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SubjectRe: [PATCH v4 06/14] PCI/P2PDMA: Add P2P DMA driver writer's documentation
On 04/23/2018 04:30 PM, Logan Gunthorpe wrote:
> Add a restructured text file describing how to write drivers
> with support for P2P DMA transactions. The document describes
> how to use the APIs that were added in the previous few
> commits.
> Also adds an index for the PCI documentation tree even though this
> is the only PCI document that has been converted to restructured text
> at this time.
> Signed-off-by: Logan Gunthorpe <>
> Cc: Jonathan Corbet <>
> ---
> Documentation/PCI/index.rst | 14 +++
> Documentation/driver-api/pci/index.rst | 1 +
> Documentation/driver-api/pci/p2pdma.rst | 166 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> Documentation/index.rst | 3 +-
> 4 files changed, 183 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/PCI/index.rst
> create mode 100644 Documentation/driver-api/pci/p2pdma.rst

> diff --git a/Documentation/driver-api/pci/p2pdma.rst b/Documentation/driver-api/pci/p2pdma.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..49a512c405b2
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/driver-api/pci/p2pdma.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,166 @@
> +============================
> +PCI Peer-to-Peer DMA Support
> +============================
> +
> +The PCI bus has pretty decent support for performing DMA transfers
> +between two endpoints on the bus. This type of transaction is
> +henceforth called Peer-to-Peer (or P2P). However, there are a number of
> +issues that make P2P transactions tricky to do in a perfectly safe way.
> +
> +One of the biggest issues is that PCI Root Complexes are not required
> +to support forwarding packets between Root Ports. To make things worse,
> +there is no simple way to determine if a given Root Complex supports
> +this or not. (See PCIe r4.0, sec 1.3.1). Therefore, as of this writing,
> +the kernel only supports doing P2P when the endpoints involved are all
> +behind the same PCIe root port as the spec guarantees that all
> +packets will always be routable but does not require routing between
> +root ports.
> +
> +The second issue is that to make use of existing interfaces in Linux,
> +memory that is used for P2P transactions needs to be backed by struct
> +pages. However, PCI BARs are not typically cache coherent so there are
> +a few corner case gotchas with these pages so developers need to
> +be careful about what they do with them.
> +
> +
> +Driver Writer's Guide
> +=====================
> +
> +In a given P2P implementation there may be three or more different
> +types of kernel drivers in play:
> +
> +* Providers - A driver which provides or publishes P2P resources like

* Provider -

> + memory or doorbell registers to other drivers.
> +* Clients - A driver which makes use of a resource by setting up a

* Client -

> + DMA transaction to or from it.
> +* Orchestrators - A driver which orchestrates the flow of data between

* Orchestrator -

> + clients and providers
> +
> +In many cases there could be overlap between these three types (ie.


> +it may be typical for a driver to be both a provider and a client).
> +
> +For example, in the NVMe Target Copy Offload implementation:
> +
> +* The NVMe PCI driver is both a client, provider and orchestrator
> + in that it exposes any CMB (Controller Memory Buffer) as a P2P memory
> + resource (provider), it accepts P2P memory pages as buffers in requests
> + to be used directly (client) and it can also make use the CMB as
> + submission queue entries.
> +* The RDMA driver is a client in this arrangement so that an RNIC
> + can DMA directly to the memory exposed by the NVMe device.
> +* The NVMe Target driver (nvmet) can orchestrate the data from the RNIC
> + to the P2P memory (CMB) and then to the NVMe device (and vice versa).
> +
> +This is currently the only arrangement supported by the kernel but
> +one could imagine slight tweaks to this that would allow for the same
> +functionality. For example, if a specific RNIC added a BAR with some
> +memory behind it, its driver could add support as a P2P provider and
> +then the NVMe Target could use the RNIC's memory instead of the CMB
> +in cases where the NVMe cards in use do not have CMB support.
> +
> +
> +Provider Drivers
> +----------------
> +
> +A provider simply needs to register a BAR (or a portion of a BAR)
> +as a P2P DMA resource using :c:func:`pci_p2pdma_add_resource()`.
> +This will register struct pages for all the specified memory.
> +
> +After that it may optionally publish all of its resources as
> +P2P memory using :c:func:`pci_p2pmem_publish()`. This will allow
> +any orchestrator drivers to find and use the memory. When marked in
> +this way, the resource must be regular memory with no side effects.
> +
> +For the time being this is fairly rudimentary in that all resources
> +are typically going to be P2P memory. Future work will likely expand
> +this to include other types of resources like doorbells.
> +
> +
> +Client Drivers
> +--------------
> +
> +A client driver typically only has to conditionally change its DMA map
> +routine to use the mapping functions :c:func:`pci_p2pdma_map_sg()` and
> +:c:func:`pci_p2pdma_unmap_sg()` instead of the usual :c:func:`dma_map_sg()`
> +functions.
> +
> +The client may also, optionally, make use of
> +:c:func:`is_pci_p2pdma_page()` to determine when to use the P2P mapping
> +functions and when to use the regular mapping functions. In some
> +situations, it may be more appropriate to use a flag to indicate a
> +given request is P2P memory and map appropriately (for example the
> +block layer uses a flag to keep P2P memory out of queues that do not
> +have P2P client support). It is important to ensure that struct pages that
> +back P2P memory stay out of code that does not have support for them.
> +
> +
> +Orchestrator Drivers
> +--------------------
> +
> +The first task an orchestrator driver must do is compile a list of
> +all client drivers that will be involved in a given transaction. For
> +example, the NVMe Target driver creates a list including all NVMe drives
or drivers ?
Could be either, I guess, but the previous sentence says "compile a list of drivers."

