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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 2/2] perf: riscv: Add Document for Future Porting Guide
Doc fixes:


diff --git a/Documentation/riscv/pmu.txt b/Documentation/riscv/pmu.txt
index a3e930e..ae90a5e 100644
--- a/Documentation/riscv/pmu.txt
+++ b/Documentation/riscv/pmu.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ the lack of the following general architectural
performance monitoring features:
* Enabling/Disabling counters
Counters are just free-running all the time in our case.
* Interrupt caused by counter overflow
- No such design in the spec.
+ No such feature in the spec.
* Interrupt indicator
It is not possible to have many interrupt ports for all counters, so an
interrupt indicator is required for software to tell which counter has
@@ -159,14 +159,14 @@ interrupt for perf, so the details are to be
completed in the future.

They seem symmetric but perf treats them quite differently. For reading, there
is a *read* interface in *struct pmu*, but it serves more than just reading.
-According to the context, the *read* function not only read the content of the
-counter (event->count), but also update the left period to the next interrupt
+According to the context, the *read* function not only reads the content of the
+counter (event->count), but also updates the left period for the next interrupt
(event->hw.period_left).

But the core of perf does not need direct write to counters. Writing counters
-hides behind the abstraction of 1) *pmu->start*, literally start
counting so one
+is hidden behind the abstraction of 1) *pmu->start*, literally start
counting so one
has to set the counter to a good value for the next interrupt; 2)
inside the IRQ
-it should set the counter with the same reason.
+it should set the counter to the same reasonable value.

Reading is not a problem in RISC-V but writing would need some effort, since
counters are not allowed to be written by S-mode.
@@ -190,37 +190,37 @@ Three states (event->hw.state) are defined:
A normal flow of these state transitions are as follows:

* A user launches a perf event, resulting in calling to *event_init*.
-* When being context-switched in, *add* is called by the perf core, with flag
- PERF_EF_START, which mean that the event should be started after it is added.
- In this stage, an general event is binded to a physical counter, if any.
+* When being context-switched in, *add* is called by the perf core, with a flag
+ PERF_EF_START, which means that the event should be started after
it is added.
+ At this stage, a general event is bound to a physical counter, if any.
The state changes to PERF_HES_STOPPED and PERF_HES_UPTODATE,
because it is now
stopped, and the (software) event count does not need updating.
** *start* is then called, and the counter is enabled.
- With flag PERF_EF_RELOAD, it write the counter to an appropriate
value (check
- previous section for detail).
- No writing is made if the flag does not contain PERF_EF_RELOAD.
- The state now is reset to none, because it is neither stopped nor update
- (the counting already starts)
-* When being context-switched out, *del* is called. It then checkout all the
- events in the PMU and call *stop* to update their counts.
+ With flag PERF_EF_RELOAD, it writes an appropriate value to the
counter (check
+ the previous section for details).
+ Nothing is written if the flag does not contain PERF_EF_RELOAD.
+ The state now is reset to none, because it is neither stopped nor updated
+ (the counting already started)
+* When being context-switched out, *del* is called. It then checks out all the
+ events in the PMU and calls *stop* to update their counts.
** *stop* is called by *del*
and the perf core with flag PERF_EF_UPDATE, and it often shares the same
subroutine as *read* with the same logic.
The state changes to PERF_HES_STOPPED and PERF_HES_UPTODATE, again.

-** Life cycles of these two pairs: *add* and *del* are called repeatedly as
+** Life cycle of these two pairs: *add* and *del* are called repeatedly as
tasks switch in-and-out; *start* and *stop* is also called when the perf core
needs a quick stop-and-start, for instance, when the interrupt
period is being
adjusted.

-Current implementation is sufficient for now and can be easily extend to
+Current implementation is sufficient for now and can be easily
extended with new
features in the future.

A. Related Structures
---------------------

-* struct pmu: include/linux/perf_events.h
-* struct riscv_pmu: arch/riscv/include/asm/perf_events.h
+* struct pmu: include/linux/perf_event.h
+* struct riscv_pmu: arch/riscv/include/asm/perf_event.h

Both structures are designed to be read-only.

@@ -231,13 +231,13 @@ perf's internal state machine (check
kernel/events/core.c for details).
*struct riscv_pmu* defines PMU-specific parameters. The naming follows the
convention of all other architectures.

-* struct perf_event: include/linux/perf_events.h
+* struct perf_event: include/linux/perf_event.h
* struct hw_perf_event

The generic structure that represents perf events, and the hardware-related
details.

-* struct riscv_hw_events: arch/riscv/include/asm/perf_events.h
+* struct riscv_hw_events: arch/riscv/include/asm/perf_event.h

The structure that holds the status of events, has two fixed members:
the number of events and the array of the events.


