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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 01/26] rculist: introduce list_next_or_null_rr_rcu()
On Tue, May 22, 2018 at 11:09:16AM +0200, Roman Penyaev wrote:
> On Mon, May 21, 2018 at 5:31 PM, Paul E. McKenney
> <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> wrote:
> > On Mon, May 21, 2018 at 03:50:10PM +0200, Roman Penyaev wrote:
> >> On Sun, May 20, 2018 at 2:43 AM, Paul E. McKenney
> >> <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> wrote:
> >> > On Sat, May 19, 2018 at 10:20:48PM +0200, Roman Penyaev wrote:
> >> >> On Sat, May 19, 2018 at 6:37 PM, Paul E. McKenney
> >> >> <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> wrote:
> >> >> > On Fri, May 18, 2018 at 03:03:48PM +0200, Roman Pen wrote:
> >> >> >> Function is going to be used in transport over RDMA module
> >> >> >> in subsequent patches.
> >> >> >>
> >> >> >> Function returns next element in round-robin fashion,
> >> >> >> i.e. head will be skipped. NULL will be returned if list
> >> >> >> is observed as empty.
> >> >> >>
> >> >> >> Signed-off-by: Roman Pen <roman.penyaev@profitbricks.com>
> >> >> >> Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
> >> >> >> Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
> >> >> >> ---
> >> >> >> include/linux/rculist.h | 19 +++++++++++++++++++
> >> >> >> 1 file changed, 19 insertions(+)
> >> >> >>
> >> >> >> diff --git a/include/linux/rculist.h b/include/linux/rculist.h
> >> >> >> index 127f534fec94..b0840d5ab25a 100644
> >> >> >> --- a/include/linux/rculist.h
> >> >> >> +++ b/include/linux/rculist.h
> >> >> >> @@ -339,6 +339,25 @@ static inline void list_splice_tail_init_rcu(struct list_head *list,
> >> >> >> })
> >> >> >>
> >> >> >> /**
> >> >> >> + * list_next_or_null_rr_rcu - get next list element in round-robin fashion.
> >> >> >> + * @head: the head for the list.
> >> >> >> + * @ptr: the list head to take the next element from.
> >> >> >> + * @type: the type of the struct this is embedded in.
> >> >> >> + * @memb: the name of the list_head within the struct.
> >> >> >> + *
> >> >> >> + * Next element returned in round-robin fashion, i.e. head will be skipped,
> >> >> >> + * but if list is observed as empty, NULL will be returned.
> >> >> >> + *
> >> >> >> + * This primitive may safely run concurrently with the _rcu list-mutation
> >> >> >> + * primitives such as list_add_rcu() as long as it's guarded by rcu_read_lock().
> >> >> >
> >> >> > Of course, all the set of list_next_or_null_rr_rcu() invocations that
> >> >> > are round-robining a given list must all be under the same RCU read-side
> >> >> > critical section. For example, the following will break badly:
> >> >> >
> >> >> > struct foo *take_rr_step(struct list_head *head, struct foo *ptr)
> >> >> > {
> >> >> > struct foo *ret;
> >> >> >
> >> >> > rcu_read_lock();
> >> >> > ret = list_next_or_null_rr_rcu(head, ptr, struct foo, foolist);
> >> >> > rcu_read_unlock(); /* BUG */
> >> >> > return ret;
> >> >> > }
> >> >> >
> >> >> > You need a big fat comment stating this, at the very least. The resulting
> >> >> > bug can be very hard to trigger and even harder to debug.
> >> >> >
> >> >> > And yes, I know that the same restriction applies to list_next_rcu()
> >> >> > and friends. The difference is that if you try to invoke those in an
> >> >> > infinite loop, you will be rapped on the knuckles as soon as you hit
> >> >> > the list header. Without that knuckle-rapping, RCU CPU stall warnings
> >> >> > might tempt people to do something broken like take_rr_step() above.
> >> >>
> >> >> Hi Paul,
> >> >>
> >> >> I need -rr behaviour for doing IO load-balancing when I choose next RDMA
> >> >> connection from the list in order to send a request, i.e. my code is
> >> >> something like the following:
> >> >>
> >> >> static struct conn *get_and_set_next_conn(void)
> >> >> {
> >> >> struct conn *conn;
> >> >>
> >> >> conn = rcu_dereferece(rcu_conn);
> >> >> if (unlikely(!conn))
> >> >> return conn;
> >> >
> >> > Wait. Don't you need to restart from the beginning of the list in
> >> > this case? Or does the list never have anything added to it and is
> >> > rcu_conn initially the first element in the list?
> >>
> >> Hi Paul,
> >>
> >> No, I continue from the pointer, which I assigned on the previous IO
> >> in order to send IO fairly and keep load balanced.
> >>
> >> Initially @rcu_conn points to the first element, but elements can
> >> be deleted from the list and list can become empty.
> >>
> >> The deletion code is below.
> >>
> >> >
> >> >> conn = list_next_or_null_rr_rcu(&conn_list,
> >> >> &conn->entry,
> >> >> typeof(*conn),
> >> >> entry);
> >> >> rcu_assign_pointer(rcu_conn, conn);
> >> >
> >> > Linus is correct to doubt this code. You assign a pointer to the current
> >> > element to rcu_conn, which is presumably a per-CPU or global variable.
> >> > So far, so good ...
> >>
