracking of non
> + * clamped tasks. Thus we allocate one more slot than the value of
> + * CONFIG_UCLAMP_GROUPS_COUNT.
> + *
> + * Here is the map layout and, right below, how entries are accessed by the
> + * following code.
> + *
> + * uclamp_maps is a matrix of
> + * +------- UCLAMP_CNT by CONFIG_UCLAMP_GROUPS_COUNT+1 entries
> + * | |
> + * | /---------------+---------------\
> + * | +------------+ +------------+
> + * | / UCLAMP_MIN | value | | value |
> + * | | | se_count |...... | se_count |
> + * | | +------------+ +------------+
> + * +--+ +------------+ +------------+
> + * | | value | | value |
> + * \ UCLAMP_MAX | se_count |...... | se_count |
> + * +-----^------+ +----^-------+
> + * | |
> + * uc_map = + |
> + * &uclamp_maps[clamp_id][0] +
> + * clamp_value =
> + * uc_map[group_id].value
> + */
> +static struct uclamp_map uclamp_maps[UCLAMP_CNT]
> + [CONFIG_UCLAMP_GROUPS_COUNT + 1];
> +
> +/**
> + * uclamp_group_available: checks if a clamp group is available
> + * @clamp_id: the utilization clamp index (i.e. min or max clamp)
> + * @group_id: the group index in the given clamp_id
> + *
> + * A clamp group is not free if there is at least one SE which is sing a clamp

Did you mean to say "single clamp"?

> + * value mapped on the specified clamp_id. These SEs are reference counted by
> + * the se_count of a uclamp_map entry.
> + *
> + * Return: true if there are no SE's mapped on the specified clamp
> + * index and group
> + */
> +static inline bool uclamp_group_available(int clamp_id, int group_id)
> +{
> + struct uclamp_map *uc_map = &uclamp_maps[clamp_id][0];
> +
> + return (uc_map[group_id].value == UCLAMP_NONE);

The usage of UCLAMP_NONE is very confusing to me. It was not used at
all in the patch where it was introduced [1/12], here it's used as a
clamp value and in uclamp_group_find() it's used as group_id. Please
clarify the usage. I also feel UCLAMP_NONE does not really belong to
the uclamp_id enum because other elements there are indexes in
uclamp_maps and this one is a special value. IMHO if both *group_id*
and *value* need a special value (-1) to represent
unused/uninitialized entry it would be better to use different
constants. Maybe UCLAMP_VAL_NONE and UCLAMP_GROUP_NONE?

> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * uclamp_group_init: maps a clamp value on a specified clamp group
> + * @clamp_id: the utilization clamp index (i.e. min or max clamp)
> + * @group_id: the group index to map a given clamp_value
> + * @clamp_value: the utilization clamp value to map
> + *
> + * Initializes a clamp group to track tasks from the fast-path.
> + * Each different clamp value, for a given clamp index (i.e. min/max
> + * utilization clamp), is mapped by a clamp group which index is used by the
> + * fast-path code to keep track of RUNNABLE tasks requiring a certain clamp
> + * value.
> + *
> + */
> +static inline void uclamp_group_init(int clamp_id, int group_id,
> + unsigned int clamp_value)
> +{
> + struct uclamp_map *uc_map = &uclamp_maps[clamp_id][0];
> +
> + uc_map[group_id].value = clamp_value;
> + uc_map[group_id].se_count = 0;
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * uclamp_group_reset: resets a specified clamp group
> + * @clamp_id: the utilization clamp index (i.e. min or max clamping)
> + * @group_id: the group index to release
> + *
> + * A clamp group can be reset every time there are no more task groups using
> + * the clamp value it maps for a given clamp index.
> + */
> +static inline void uclamp_group_reset(int clamp_id, int group_id)
> +{
> + uclamp_group_init(clamp_id, group_id, UCLAMP_NONE);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * uclamp_group_find: finds the group index of a utilization clamp group
> + * @clamp_id: the utilization clamp index (i.e. min or max clamping)
> + * @clamp_value: the utilization clamping value lookup for
> + *
> + * Verify if a group has been assigned to a certain clamp value and return
> + * its index to be used for accounting.
> + *
> + * Since only a limited number of utilization clamp groups are allowed, if no
> + * groups have been assigned for the specified value, a new group is assigned
> + * if possible. Otherwise an error is returned, meaning that an additional clamp
> + * value is not (currently) supported.
> + */
> +static int
> +uclamp_group_find(int clamp_id, unsigned int clamp_value)
> +{
> + struct uclamp_map *uc_map = &uclamp_maps[clamp_id][0];
> + int free_group_id = UCLAMP_NONE;
> + unsigned int group_id = 0;
> +
> + for ( ; group_id <= CONFIG_UCLAMP_GROUPS_COUNT; ++group_id) {
> + /* Keep track of first free clamp group */
> + if (uclamp_group_available(clamp_id, group_id)) {
> + if (free_group_id == UCLAMP_NONE)
> + free_group_id = group_id;
> + continue;
> + }
> + /* Return index of first group with same clamp value */
> + if (uc_map[group_id].value == clamp_value)
> + return group_id;
> + }
> + /* Default to first free clamp group */
> + if (group_id > CONFIG_UCLAMP_GROUPS_COUNT)

