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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2] bpf, x86_32: add eBPF JIT compiler for ia32
On Wed, Apr 25, 2018 at 02:11:16AM +0200, Daniel Borkmann wrote:
> On 04/19/2018 05:54 PM, Wang YanQing wrote:
> > The JIT compiler emits ia32 bit instructions. Currently, It supports
> > eBPF only. Classic BPF is supported because of the conversion by BPF core.
> >
> > Almost all instructions from eBPF ISA supported except the following:
> > BPF_ALU64 | BPF_DIV | BPF_K
> > BPF_ALU64 | BPF_DIV | BPF_X
> > BPF_ALU64 | BPF_MOD | BPF_K
> > BPF_ALU64 | BPF_MOD | BPF_X
> > BPF_STX | BPF_XADD | BPF_W
> > BPF_STX | BPF_XADD | BPF_DW
> >
> > It doesn't support BPF_JMP|BPF_CALL with BPF_PSEUDO_CALL too.
> >
> > ia32 has few general purpose registers, EAX|EDX|ECX|EBX|ESI|EDI,
> > and in these six registers, we can't treat all of them as real
> > general purpose registers in jit:
> > MUL instructions need EAX:EDX, shift instructions need ECX.
> >
> > So I decide to use stack to emulate all eBPF 64 registers, this will
> > simplify the implementation a lot, because we don't need to face the
> > flexible memory address modes on ia32, for example, we don't need to
> > write below code pattern for one BPF_ADD instruction:
> >
> > if (src is a register && dst is a register)
> > {
> > //one instruction encoding for ADD instruction
> > } else if (only src is a register)
> > {
> > //another different instruction encoding for ADD instruction
> > } else if (only dst is a register)
> > {
> > //another different instruction encoding for ADD instruction
> > } else
> > {
> > //src and dst are all on stack.
> > //move src or dst to temporary registers
> > }
> >
> > If the above example if-else-else-else isn't so painful, try to think
> > it for BPF_ALU64|BPF_*SHIFT* instruction which we need to use many
> > native instructions to emulate.
> >
> > Tested on my PC (Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-5200U CPU) and virtualbox.
>
> Just out of plain curiosity, do you have a specific use case on the
> JIT for x86_32? Are you targeting this to be used for e.g. Atom or
> the like (sorry, don't really have a good overview where x86_32 is
> still in use these days)?
Yes, you are right that x86_32 isn't the BIG DEAL anymore, but they willn't
disappear completely in near future, the same as 32-bit linux kernel on
64bit machine.

For me, because I use 32-bit linux on development/hacking notebook for many years,
I try to trace/perf the kernel, then I meet eBPF, it is strange that there isn't
a jit for it, so I try to fill the empty.
>
> > Testing results on i5-5200U:
> >
> > 1) test_bpf: Summary: 349 PASSED, 0 FAILED, [319/341 JIT'ed]
> > 2) test_progs: Summary: 81 PASSED, 2 FAILED.
> > test_progs report "libbpf: incorrect bpf_call opcode" for
> > test_l4lb_noinline and test_xdp_noinline, because there is
> > no llvm-6.0 on my machine, and current implementation doesn't
> > support BPF_PSEUDO_CALL, so I think we can ignore the two failed
> > testcases.
> > 3) test_lpm: OK
> > 4) test_lru_map: OK
> > 5) test_verifier: Summary: 823 PASSED, 5 FAILED
> > test_verifier report "invalid bpf_context access off=68 size=1/2/4/8"
> > for all the 5 FAILED testcases with/without jit, we need to fix the
> > failed testcases themself instead of this jit.
>
> Can you elaborate further on these? Looks like this definitely needs
> fixing on 32 bit. Would be great to get a better understanding of the
> underlying bug(s) and properly fix them.
Ok! I will try to dig them out.
>
> > Above tests are all done with following flags settings discretely:
> > 1:bpf_jit_enable=1 and bpf_jit_harden=0
> > 2:bpf_jit_enable=1 and bpf_jit_harden=2
> >
> > Below are some numbers for this jit implementation:
> > Note:
> > I run test_progs in kselftest 100 times continuously for every testcase,
> > the numbers are in format: total/times=avg.
