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SubjectRe: [PATCH RFC 1/8] rcu: Add comment documenting how rcu_seq_snap works
Hi Paul,
Good morning, hope you're having a great Tuesday. I managed to find some
evening hours today to dig into this a bit more.

On Mon, May 14, 2018 at 08:59:52PM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> On Mon, May 14, 2018 at 06:51:33PM -0700, Joel Fernandes wrote:
> > On Mon, May 14, 2018 at 10:38:16AM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> > > On Sun, May 13, 2018 at 08:15:34PM -0700, Joel Fernandes (Google) wrote:
> > > > rcu_seq_snap may be tricky for someone looking at it for the first time.
> > > > Lets document how it works with an example to make it easier.
> > > >
> > > > Signed-off-by: Joel Fernandes (Google) <joel@joelfernandes.org>
> > > > ---
> > > > kernel/rcu/rcu.h | 24 +++++++++++++++++++++++-
> > > > 1 file changed, 23 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
> > > >
> > > > diff --git a/kernel/rcu/rcu.h b/kernel/rcu/rcu.h
> > > > index 003671825d62..fc3170914ac7 100644
> > > > --- a/kernel/rcu/rcu.h
> > > > +++ b/kernel/rcu/rcu.h
> > > > @@ -91,7 +91,29 @@ static inline void rcu_seq_end(unsigned long *sp)
> > > > WRITE_ONCE(*sp, rcu_seq_endval(sp));
> > > > }
> > > >
> > > > -/* Take a snapshot of the update side's sequence number. */
> > > > +/*
> > > > + * Take a snapshot of the update side's sequence number.
> > > > + *
> > > > + * This function predicts what the grace period number will be the next
> > > > + * time an RCU callback will be executed, given the current grace period's
> > > > + * number. This can be gp+1 if RCU is idle, or gp+2 if a grace period is
> > > > + * already in progress.
> > >
> > > How about something like this?
> > >
> > > This function returns the earliest value of the grace-period
> > > sequence number that will indicate that a full grace period has
> > > elapsed since the current time. Once the grace-period sequence
> > > number has reached this value, it will be safe to invoke all
> > > callbacks that have been registered prior to the current time.
> > > This value is the current grace-period number plus two to the
> > > power of the number of low-order bits reserved for state, then
> > > rounded up to the next value in which the state bits are all zero.
> >
> > This makes sense too, but do you disagree with what I said?
>
> In a pedantic sense, definitely. RCU callbacks are being executed pretty
> much all the time on a busy system, so it is only the recently queued
> ones that are guaranteed to be deferred that long. And my experience
> indicates that someone really will get confused by that distinction,
> so I feel justified in being pedantic in this case.

Ok I agree, I'll include your comment above.

> > Also just to let you know, thanks so much for elaborately providing an
> > example on the other thread where we are discussing the rcu_seq_done check. I
> > will take some time to trace this down and see if I can zero in on the same
> > understanding as yours.
> >
> > I get why we use rcu_seq_snap there in rcu_start_this_gp but the way it its
> > used is 'c' is the requested GP obtained from _snap, and we are comparing that with the existing
> > rnp->gp_seq in rcu_seq_done. When that rnp->gp_seq reaches 'c', it only
> > means rnp->gp_seq is done, it doesn't tell us if 'c' is done which is what
> > we were trying to check in that loop... that's why I felt that check wasn't
> > correct - that's my (most likely wrong) take on the matter, and I'll get back
> > once I trace this a bit more hopefully today :-P
>
> If your point is that interrupts are disabled throughout, so there isn't
> much chance of the grace period completing during that time, you are
> mostly right. The places you might not be right are the idle loop and
> offline CPUs. And yes, call_rcu() doesn't like queuing callbacks onto
> offline CPUs, but IIRC it is just fine in the case where callbacks have
> been offloaded from that CPU.
>
> And if you instead say that "c" is the requested final ->gp_seq value
> obtained from _snap(), the thought process might go more easily.

Yes I agree with c being the requested final value which is the GP for which
the callbacks will be queued. At the end of the GP c, the callbacks will have
executed.

About the rcu_seq_done check and why I believe its not right to use it in
that funnel locking loop, if you could allow me to try argument my point from
a different angle...

We agreed that the way gp_seq numbers work and are compared with each other
to identify if a GP is elapsed or not, is different from the way the previous
numbers (gp_num) were compared.

Most notably, before the gp_seq conversions - inorder to start a GP, we were
doing gp_num += 1, and completed had to catch up to gp_num + 1 to mark the
end.

Now with gp_seq, for a gp to start, we don't do the "+1", we just set the
state bits. To mark the end, we clear the state bits and increment the gp_num
part of gp_seq.

However, in the below commit 12d6c129fd0a ("rcu: Convert grace-period
requests to ->gp_seq"). You did a one-to-one replacement of the ULONG_CMP_GE
with rcu_seq_done. You did so even though the gp_seq numbers work differently
from previously used numbers (gp_num and completed).

I would then argue that because of the differences above, a one-to-one
replacement of the ULONG_CMP_GE with the rcu_seq_done wouldn't make sense.

I argue this because, in previous code - the ULONG_CMP_GE made sense for the gp_num
way of things because, if c == gp_num, that means that :
- c started already
- c has finished.
Which worked correctly, because we have nothing to do and we can bail
without setting any flag.

Where as now, with the gp_seq regime, c == gp_seq means:
- c-1 finished (I meant -1 subtracted from the gp_num part of c)
This would cause us to bail without setting any flag for starting c.

I did some tracing and I could never hit the rcu_seq_done check because it
never happens in my tracing that _snap returned something for which
rcu_seq_done returned true, so I'm not sure if this check is needed, but
you're the expert ;)

@@ -1629,16 +1583,16 @@ static bool rcu_start_this_gp(struct rcu_node *rnp, struct rcu_data *rdp,
* not be released.
*/
raw_lockdep_assert_held_rcu_node(rnp);
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(c & 0x2); /* Catch any lingering use of ->gpnum. */
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(((rnp->completed << RCU_SEQ_CTR_SHIFT) >> RCU_SEQ_CTR_SHIFT) != rcu_seq_ctr(rnp->gp_seq)); /* Catch any ->completed/->gp_seq mismatches. */
trace_rcu_this_gp(rnp, rdp, c, TPS("Startleaf"));
for (rnp_root = rnp; 1; rnp_root = rnp_root->parent) {
if (rnp_root != rnp)
raw_spin_lock_rcu_node(rnp_root);
- WARN_ON_ONCE(ULONG_CMP_LT(rnp_root->gpnum +
- need_future_gp_mask(), c));
if (need_future_gp_element(rnp_root, c) ||
- ULONG_CMP_GE(rnp_root->gpnum, c) ||
+ rcu_seq_done(&rnp_root->gp_seq, c) ||

^^^^
A direct replacement of ULONG_CMP_GE is bit weird? It
means we bail out if c-1 completed, and we don't set any
flag for starting c. That could result in the clean up
never starting c?

(rnp != rnp_root &&
- rnp_root->gpnum != rnp_root->completed)) {
+ rcu_seq_state(rcu_seq_current(&rnp_root->gp_seq)))) {
trace_rcu_this_gp(rnp_root, rdp, c, TPS("Prestarted"));
goto unlock_out;
}




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