Is the condition above needed? I think it's always true if you got here.
Also AFAIKT after the for loop you can just do:

return (free_group_id != UCLAMP_NONE) ? free_group_id : -ENOSPC;

> + group_id = free_group_id;
> + /* All clamp group already track different clamp values */
> + if (group_id == UCLAMP_NONE)
> + return -ENOSPC;
> + return group_id;
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * uclamp_group_put: decrease the reference count for a clamp group
> + * @clamp_id: the clamp index which was affected by a task group
> + * @uc_se: the utilization clamp data for that task group
> + *
> + * When the clamp value for a task group is changed we decrease the reference
> + * count for the clamp group mapping its current clamp value. A clamp group is
> + * released when there are no more task groups referencing its clamp value.
> + */
> +static inline void uclamp_group_put(int clamp_id, int group_id)
> +{
> + struct uclamp_map *uc_map = &uclamp_maps[clamp_id][0];
> + unsigned long flags;
> +
> + /* Ignore SE's not yet attached */
> + if (group_id == UCLAMP_NONE)
> + return;
> +
> + /* Remove SE from this clamp group */
> + raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&uc_map[group_id].se_lock, flags);
> + uc_map[group_id].se_count -= 1;

If uc_map[group_id].se_count was 0 before decrement you end up with
se_count == -1 and no reset for the element.

> + if (uc_map[group_id].se_count == 0)
> + uclamp_group_reset(clamp_id, group_id);
> + raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&uc_map[group_id].se_lock, flags);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * uclamp_group_get: increase the reference count for a clamp group
> + * @p: the task which clamp value must be tracked
> + * @clamp_id: the clamp index affected by the task
> + * @uc_se: the utilization clamp data for the task
> + * @clamp_value: the new clamp value for the task
> + *
> + * Each time a task changes its utilization clamp value, for a specified clamp
> + * index, we need to find an available clamp group which can be used to track
> + * this new clamp value. The corresponding clamp group index will be used by
> + * the task to reference count the clamp value on CPUs while enqueued.
> + *
> + * Return: -ENOSPC if there are no available clamp groups, 0 on success.
> + */
> +static inline int uclamp_group_get(struct task_struct *p,
> + int clamp_id, struct uclamp_se *uc_se,
> + unsigned int clamp_value)
> +{
> + struct uclamp_map *uc_map = &uclamp_maps[clamp_id][0];
> + int prev_group_id = uc_se->group_id;
> + int next_group_id = UCLAMP_NONE;
> + unsigned long flags;
> +
> + /* Lookup for a usable utilization clamp group */
> + next_group_id = uclamp_group_find(clamp_id, clamp_value);
> + if (next_group_id < 0) {
> + pr_err("Cannot allocate more than %d utilization clamp groups\n",
> + CONFIG_UCLAMP_GROUPS_COUNT);
> + return -ENOSPC;
> + }
> +
> + /* Allocate new clamp group for this clamp value */
> + if (uclamp_group_available(clamp_id, next_group_id))
> + uclamp_group_init(clamp_id, next_group_id, clamp_value);
> +
> + /* Update SE's clamp values and attach it to new clamp group */
> + raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&uc_map[next_group_id].se_lock, flags);
> + uc_se->value = clamp_value;
> + uc_se->group_id = next_group_id;
> + uc_map[next_group_id].se_count += 1;
> + raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&uc_map[next_group_id].se_lock, flags);
> +
> + /* Release the previous clamp group */
> + uclamp_group_put(clamp_id, prev_group_id);
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> static inline int __setscheduler_uclamp(struct task_struct *p,
> const struct sched_attr *attr)
> {
> + struct uclamp_se *uc_se;
> + int retval = 0;
> +
> if (attr->sched_util_min > attr->sched_util_max)
> return -EINVAL;
> if (attr->sched_util_max > SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE)
> return -EINVAL;
>
> - p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MIN] = attr->sched_util_min;
> - p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MAX] = attr->sched_util_max;
> + mutex_lock(&uclamp_mutex);
> +
> + /* Update min utilization clamp */
> + uc_se = &p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MIN];
> + retval |= uclamp_group_get(p, UCLAMP_MIN, uc_se,
> + attr->sched_util_min);
> +
> + /* Update max utilization clamp */
> + uc_se = &p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MAX];
> + retval |= uclamp_group_get(p, UCLAMP_MAX, uc_se,
> + attr->sched_util_max);
> +
> + mutex_unlock(&uclamp_mutex);
> +
> + /*
> + * If one of the two clamp values should fail,
> + * let the userspace know.
> + */
> + if (retval)
> + return -ENOSPC;