> > The numbers that test_bpf reports show almost the same relation.
> >
> > a:jit_enable=0 and jit_harden=0 b:jit_enable=1 and jit_harden=0
> > test_pkt_access:PASS:ipv4:15622/100=156 test_pkt_access:PASS:ipv4:10057/100=100
> > test_pkt_access:PASS:ipv6:9130/100=91 test_pkt_access:PASS:ipv6:5055/100=50
> > test_xdp:PASS:ipv4:240198/100=2401 test_xdp:PASS:ipv4:145945/100=1459
> > test_xdp:PASS:ipv6:137326/100=1373 test_xdp:PASS:ipv6:67337/100=673
> > test_l4lb:PASS:ipv4:61100/100=611 test_l4lb:PASS:ipv4:38137/100=381
> > test_l4lb:PASS:ipv6:101000/100=1010 test_l4lb:PASS:ipv6:57779/100=577
> >
> > c:jit_enable=1 and jit_harden=2
> > test_pkt_access:PASS:ipv4:12650/100=126
> > test_pkt_access:PASS:ipv6:7074/100=70
> > test_xdp:PASS:ipv4:147211/100=1472
> > test_xdp:PASS:ipv6:85783/100=857
> > test_l4lb:PASS:ipv4:53222/100=532
> > test_l4lb:PASS:ipv6:76322/100=763
> >
> > Yes, the numbers are pretty when turn off jit_harden, if we want to speedup
> > jit_harden, then we need to move BPF_REG_AX to *real* register instead of stack
> > emulation, but when we do it, we need to face all the pain I describe above. We
> > can do it in next step.
> >
> > See Documentation/networking/filter.txt for more information.
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Wang YanQing <udknight@gmail.com>
> [...]
> > + /* call */
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_CALL:
> > + {
> > + const u8 *r1 = bpf2ia32[BPF_REG_1];
> > + const u8 *r2 = bpf2ia32[BPF_REG_2];
> > + const u8 *r3 = bpf2ia32[BPF_REG_3];
> > + const u8 *r4 = bpf2ia32[BPF_REG_4];
> > + const u8 *r5 = bpf2ia32[BPF_REG_5];
> > +
> > + if (insn->src_reg == BPF_PSEUDO_CALL)
> > + goto notyet;
>
> Here you bail out on BPF_PSEUDO_CALL, but in below bpf_int_jit_compile() you
> implement half of e.g. 1c2a088a6626 ("bpf: x64: add JIT support for multi-function
> programs"), which is rather confusing to leave it in this half complete state;
> either remove altogether or implement everything.
Done.
>
> > + func = (u8 *) __bpf_call_base + imm32;
> > + jmp_offset = func - (image + addrs[i]);
> > +
> > + if (!imm32 || !is_simm32(jmp_offset)) {
> > + pr_err("unsupported bpf func %d addr %p image %p\n",
> > + imm32, func, image);
> > + return -EINVAL;
> > + }
> > +
> > + /* mov eax,dword ptr [ebp+off] */
> > + EMIT3(0x8B, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp2[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(r1[0]));
> > + /* mov edx,dword ptr [ebp+off] */
> > + EMIT3(0x8B, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp2[1]),
> > + STACK_VAR(r1[1]));
> > +
> > + emit_push_r64(r5, &prog);
> > + emit_push_r64(r4, &prog);
> > + emit_push_r64(r3, &prog);
> > + emit_push_r64(r2, &prog);
> > +
> > + EMIT1_off32(0xE8, jmp_offset + 9);
> > +
> > + /* mov dword ptr [ebp+off],eax */
> > + EMIT3(0x89, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp2[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(r0[0]));
> > + /* mov dword ptr [ebp+off],edx */
> > + EMIT3(0x89, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp2[1]),
> > + STACK_VAR(r0[1]));
> > +
> > + /* add esp,32 */
> > + EMIT3(0x83, add_1reg(0xC0, IA32_ESP), 32);
> > + break;
> > + }
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_TAIL_CALL:
> > + emit_bpf_tail_call(&prog);
> > + break;
> > +
> > + /* cond jump */
