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SubjectRe: [PATCH -resend 01/27] linkage: new macros for assembler symbols
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On 05/10/2018 01:06 AM, Jiri Slaby wrote:

> ---
> Documentation/asm-annotations.rst | 218 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> arch/x86/include/asm/linkage.h | 10 +-
> include/linux/linkage.h | 257 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
> 3 files changed, 475 insertions(+), 10 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/asm-annotations.rst
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/asm-annotations.rst b/Documentation/asm-annotations.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..3e9b426347f0
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/asm-annotations.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,218 @@
> +Assembler Annotations
> +=====================
> +
> +Copyright (c) 2017 Jiri Slaby

[snip]

> +This is not only important for debugging purposes. When we have properly
> +marked objects like this, we can run tools on them and let the tools generate
> +more useful information. In particular, on properly marked objects, we can run
> +``objtool`` and let it check and fix the object if needed. Currently, it can
> +report missing frame pointer setup/destruction in functions. It can also
> +automatically generate annotations for *ORC unwinder* (cf.
> +<Documentation/x86/orc-unwinder.txt>) for most code. Both of this is

Both of these are

> +especially important to support reliable stack traces which are in turn
> +necessary for *Kernel live patching* (see
> +<Documentation/livepatch/livepatch.txt>).
> +
> +Caveat and Discussion
> +---------------------
> +As one might realize, there were only three macros previously. That is indeed
> +insufficient to cover all the combinations of cases:
> +
> +* standard/non-standard function
> +* code/data
> +* global/local symbol
> +
> +We had a discussion_ and instead of extending the current ``ENTRY/END*``
> +macros, it was decided that we shoould introduce brand new macros instead::

should

> +
> + So how about using macro names that actually show the purpose, instead
> + of importing all the crappy, historic, essentially randomly chosen
> + debug symbol macro names from the binutils and older kernels?
> +
> +.. _discussion: https://marc.info/?i=20170217104757.28588-1-jslaby%40suse.cz
> +
> +Macros Description
> +------------------
> +
> +The new macros are prefixed with the ``SYM_`` prefix and can be divided into
> +three main groups:
> +
> +1. ``SYM_FUNC_*`` -- to annotate C-like functions. This means functions with
> + standard C calling conventions, i.e. the stack contains a return address at
> + the predefined place and a return from the function can happen in a
> + standard way. When frame pointers are enabled, save/restore of frame
> + pointer shall happen at the start/end of a function, respectively, too.
> +
> + Checking tools like ``objtool`` should ensure such marked functions conform
> + to these rules. The tools can also easily annotate these functions with
> + debugging information (like *ORC data*) automatically.
> +
> +2. ``SYM_CODE_*`` -- special functions called with special stack. Be it
> + interrupt handlers with special stack content, trampolines, or startup
> + functions.
> +
> + Checking tools mostly ignore checking of these functions. But some debug
> + information still can be generated automatically. For correct debug data,
> + this code needs hints like ``UNWIND_HINT_REGS`` provided by developers.
> +
> +3. ``SYM_DATA*`` -- obviosly data belonging to ``.data`` sections and not to

obviously

> + ``.text``. Data do not contain instructions, so they have to be treated
> + specially by the tools: they should not treat the bytes as instructions,
> + neither assign any debug information to them.

nor assign

> +
> +Instruction Macros
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +This section covers ``SYM_FUNC_*`` and ``SYM_CODE_*`` enumerated above.
> +

[snip]

> +
> +Data Macros
> +~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Similar to instructions, we have a couple of macros to describe data in the
> +assembly. Again, they help debuggers to understand the layout of the resulting
> +object files.
> +
> +* ``SYM_DATA_START`` and ``SYM_DATA_START_LOCAL`` mark the start of some data
> + and shall be in couple with either ``SYM_DATA_END``, or

(maybe:) and shall be used in conjunction with either

> + ``SYM_DATA_END_LABEL``. The latter adds also a label to the end, so that
> + people can use ``lstack`` and (local) ``lstack_end`` in the following
> + example::
> +
> + SYM_DATA_START_LOCAL(lstack)
> + .skip 4096
> + SYM_DATA_END_LABEL(lstack, SYM_L_LOCAL, lstack_end)
> +
> +* ``SYM_DATA`` and ``SYM_DATA_LOCAL`` are variants for simple, mostly one-line
> + data::
> +
> + SYM_DATA(HEAP, .long rm_heap)
> + SYM_DATA(heap_end, .long rm_stack)
> +
> + In the end, they expand to ``SYM_DATA_START`` with ``SYM_DATA_END``
> + internally.
> +
> +Support Macros
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +All the above reduce themselves to some invocation of ``SYM_START``,
> +``SYM_END``, or ``SYM_ENTRY`` at last. Normally, developers should avoid using
> +these.
> +
> +Further, in the above examples, one could saw ``SYM_L_LOCAL``. There are also

see

> +``SYM_L_GLOBAL`` and ``SYM_L_WEAK``. All are deserved to denote linkage of a

eh? defined? reserved? intended?

> +symbol marked by them. They are used either in ``_LABEL`` variants of the
> +earlier macros, or in ``SYM_START``.
> +
> +
> +Overriding Macros
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Architecture can also override any of the macros in their own
> +``asm/linkage.h``. Including macros specifying the type of a symbol

, including

> +(``SYM_T_FUNC``, ``SYM_T_OBJECT``, and ``SYM_T_NONE``). As every macro
> +described in this file is surrounded by ``#ifdef`` + ``#endif``, it is enough
> +to define the macros differently in the aforementioned architecture-dependent
> +header.

HTH.
--
~Randy

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