Maybe a minor issue but this failure is ambiguous. It might mean:
1. no clamp value was updated
2. UCLAMP_MIN was updated but UCLAMP_MAX was not
3. UCLAMP_MAX was updated but UCLAMP_MIN was not

>
> return 0;
> }
> +
> +/**
> + * init_uclamp: initialize data structures required for utilization clamping
> + */
> +static void __init init_uclamp(void)
> +{
> + int clamp_id;
> +
> + mutex_init(&uclamp_mutex);
> +
> + /* Init SE's clamp map */
> + for (clamp_id = 0; clamp_id < UCLAMP_CNT; ++clamp_id) {
> + struct uclamp_map *uc_map = &uclamp_maps[clamp_id][0];
> + int group_id = 0;
> +
> + for ( ; group_id <= CONFIG_UCLAMP_GROUPS_COUNT; ++group_id) {
> + uc_map[group_id].value = UCLAMP_NONE;
> + raw_spin_lock_init(&uc_map[group_id].se_lock);
> + }
> + }
> +}
> +
> #else /* CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK */
> static inline int __setscheduler_uclamp(struct task_struct *p,
> const struct sched_attr *attr)
> {
> return -EINVAL;
> }
> +static inline void init_uclamp(void) { }
> #endif /* CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK */
>
> static inline void enqueue_task(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, int flags)
> @@ -2199,8 +2483,10 @@ static void __sched_fork(unsigned long clone_flags, struct task_struct *p)
> #endif
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
> - p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MIN] = 0;
> - p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MAX] = SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE;
> + p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MIN].value = 0;
> + p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MIN].group_id = UCLAMP_NONE;
> + p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MAX].value = SCHED_CAPACITY_SCALE;
> + p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MAX].group_id = UCLAMP_NONE;
> #endif
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS
> @@ -4784,8 +5070,8 @@ SYSCALL_DEFINE4(sched_getattr, pid_t, pid, struct sched_attr __user *, uattr,
> attr.sched_nice = task_nice(p);
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_UCLAMP_TASK
> - attr.sched_util_min = p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MIN];
> - attr.sched_util_max = p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MAX];
> + attr.sched_util_min = p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MIN].value;
> + attr.sched_util_max = p->uclamp[UCLAMP_MAX].value;
> #endif
>
> rcu_read_unlock();
> @@ -6151,6 +6437,8 @@ void __init sched_init(void)
>
> init_schedstats();
>
> + init_uclamp();
> +
> scheduler_running = 1;
> }
>
> --
> 2.17.1
>

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