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JEQ | BPF_X:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JNE | BPF_X:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JGT | BPF_X:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JLT | BPF_X:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JGE | BPF_X:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JLE | BPF_X:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JSGT | BPF_X:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JSLE | BPF_X:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JSLT | BPF_X:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JSGE | BPF_X:
> > + /* mov esi,dword ptr [ebp+off] */
> > + EMIT3(0x8B, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(src_hi));
> > + /* cmp dword ptr [ebp+off], esi */
> > + EMIT3(0x39, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(dst_hi));
> > +
> > + EMIT2(IA32_JNE, 6);
> > + /* mov esi,dword ptr [ebp+off] */
> > + EMIT3(0x8B, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(src_lo));
> > + /* cmp dword ptr [ebp+off], esi */
> > + EMIT3(0x39, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(dst_lo));
> > + goto emit_cond_jmp;
> > +
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JSET | BPF_X:
> > + /* mov esi,dword ptr [ebp+off] */
> > + EMIT3(0x8B, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(dst_lo));
> > + /* and esi,dword ptr [ebp+off]*/
> > + EMIT3(0x23, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(src_lo));
> > +
> > + /* mov edi,dword ptr [ebp+off] */
> > + EMIT3(0x8B, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[1]),
> > + STACK_VAR(dst_hi));
> > + /* and edi,dword ptr [ebp+off] */
> > + EMIT3(0x23, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[1]),
> > + STACK_VAR(src_hi));
> > + /* or esi,edi */
> > + EMIT2(0x09, add_2reg(0xC0, tmp[0], tmp[1]));
> > + goto emit_cond_jmp;
> > +
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JSET | BPF_K: {
> > + u32 hi;
> > +
> > + hi = imm32 & (1<<31) ? (u32)~0 : 0;
> > + /* mov esi,imm32 */
> > + EMIT2_off32(0xC7, add_1reg(0xC0, tmp[0]), imm32);
> > + /* and esi,dword ptr [ebp+off]*/
> > + EMIT3(0x23, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(dst_lo));
> > +
> > + /* mov esi,imm32 */
> > + EMIT2_off32(0xC7, add_1reg(0xC0, tmp[1]), hi);
> > + /* and esi,dword ptr [ebp+off] */
> > + EMIT3(0x23, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[1]),
> > + STACK_VAR(dst_hi));
> > + /* or esi,edi */
> > + EMIT2(0x09, add_2reg(0xC0, tmp[0], tmp[1]));
> > + goto emit_cond_jmp;
> > + }
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JEQ | BPF_K:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JNE | BPF_K:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JGT | BPF_K:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JLT | BPF_K:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JGE | BPF_K:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JLE | BPF_K:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JSGT | BPF_K:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JSLE | BPF_K:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JSLT | BPF_K:
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JSGE | BPF_K: {
> > + u32 hi;
> > +
> > + hi = imm32 & (1<<31) ? (u32)~0 : 0;
> > + /* mov esi,imm32 */
> > + EMIT2_off32(0xC7, add_1reg(0xC0, tmp[0]), hi);
> > + /* cmp dword ptr [ebp+off],esi */
> > + EMIT3(0x39, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(dst_hi));
> > +
> > + EMIT2(IA32_JNE, 6);
> > + /* mov esi,imm32 */
> > + EMIT2_off32(0xC7, add_1reg(0xC0, tmp[0]), imm32);
> > + /* cmp dword ptr [ebp+off],esi */
> > + EMIT3(0x39, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, tmp[0]),
> > + STACK_VAR(dst_lo));
> > +