On Mon, Apr 2, 2018 at 5:31 AM, Alan Kao <alankao@andestech.com> wrote:
> Cc: Nick Hu <nickhu@andestech.com>
> Cc: Greentime Hu <greentime@andestech.com>
> Signed-off-by: Alan Kao <alankao@andestech.com>
> ---
> Documentation/riscv/pmu.txt | 249 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 1 file changed, 249 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/riscv/pmu.txt
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/riscv/pmu.txt b/Documentation/riscv/pmu.txt
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..a3e930ed5141
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/riscv/pmu.txt
> @@ -0,0 +1,249 @@
> +Supporting PMUs on RISC-V platforms
> +==========================================
> +Alan Kao <alankao@andestech.com>, Mar 2018
> +
> +Introduction
> +------------
> +
> +As of this writing, perf_event-related features mentioned in The RISC-V ISA
> +Privileged Version 1.10 are as follows:
> +(please check the manual for more details)
> +
> +* [m|s]counteren
> +* mcycle[h], cycle[h]
> +* minstret[h], instret[h]
> +* mhpeventx, mhpcounterx[h]
> +
> +With such function set only, porting perf would require a lot of work, due to
> +the lack of the following general architectural performance monitoring features:
> +
> +* Enabling/Disabling counters
> + Counters are just free-running all the time in our case.
> +* Interrupt caused by counter overflow
> + No such design in the spec.
> +* Interrupt indicator
> + It is not possible to have many interrupt ports for all counters, so an
> + interrupt indicator is required for software to tell which counter has
> + just overflowed.
> +* Writing to counters
> + There will be an SBI to support this since the kernel cannot modify the
> + counters [1]. Alternatively, some vendor considers to implement
> + hardware-extension for M-S-U model machines to write counters directly.
> +
> +This document aims to provide developers a quick guide on supporting their
> +PMUs in the kernel. The following sections briefly explain perf' mechanism
> +and todos.
> +
> +You may check previous discussions here [1][2]. Also, it might be helpful
> +to check the appendix for related kernel structures.
> +
> +
> +1. Initialization
> +-----------------
> +
> +*riscv_pmu* is a global pointer of type *struct riscv_pmu*, which contains
> +various methods according to perf's internal convention and PMU-specific
> +parameters. One should declare such instance to represent the PMU. By default,
> +*riscv_pmu* points to a constant structure *riscv_base_pmu*, which has very
> +basic support to a baseline QEMU model.
> +
> +Then he/she can either assign the instance's pointer to *riscv_pmu* so that
> +the minimal and already-implemented logic can be leveraged, or invent his/her
> +own *riscv_init_platform_pmu* implementation.
> +
> +In other words, existing sources of *riscv_base_pmu* merely provide a
> +reference implementation. Developers can flexibly decide how many parts they
> +can leverage, and in the most extreme case, they can customize every function
> +according to their needs.
> +
> +
> +2. Event Initialization
> +-----------------------
> +
> +When a user launches a perf command to monitor some events, it is first
> +interpreted by the userspace perf tool into multiple *perf_event_open*
> +system calls, and then each of them calls to the body of *event_init*
> +member function that was assigned in the previous step. In *riscv_base_pmu*'s
> +case, it is *riscv_event_init*.
> +
> +The main purpose of this function is to translate the event provided by user
> +into bitmap, so that HW-related control registers or counters can directly be
> +manipulated. The translation is based on the mappings and methods provided in
> +*riscv_pmu*.
> +
> +Note that some features can be done in this stage as well:
> +
> +(1) interrupt setting, which is stated in the next section;
> +(2) privilege level setting (user space only, kernel space only, both);
> +(3) destructor setting. Normally it is sufficient to apply *riscv_destroy_event*;
> +(4) tweaks for non-sampling events, which will be utilized by functions such as
> +*perf_adjust_period*, usually something like the follows:
> +
> +if (!is_sampling_event(event)) {
> + hwc->sample_period = x86_pmu.max_period;
> + hwc->last_period = hwc->sample_period;
> + local64_set(&hwc->period_left, hwc->sample_period);
> +}
> +
> +In the case of *riscv_base_pmu*, only (3) is provided for now.
> +
> +
> +3. Interrupt
> +------------
> +
> +3.1. Interrupt Initialization
> +
> +This often occurs at the beginning of the *event_init* method. In common
> +practice, this should be a code segment like
> +
> +int x86_reserve_hardware(void)
> +{
> + int err = 0;
> +
> + if (!atomic_inc_not_zero(&pmc_refcount)) {
> + mutex_lock(&pmc_reserve_mutex);
> + if (atomic_read(&pmc_refcount) == 0) {
> + if (!reserve_pmc_hardware())
> + err = -EBUSY;
> + else
> + reserve_ds_buffers();
> + }
> + if (!err)
> + atomic_inc(&pmc_refcount);
> + mutex_unlock(&pmc_reserve_mutex);
> + }
> +
> + return err;
> +}
> +
> +And the magic is in *reserve_pmc_hardware*, which usually does atomic
> +operations to make implemented IRQ accessible from some global function pointer.
> +*release_pmc_hardware* serves the opposite purpose, and it is used in event
> +destructors mentioned in previous section.
> +
> +(Note: From the implementations in all the architectures, the *reserve/release*