> >> I use per-CPU, in the first example I did not show that not to overcomplicate
> >> the code.
> >>
> >> >
> >> >> return conn;
> >> >> }
> >> >>
> >> >> rcu_read_lock();
> >> >> conn = get_and_set_next_conn();
> >> >> if (unlikely(!conn)) {
> >> >> /* ... */
> >> >> }
> >> >> err = rdma_io(conn, request);
> >> >> rcu_read_unlock();
> >> >
> >> > ... except that some other CPU might well remove the entry referenced by
> >> > rcu_conn at this point. It would have to wait for a grace period (e.g.,
> >> > synchronize_rcu()), but the current CPU has exited its RCU read-side
> >> > critical section, and therefore is not blocking the grace period.
> >> > Therefore, by the time get_and_set_next_conn() picks up rcu_conn, it
> >> > might well be referencing the freelist, or, even worse, some other type
> >> > of structure.
> >> >
> >> > What is your code doing to prevent this from happening? (There are ways,
> >> > but I want to know what you were doing in this case.)
> >>
> >> Probably I should have shown the way of removal at the very beginning,
> >> my fault. So deletion looks as the following (a bit changed and
> >> simplified for the sake of clearness):
> >
> > Thank you! Let's see...
> >
> >> static void remove_connection(conn)
> >> {
> >> bool need_to_wait = false;
> >> int cpu;
> >>
> >> /* Do not let RCU list add/delete happen in parallel */
> >> mutex_lock(&conn_lock);
> >>
> >> list_del_rcu(&conn->entry);
> >>
> >> /* Make sure everybody observes element removal */
> >> synchronize_rcu();
> >
> > At this point, any reader who saw the element in the list is done, as you
> > comment in fact says. But there might be a pointer to that element in the
> > per-CPU variables, however, from this point forward it cannot be the case
> > that one of the per-CPU variables gets set to the newly deleted element.
> > Which is your next block of code...
> >
> >> /*
> >> * At this point nobody sees @conn in the list, but
> >> still we have
> >> * dangling pointer @rcu_conn which _can_ point to @conn. Since
> >> * nobody can observe @conn in the list, we guarantee
> >> that IO path
> >> * will not assign @conn to @rcu_conn, i.e. @rcu_conn
> >> can be equal
> >> * to @conn, but can never again become @conn.
> >> */
> >>
> >> /*
> >> * Get @next connection from current @conn which is going to be
> >> * removed.
> >> */
> >> next = list_next_or_null_rr_rcu(&conn_list, &conn->entry,
> >> typeof(*next), entry);
> >>
> >> /*
> >> * Here @rcu_conn can be changed by reader side, so use @cmpxchg
> >> * in order to keep fairness in load-balancing and do not touch
> >> * the pointer which can be already changed by the IO path.
> >> *
> >> * Current path can be faster than IO path and the
> >> following race
> >> * exists:
> >> *
> >> * CPU0 CPU1
> >> * ---- ----
> >> * conn = rcu_dereferece(rcu_conn);
> >> * next = list_next_or_null_rr_rcu(conn)
> >> *
> >> * conn ==
> >> cmpxchg(rcu_conn, conn, next);
> >> * synchronize_rcu();
> >> *
> >> * rcu_assign_pointer(rcu_conn, next);
> >> * ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> >> *
> >> * Here @rcu_conn is already equal to @next (done by
> >> @cmpxchg),
> >> * so assignment to the same pointer is harmless.
> >> *
> >> */
> >> for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
> >> struct conn **rcu_conn;
> >>
> >> rcu_conn = per_cpu_ptr(pcpu_rcu_conn, cpu);
> >> if (*rcu_conn != conn)
> >> /*
> >> * This @cpu will never again pick up @conn,
> >> * so it is safe just to choose next CPU.
> >> */
> >> continue;
> >
> > ... Someone else might have picked up rcu_conn at this point...
> >
> >> if (conn == cmpxchg(rcu_conn, conn, next))
> >> /*
> >> * @rcu_conn was successfully replaced
> >> with @next,
> >> * that means that someone can also hold a @conn
> >> * and dereferencing it, so wait for a
> >> grace period
> >> * is required.
> >> */
> >> need_to_wait = true;
> >
> > ... But if there was any possibility of that, need_to_wait is true, and it
> > still cannot be the case that a reader finds the newly deleted element
> > in the list, so they cannot find that element, so the pcpu_rcu_conn
> > variables cannot be set to it.
> >
> >> }
> >> if (need_to_wait)
> >> synchronize_rcu();
> >
> > And at this point, the reader that might have picked up rcu_conn
> > just before the cmpxchg must have completed. (Good show, by the way!
> > Many people miss the fact that they need this second synchronize_rcu().)
> >
> > Hmmm... What happens if this was the last element in the list, and
> > the relevant pcpu_rcu_conn variable references that newly removed
> > element? Taking a look at list_next_or_null_rcu() and thus at
> > list_next_or_null_rcu(), and it does appear that you get NULL in that
> > case, as is right and good.
>
> Thanks for explicit comments. What I always lack is a good description.
> Indeed it is worth to mention that @next can become NULL if that was the
> last element, will add comments then.