> +and the RNIC in use. The list is stored as an anonymous struct
> +list_head which must be initialized with the usual INIT_LIST_HEAD.
> +The following functions may then be used to add to, remove from and free
> +the list of clients with the functions :c:func:`pci_p2pdma_add_client()`,
> +:c:func:`pci_p2pdma_remove_client()` and
> +:c:func:`pci_p2pdma_client_list_free()`.
> +
> +With the client list in hand, the orchestrator may then call
> +:c:func:`pci_p2pmem_find()` to obtain a published P2P memory provider
> +that is supported (behind the same root port) as all the clients. If more
> +than one provider is supported, the one nearest to all the clients will
> +be chosen first. If there are more than one provider is an equal distance

there is

> +away, the one returned will be chosen at random. This function returns the PCI
> +device to use for the provider with a reference taken and therefore
> +when it's no longer needed it should be returned with pci_dev_put().
> +
> +Alternatively, if the orchestrator knows (via some other means)
> +which provider it wants to use it may use :c:func:`pci_has_p2pmem()`
> +to determine if it has P2P memory and :c:func:`pci_p2pdma_distance()`
> +to determine the cumulative distance between it and a potential
> +list of clients.
> +
> +With a supported provider in hand, the driver can then call
> +:c:func:`pci_p2pdma_assign_provider()` to assign the provider
> +to the client list. This function returns false if any of the
> +clients are unsupported by the provider.
[I would say:]
is unsupported

> +
> +Once a provider is assigned to a client list via either
> +:c:func:`pci_p2pmem_find()` or :c:func:`pci_p2pdma_assign_provider()`,
> +the list is permanently bound to the provider such that any new clients
> +added to the list must be supported by the already selected provider.
> +If they are not supported, :c:func:`pci_p2pdma_add_client()` will return
> +an error. In this way, orchestrators are free to add and remove devices
> +without having to recheck support or tear down existing transfers to
> +change P2P providers.
> +
> +Once a provider is selected, the orchestrator can then use
> +:c:func:`pci_alloc_p2pmem()` and :c:func:`pci_free_p2pmem()` to
> +allocate P2P memory from the provider. :c:func:`pci_p2pmem_alloc_sgl()`
> +and :c:func:`pci_p2pmem_free_sgl()` are convenience functions for
> +allocating scatter-gather lists with P2P memory.
> +
> +Struct Page Caveats
> +-------------------
> +
> +Driver writers should be very careful about not passing these special
> +struct pages to code that isn't prepared for it. At this time, the kernel
> +interfaces do not have any checks for ensuring this. This obviously
> +precludes passing these pages to userspace.
> +
> +P2P memory is also technically IO memory but should never have any side
> +effects behind it. Thus, the order of loads and stores should not be important
> +and ioreadX(), iowriteX() and friends should not be necessary.
> +However, as the memory is not cache coherent, if access ever needs to
> +be protected by a spinlock then :c:func:`mmiowb()` must be used before
> +unlocking the lock. (See ACQUIRES VS I/O ACCESSES in
> +Documentation/memory-barriers.txt)
> +
> +
> +P2P DMA Support Library
> +=====================
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: drivers/pci/p2pdma.c
> + :export:


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