> +pair are always IRQ settings, so the *pmc_hardware* seems somehow misleading.
> +It does NOT deal with the binding between an event and a physical counter,
> +which will be introduced in the next section.)
> +
> +3.2. IRQ Structure
> +
> +Basically, a IRQ runs the following pseudo code:
> +
> +for each hardware counter that triggered this overflow
> +
> + get the event of this counter
> +
> + // following two steps are defined as *read()*,
> + // check the section Reading/Writing Counters for details.
> + count the delta value since previous interrupt
> + update the event->count (# event occurs) by adding delta, and
> + event->hw.period_left by subtracting delta
> +
> + if the event overflows
> + sample data
> + set the counter appropriately for the next overflow
> +
> + if the event overflows again
> + too frequently, throttle this event
> + fi
> + fi
> +
> +end for
> +
> +However as of this writing, none of the RISC-V implementations have designed an
> +interrupt for perf, so the details are to be completed in the future.
> +
> +4. Reading/Writing Counters
> +---------------------------
> +
> +They seem symmetric but perf treats them quite differently. For reading, there
> +is a *read* interface in *struct pmu*, but it serves more than just reading.
> +According to the context, the *read* function not only read the content of the
> +counter (event->count), but also update the left period to the next interrupt
> +(event->hw.period_left).
> +
> +But the core of perf does not need direct write to counters. Writing counters
> +hides behind the abstraction of 1) *pmu->start*, literally start counting so one
> +has to set the counter to a good value for the next interrupt; 2) inside the IRQ
> +it should set the counter with the same reason.
> +
> +Reading is not a problem in RISC-V but writing would need some effort, since
> +counters are not allowed to be written by S-mode.
> +
> +
> +5. add()/del()/start()/stop()
> +-----------------------------
> +
> +Basic idea: add()/del() adds/deletes events to/from a PMU, and start()/stop()
> +starts/stop the counter of some event in the PMU. All of them take the same
> +arguments: *struct perf_event *event* and *int flag*.
> +
> +Consider perf as a state machine, then you will find that these functions serve
> +as the state transition process between those states.
> +Three states (event->hw.state) are defined:
> +
> +* PERF_HES_STOPPED: the counter is stopped
> +* PERF_HES_UPTODATE: the event->count is up-to-date
> +* PERF_HES_ARCH: arch-dependent usage ... we don't need this for now
> +
> +A normal flow of these state transitions are as follows:
> +
> +* A user launches a perf event, resulting in calling to *event_init*.
> +* When being context-switched in, *add* is called by the perf core, with flag
> + PERF_EF_START, which mean that the event should be started after it is added.
> + In this stage, an general event is binded to a physical counter, if any.
> + The state changes to PERF_HES_STOPPED and PERF_HES_UPTODATE, because it is now
> + stopped, and the (software) event count does not need updating.
> +** *start* is then called, and the counter is enabled.
> + With flag PERF_EF_RELOAD, it write the counter to an appropriate value (check
> + previous section for detail).
> + No writing is made if the flag does not contain PERF_EF_RELOAD.
> + The state now is reset to none, because it is neither stopped nor update
> + (the counting already starts)
> +* When being context-switched out, *del* is called. It then checkout all the
> + events in the PMU and call *stop* to update their counts.
> +** *stop* is called by *del*
> + and the perf core with flag PERF_EF_UPDATE, and it often shares the same
> + subroutine as *read* with the same logic.
> + The state changes to PERF_HES_STOPPED and PERF_HES_UPTODATE, again.
> +
> +** Life cycles of these two pairs: *add* and *del* are called repeatedly as
> + tasks switch in-and-out; *start* and *stop* is also called when the perf core
> + needs a quick stop-and-start, for instance, when the interrupt period is being
> + adjusted.
> +
> +Current implementation is sufficient for now and can be easily extend to
> +features in the future.
> +
> +A. Related Structures
> +---------------------
> +
> +* struct pmu: include/linux/perf_events.h
> +* struct riscv_pmu: arch/riscv/include/asm/perf_events.h
> +
> + Both structures are designed to be read-only.
> +
> + *struct pmu* defines some function pointer interfaces, and most of them take
> +*struct perf_event* as a main argument, dealing with perf events according to
> +perf's internal state machine (check kernel/events/core.c for details).
> +
> + *struct riscv_pmu* defines PMU-specific parameters. The naming follows the
> +convention of all other architectures.
> +
> +* struct perf_event: include/linux/perf_events.h
> +* struct hw_perf_event
> +
> + The generic structure that represents perf events, and the hardware-related
> +details.
> +
> +* struct riscv_hw_events: arch/riscv/include/asm/perf_events.h
> +
> + The structure that holds the status of events, has two fixed members:
> +the number of events and the array of the events.
> +
> +References
> +----------
> +
> +[1] https://github.com/riscv/riscv-linux/pull/124
> +[2] https://groups.google.com/a/groups.riscv.org/forum/#!topic/sw-dev/f19TmCNP6yA
> --
> 2.16.2
>

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