Very good.

And for the record, I agree with Linus that this needs to be private.
I am very glad that you got it right (or appear to have), and there might
come a time when it needs to be generally available, but that time is
certainly not now and might well never come.

> >> mutex_unlock(&conn_lock);
> >>
> >> kfree(conn);
> >> }
> >>
> >>
> >> >
> >> >> i.e. usage of the @next pointer is under an RCU critical section.
> >> >>
> >> >> > Is it possible to instead do some sort of list_for_each_entry_rcu()-like
> >> >> > macro that makes it more obvious that the whole thing need to be under
> >> >> > a single RCU read-side critical section? Such a macro would of course be
> >> >> > an infinite loop if the list never went empty, so presumably there would
> >> >> > be a break or return statement in there somewhere.
> >> >>
> >> >> The difference is that I do not need a loop, I take the @next conn pointer,
> >> >> save it for the following IO request and do IO for current IO request.
> >> >>
> >> >> It seems list_for_each_entry_rcu()-like with immediate "break" in the body
> >> >> of the loop does not look nice, I personally do not like it, i.e.:
> >> >>
> >> >>
> >> >> static struct conn *get_and_set_next_conn(void)
> >> >> {
> >> >> struct conn *conn;
> >> >>
> >> >> conn = rcu_dereferece(rcu_conn);
> >> >> if (unlikely(!conn))
> >> >> return conn;
> >> >> list_for_each_entry_rr_rcu(conn, &conn_list,
> >> >> entry) {
> >> >> break;
> >> >> }
> >> >> rcu_assign_pointer(rcu_conn, conn);
> >> >> return conn;
> >> >> }
> >> >>
> >> >>
> >> >> or maybe I did not fully get your idea?
> >> >
> >> > That would not help at all because you are still leaking the pointer out
> >> > of the RCU read-side critical section. That is completely and utterly
> >> > broken unless you are somehow cleaning up rcu_conn when you remove
> >> > the element. And getting that cleanup right is -extremely- tricky.
> >> > Unless you have some sort of proof of correctness, you will get a NACK
> >> > from me.
> >>
> >> I understand all the consequences of the leaking pointer, and of course
> >> wrapped loop with RCU lock/unlock is simpler, but in order to keep
> >> load-balancing and IO fairness avoiding any locks on IO path I've come
> >> up with these RCU tricks and list_next_or_null_rr_rcu() macro.
> >
> > At first glance, it appears that you have handled this correctly. But I
> > can make mistakes just as easily as the next guy, so what have you done
> > to validate your algorithm?
>
> What we only have is a set of unit-tests which run every night. For this
> particular case there is a special stress test which adds/removes RDMA
> connections in a loop while IO is performing. Unfortunately I did not
> write any synthetic test-case just for testing this isolated algorithm.
> (e.g. module with only these RCU functions can be created and list
> modification can be easily simulated. Should not be very much difficult)
> Do you think it is worth to do? Unfortunately it also does not prove
> correctness, like Linus said it is fragile as hell, but for sure I can
> burn CPUs testing it for couple of days.