> > +emit_cond_jmp: /* convert BPF opcode to x86 */
> > + switch (BPF_OP(code)) {
> > + case BPF_JEQ:
> > + jmp_cond = IA32_JE;
> > + break;
> > + case BPF_JSET:
> > + case BPF_JNE:
> > + jmp_cond = IA32_JNE;
> > + break;
> > + case BPF_JGT:
> > + /* GT is unsigned '>', JA in x86 */
> > + jmp_cond = IA32_JA;
> > + break;
> > + case BPF_JLT:
> > + /* LT is unsigned '<', JB in x86 */
> > + jmp_cond = IA32_JB;
> > + break;
> > + case BPF_JGE:
> > + /* GE is unsigned '>=', JAE in x86 */
> > + jmp_cond = IA32_JAE;
> > + break;
> > + case BPF_JLE:
> > + /* LE is unsigned '<=', JBE in x86 */
> > + jmp_cond = IA32_JBE;
> > + break;
> > + case BPF_JSGT:
> > + /* signed '>', GT in x86 */
> > + jmp_cond = IA32_JG;
> > + break;
> > + case BPF_JSLT:
> > + /* signed '<', LT in x86 */
> > + jmp_cond = IA32_JL;
> > + break;
> > + case BPF_JSGE:
> > + /* signed '>=', GE in x86 */
> > + jmp_cond = IA32_JGE;
> > + break;
> > + case BPF_JSLE:
> > + /* signed '<=', LE in x86 */
> > + jmp_cond = IA32_JLE;
> > + break;
> > + default: /* to silence gcc warning */
> > + return -EFAULT;
> > + }
> > + jmp_offset = addrs[i + insn->off] - addrs[i];
> > + if (is_imm8(jmp_offset)) {
> > + EMIT2(jmp_cond, jmp_offset);
> > + } else if (is_simm32(jmp_offset)) {
> > + EMIT2_off32(0x0F, jmp_cond + 0x10, jmp_offset);
> > + } else {
> > + pr_err("cond_jmp gen bug %llx\n", jmp_offset);
> > + return -EFAULT;
> > + }
> > +
> > + break;
> > + }
> > + case BPF_JMP | BPF_JA:
> > + jmp_offset = addrs[i + insn->off] - addrs[i];
> > + if (!jmp_offset)
> > + /* optimize out nop jumps */
> > + break;
> > +emit_jmp:
> > + if (is_imm8(jmp_offset)) {
> > + EMIT2(0xEB, jmp_offset);
> > + } else if (is_simm32(jmp_offset)) {
> > + EMIT1_off32(0xE9, jmp_offset);
> > + } else {
> > + pr_err("jmp gen bug %llx\n", jmp_offset);
> > + return -EFAULT;
> > + }
> > + break;
> > +
> > + case BPF_LD | BPF_IND | BPF_W:
> > + func = sk_load_word;
> > + goto common_load;
> > + case BPF_LD | BPF_ABS | BPF_W:
> > + func = CHOOSE_LOAD_FUNC(imm32, sk_load_word);
> > +common_load:
> > + jmp_offset = func - (image + addrs[i]);
> > + if (!func || !is_simm32(jmp_offset)) {
> > + pr_err("unsupported bpf func %d addr %p image %p\n",
> > + imm32, func, image);
> > + return -EINVAL;
> > + }
> > + if (BPF_MODE(code) == BPF_ABS) {
> > + /* mov %edx, imm32 */
> > + EMIT1_off32(0xBA, imm32);
> > + } else {
> > + /* mov edx,dword ptr [ebp+off] */
> > + EMIT3(0x8B, add_2reg(0x40, IA32_EBP, IA32_EDX),
> > + STACK_VAR(src_lo));
> > + if (imm32) {
> > + if (is_imm8(imm32))
> > + /* add %edx, imm8 */
> > + EMIT3(0x83, 0xC2, imm32);
> > + else
> > + /* add %edx, imm32 */
> > + EMIT2_off32(0x81, 0xC2, imm32);
> > + }
> > + }
> > + emit_load_skb_data_hlen(&prog);
>
> The only place where you call the emit_load_skb_data_hlen() is here, so it
> effectively doesn't cache anything as with the other JITs. I would suggest
> to keep the complexity of the BPF_ABS/IND rather very low, remove the
> arch/x86/net/bpf_jit32.S handling altogether and just follow the model the
> way arm64 implemented this in the arch/arm64/net/bpf_jit_comp.c JIT. For
> eBPF these instructions are legacy and have been source of many subtle
> bugs in the various BPF JITs in the past, plus nobody complained about the
> current interpreter speed for LD_ABS/IND on x86_32 anyway so far. ;) We're
> also very close to have a rewrite of LD_ABS/IND out of native eBPF with
> similar performance to be able to finally remove them from the core.
Done.

Thanks.

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