Yes, this definitely deserves some -serious- focused stress testing.

And formal verification, if that can be arranged. The Linux-kernel
memory model does handle RCU, and also minimal linked lists, so might
be worth a try. Unfortunately, I don't know of any other tooling
that handles RCU. :-(

> >> > More like this:
> >> >
> >> > list_for_each_entry_rr_rcu(conn, &conn_list, entry) {
> >> > do_something_with(conn);
> >> > if (done_for_now())
> >> > break;
> >> > }
> >> >
> >> >> >> + */
> >> >> >> +#define list_next_or_null_rr_rcu(head, ptr, type, memb) \
> >> >> >> +({ \
> >> >> >> + list_next_or_null_rcu(head, ptr, type, memb) ?: \
> >> >> >> + list_next_or_null_rcu(head, READ_ONCE((ptr)->next), type, memb); \
> >> >> >
> >> >> > Are there any uses for this outside of RDMA? If not, I am with Linus.
> >> >> > Define this within RDMA, where a smaller number of people can more
> >> >> > easily be kept aware of the restrictions on use. If it turns out to be
> >> >> > more generally useful, we can take a look at exactly what makes sense
> >> >> > more globally.
> >> >>
> >> >> The only one list_for_each_entry_rcu()-like macro I am aware of is used in
> >> >> block/blk-mq-sched.c, is called list_for_each_entry_rcu_rr():
> >> >>
> >> >> https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v4.17-rc5/source/block/blk-mq-sched.c#L370
> >> >>
> >> >> Does it make sense to implement generic list_next_or_null_rr_rcu() reusing
> >> >> my list_next_or_null_rr_rcu() variant?
> >> >
> >> > Let's start with the basics: It absolutely does not make sense to leak
> >> > pointers across rcu_read_unlock() unless you have arranged something else
> >> > to protect the pointed-to data in the meantime. There are a number of ways
> >> > of implementing this protection. Again, what protection are you using?
> >> >
> >> > Your code at the above URL looks plausible to me at first glance: You
> >> > do rcu_read_lock(), a loop with list_for_each_entry_rcu_rr(), then
> >> > rcu_read_unlock(). But at second glance, it looks like htcx->queue
> >> > might have the same vulnerability as rcu_conn in your earlier code.
> >>
> >> I am not the author of the code at the URL I specified. I provided the
> >> link answering the question to show other possible users of round-robin
> >> semantics for RCU list traversal. In my 'list_next_or_null_rr_rcu()'
> >> case I can't use a loop, I leak the pointer and indeed have to be very
> >> careful. But perhaps we can come up with some generic solution to cover
> >> both cases: -rr loop and -rr next.
> >
> > Ah. Could you please check their update-side code to make sure that it
> > looks correct to you?
>
> BTW authors of this particular -rr loop are in CC, but they keep silence
> so far :) According to my shallow understanding @queue can't disappear
> from the list on this calling path, i.e. existence of a @queue should be
> guaranteed by the fact that the queue has no IO in-flights and only then
> it can be removed.

But something has to enforce that, right? For example, how does the
code know that there are no longer any I/Os in flight, and how does it
know that more I/Os won't be issued in the near future, possibly based
on old state?

But yes, the authors are free to respond.

Thanx, Paul

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